Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
Itzhak Perlman, Violinist
Pinchas Zukerman, Violinist and Violist
with Jonathan Feldman, Pianist
Tuesday Evening, October 30, 1990, at 8:00 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Sonata in C major for Two Violins and Piano, BWV 1037 .........Bach
Adagio Fuge Canon Gigue
Sonata for Two Violins, Op. 56 (1932) ...............Prokofiev
Commodo (quasi allegretto)
Allegro con brio
Duo in G major for Violin and Viola, K. 423..............Mozart
Allegro Adagio Rondo
Duo in B-flat major for Violin and Viola, K. 424 ............Mozart
Tema con variazione: andante grazioso
Suite for Two Violins and Piano, Op. 71..............Moszkowski
Allegro energico Allegro moderato Lento assai Molto vivace
Jonathan Fcldman plays the Stcinway piano available through llammcll Music, Inc., Livonia.
Itzhak Pcrlman is represented by IMG Artists, New York; Pinchis Zukerman is exclusively represented by Shirley Kirshbaum
& Associates, New York.
Mr. Pcrlman records for EMIAngel, Deutsche Grammophon, CDS Mastcrworks, LondonDecca, and RCA; Mr. Zukcrman
records for CBS Mastcrworks, Philips, EMIAngel, and Deutsche Grammophon.
Ninth Concert of the 112th Season 112th Annual Choral Union Series
The Duo Repertoire
Ever since the violin replaced the treble viol as the stringed instru?ment of choice, violinists have en?joyed playing together. We think of the violin as an orchestral instru?ment first and a solo instrument second, but a rich repertoire combines violin with other instruments as part of a chamber ensemble. The classic combination is, of course, the string quartet. Of those four players, though, two are violinists. The pairing ot the two, without benefit of viola (alto) or cello (tenor) voice beneath them, has its own King and honorable tradition. Somewhat more re?cently, a modest but high quality repertoire has amassed lor violin and viola paired to?gether, allowing for greater contrast of tim?bre. When combined with a keyboard instrument, the two strings have yielded yet another genre of chamber music. This evening's program presents us with samples of several such combinations, spanning among them two centuries of varied musical vocab?ulary.
Sonata for Two Violins and Piano, BWV 1037, attributed to Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
The trio sonata was the most im?portant form ot chamber music during the Baroque era; its name, however, is misleading. Instead of the three players its name implies, a trio sonata entailed two solo me?lodic instruments plus two accompanying basso continuo instruments, usually a harpsi?chord plus a lower string instrument, either a viola da gamba or a cello. Consequently, trio sonatas required four performers. In perfor?mances on modern instruments, however, the piano is often substituted for the harpsichord. Because of its stronger tone, piano precludes the need for the lower string instrument. Thus in this evening's performance, the texture is closer to that of a conventional trio.
The term "sonata" in the Baroque pe?riod means something different from our un?derstanding of it as well. While the Baroque sonata is the ancestor of the sonata in the classic era, its characteristics and form are not
those we associate with the works of Mozart and Haydn. Most Baroque sonatas are in four movements, following the format slow-fast-slow-fast. In this respect, there is a direct parallel with many of the instrumental con?cern' grossi of the era. Their slow movements tend to be elaborately ornamented melodies, while faster movements emphasize the inter?play of contrapuntal lines.
Despite the enormous popularity of the trio sonata in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, only two attributed to Johann Sebastian Bach are indisputably au?thentic: the C-minor trio sonata that is part of the Musical Offering, and the Trio Sonata in G, BWV 1039. The work on this evening's program is of doubtful authenticity. It may have been composed by Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (1727-1756), who is said to have studied both with Sebastian Bach and with his son Wilhelm Friedemann.
Goldberg has earned himself a place in music history by bequeathing his name to the immortal Goldberg Variations. He was a supe?rior keyboard player whose surviving compo?sitions vary in style. Goldberg's church works are more influenced by the elder Bach's conservative, contrapuntal approach. His in?strumental compositions, on the other hand, are more characteristic of his generation, that of Bach's younger sons. Regardless of its true authorship, the C-major sonata is an endear?ing, melodic work showing a fine command of counterpoint in its two fast movements.
Sonata for Two Violins,
Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)
Prokofiev left his native Russia in the wake of the October Revolu?tion in 1917. By a circuitous route, he came first to the United States, then to Europe. By the early 1930s, he was restless, unsettled, and still deeply attached to his homeland. In 1933, he finally decided to return to the Soviet Union and live under the Stalinist regime. Twenty years later, in an ironic twist of fate, Prokofiev and Stalin died on the same day: March 5, 1953. The Sonata we hear this evening was one of the last compositions Prokofiev wrote in the West. It is roughly contemporary with the Piano Concerto for Left Hand that he
wrote for Paul Wittgenstein and the subse?quent Fifth Piano Concerto, in G. He was living in Paris in the early 1930s and decided to join a new music organization called Tri?ton, which boasted among its members Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, and Arthur Honegger. Prokofiev was anxious for the opportunity to promote the music of his countrymen Shostakovich and Miaskovsky as well as his own compositions, therefore he agreed when Triton's representatives ap?proached him about writing a work to inau?gurate the new series. The Sonata for Two Violins received its first public performance at Triton's debut concert in December 1932.
At approximately 15 minutes, the So?nata is not particularly long, especially con?sidering that it has four movements. We are struck by the absence of virtuosic show for its own sake; this piece seems like a different work from the extroverted Violin Concerto. Prokofiev gives us lean, muscular music.
In the second movement, lightning quick reactions are essential, for the two parts are closely interwoven at rapid tempo. The players must have superb, precise ensemble to deliver this extraordinarily difficult move?ment, full of rapid-fire phrases that are gone in the twinkling of an eye. Both slow move?ments are mournful and Russian. They show that the distinct voice of young Dmitri Shostakovich was already making itself heard among his contemporaries. The half-playful, half-sardonic diatonicism peculiar to Pro?kofiev surfaces most strongly in the finale. At times the two parts are written so closely together that we can hardly tell who is playing what!
Duos for Violin and Viola: G major, K. 423, and B-flat major, K. 424
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Mozart married Constanze Weber in August 1782. His father disapproved of the match and never warmed up to his daughter-in-law. Mo?zart was determined to win over his father, however, and hoped that by bringing his bride from their home in Vienna to visit his father in Salzburg, he could effect cordial relations among his family. The young couple arrived in Salzburg in late July, 1783. Mozart was
quick to make the social rounds in his former home town, eager to show off Constanze and to renew friendships.
Among those he sought out was his old friend Michael Haydn (younger brother of Franz Joseph), who was court musician, Konzertmeister and, since Mozart's summary dismissal from the post two years prior, Ka?pellmeister to Salzburg's Archbishop Col-loredo. Mozart was dismayed to find Haydn taken so ill that he was temporarily unable to fulfill his responsibilities to the Archbishop. Haydn seemed unduly distressed by his tem?porary incapacity. Upon inquiring further, Mozart learned that the Archbishop was with?holding the Kapellmeister's salary until Haydn could satisfy an incomplete commission for six duets for violin and viola. Haydn had written four of the pieces when he became sick and was unable to continue.
Taking prompt advantage of the oppor?tunity to help his friend, Mozart returned two days later with two freshly composed duos in fair copy. The manuscripts lacked only Mi?chael Haydn's signature before they could be delivered with the other four to the impatient Archbishop.
Though parts of this delightful story may be apocryphal, there is no doubt as to the authenticity of K. 423 and 424. Twice in December 1783, following his return to Vi?enna, Wolfgang wrote to his father asking him to forward the manuscripts of the duos. By then he had turned his attention again to his own six string quartets, the set eventually dedicated to the older Haydn. Composing these pieces for violin and viola gave Mozart a timely opportunity to experiment with the thinner texture and stretch the musical pos?sibilities of just two instruments.
The only prior instance of Mozart's pairing violin and viola together as solo instruments is the magnificent Sinfonia Con-certante, K. 364 (1779). Clearly he had plenty of additional ideas for the combination to spare. The violin-viola pieces overflow with imaginative ideas that must have helped him in his consideration of inner voicing and texture for the larger string quartet ensemble.
Another fascinating aspect of these two works is their subtle assimilation of Michael Haydn's style. Haydn's employer, Archbishop Colloredo, was knowledgeable about music and continued to have Mozart's works per?formed even after young Wolfgang was no longer in his employ. Mozart took care to
camouflage his style so that his duos would deceive the Archbishop and merge smoothly and plausibly with the four works that Haydn had already completed. In late eighteenth-century sets of six such works, it was custom?ary to write in six different tonalities. Haydn's four were in C, D, E, and F major. Mozart rounded out the set by continuing up the scale, to G and (skipping A) B-flat major.
Musicologist H. C. Robbins Landon has singled out the popular tunes in the last movement of K. 423 and the grace notes and trills in the first movement of K. 424 as evidence of Mozart's imitating Michael Haydn's style. But Mozart's own command of both string instruments and known prefer?ence for the viola as a chamber music instru?ment certainly inform the graceful writing in both works.
Suite for Two Violins and Piano, Op. 71
Moritz Moszkowski (1854-1925)
A German pianist and composer of Polish descent, Moritz Moszkowski was a household name at the turn of the cen?tury. His Spanish Dances, orig?inally for one piano, four-hands, became wildly popular, proliferating in arrangements for solo piano, orchestra, and numerous chamber combinations. As recently as 1954, the Friskin-Freundlich piano handbook de?scribed them as "too well known to require comment." The late Vladimir Horowitz re?tained some Moszkowski lollipops in his en?core repertoire, capitalizing on their dazzling brilliance and immediate appeal to audiences. Yet what do we know today of his music
As a composer, Moszkowski was far more successful with lighter works, especially those evoking the sultry, romantic cultures of the Latin countries. Those of his composi?tions still in print have colorful titles like Capriccio Espagnole, En Automne, La }ongleuse ["The Juggler"], and Etincelles ["Sparkles"]. His Piano Concerto in E, Op. 59 is occasion?ally revived, but he remains best known for his salon music.
The Suite for Two Violins and Piano is unusual because of its unexpected balance among the three players, and because it shows Moszkowski in a more skilled, less superficial light. An essentially serious work with no programmatic titles, the Suite reveals a fine
To Better Serve Our Patrons Visit the UMSEncore Information Table in the lobby, where volunteers and staff members are on hand to provide a myriad of details about events, restaurants, etc., and register any concerns or suggestions. Open thirty minutes before each concert and during intermission.
For the convenience of our patrons,
the box office in the outer lobby
is open during intermission for
purchase of tickets to upcoming
Musical Society concerts.
understanding of the violins' capabilities. While undeniably brilliant and often flashy, the writing also demonstrates a solid com?mand of counterpoint and an unexpected sense of humor.
Moszkowski's piece only loosely resem?bles the Suite of its title. The aggressive first movement merges elements of sonata and rondo forms, introducing harmonic twists that are Schumannesque in their sweep. The inner movements reveal the Moszkowski of the salon, bordering on sentimentality, but never sacrificing grace or elegance. Moszkowski's Allegro moderato is a minuet; his Lento assai reveals an admirable sense of melodic counterpoint between the two vio?lins. To close, he switches mood to a dazzling tarantella in G major, whose energy is tem?pered midstream by a leisurely, chromatic interlude.
-Notes by Laurie Shulman, O 1990
About the Artists
Itzhak Perlman's uniqueness in the rar?efied ranks of superstar musicians stems from something more than his supreme artistic credentials. The combination of talent, charm, and humanity in this Israeli-born artist is unrivaled in our time and has come to be recognized by audiences all over the world who respond not only to his flawless technique, but to the irrepressible joy of making music that he communicates. Pres?ident Reagan recognized these qualities when he honored Mr. Perlman with a "Medal of Liberty" in 1986.
Born in Israel in 1945, Perlman com?pleted his initial training at the Academy of Music in Tel Aviv. He came to New York and soon was propelled into the international arena with an appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show in 1958. Following his studies at The Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian and Dor?othy DeLay, he won the prestigious Leventritt Competition in 1964, which led to a burgeon?ing worldwide career.
Since then, Itzhak Perlman has appeared with every major orchestra in recitals and festivals throughout the world. In November of 1987, he joined the Israel Philharmonic for history-making concerts in Warsaw and Budapest, representing the first performances by this orchestra and soloist in Eastern bloc countries. He also joined the Israel Philharmonic for its first visit to the Soviet Union in April and May 1990, cheered by audiences in Moscow and Leningrad who thronged to his recital and orchestral appearances.
Perlman's recordings on the EMIAngel, Deutsche Grammophon, CBS Masterworks, LondonDecca and RCA labels regularly appear on the best-seller charts and have won numerous Grammy Awards. Recent releases on the EMIAngel label include: the complete unaccompanied sonatas and partitas of J. S. Bach; a tribute to Jascha Heifetz (with Samuel Sanders, piano); the Beethoven Concerto and two Romances for Violin and Orchestra (BarenboimBerlin Philharmonic); and the Shostakovich First and Glazunov Concertos (MehtaIsrael Philharmonic). His vast repertoire encompasses all the standard violin literature as well as music by contemporary composers, whose efforts he has championed.
Numerous publications and institutions have paid tribute to Itzhak Perlman for the unique place he occupies in the artistic and humanitarian fabric of our times. Newsweek magazine featured him with a cover story in April of 1980, and in 1981 Musical America pictured him as Musician of the Year on the cover of its Directory of Music and Musicians. Harvard University, Yale University, Brandeis University, Yeshiva University and Hebrew University in Jerusalem are among the institutions that have awarded him honorary degrees.
On television, the artist has entertained and enlightened millions of viewers of all ages, on shows as diverse as "Sesame Street," the "Grammy" awards telecasts, several "Live From Lincoln Center" broadcasts, and the PBS specials "A Musical Toast" and "Mozart by the Masters," both of which he hosted. His presence on stage, on camera, and in personal appearances of all kinds speaks eloquently on behalf of the handicapped and disabled, and his devotion to their cause is an integral part of his life.
Prior to this evening's recital, Itzhak Perlman has made five Ann Arbor appearances: the May Festivals of 1970 and 1988 (Prokofiev and Tchaikovsky Concertos) and three recitals, all with Samuel Sanders, in 1970, 1982, and 1988.
Pinchas Zukerman is recognized throughout the world as an extraor?dinary musician -as violinist, violist, conductor, teacher, cham?ber musician, and champion of young artists. Critically acclaimed for his musical genius and technical prowess, com?bined with an exceptional integrity and zeal, Zukerman's numerous contributions to the world of music are unique.
Among his numerous achievements is a prolific discography numbering more than 75 releases that are widely representative of the violin and viola repertoire. His catalogue of recordings contains two Grammy Awards and 19 Grammy Award nominations. Some of his recent recordings include Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire and the Berg Violin Concerto with Pierre Boulez (CBS Masterworks), and he is currently working on a project of live performances of the Beethoven String Trios with Perlman and Lynn Harrell for AngelEMI.
As a chamber musician, Pinchas Zukerman has collaborated with prominent artists and young colleagues around the world for over 20 years. They include Daniel Barenboim, the late Jacqueline Du Pre, Isaac Stern, Jean-Pierre Rampal, the Guarneri Quartet, Midori, Yo-Yo Ma, and Shlomo Mintz. Recently, he collaborated with Perlman, Ralph Kirshbaum, and Yefim Bronfman in a series of solo and chamber concerts at the Dallas International Summer Music Festival.
Zukerman began his conducting career in 1970 with the English Chamber Orchestra, and this season he will be conducting and performing with that ensemble in their first U.S. tour together. He has conducted many of the world's leading orchestras, among them the New York and Los Angeles Philharmonics, the orchestras of Boston, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa, as well as the London Symphony Orchestra and the Berlin and Israel Philharmonics. He served as music director of London's South Bank Festival for three years and the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra for seven years. Just last summer, he began a three-year appointment as principal guest conductor of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra's new International Music Festival.
Always an enthusiastic supporter of contemporary music, Pinchas Zukerman conceived and implemented a composer-in-residence program in St. Paul that was unprecedented at that time. Through it, he initiated commissions, competitions, and repertoire that resulted in three consecutive ASCAP awards from the American Symphony Orchestra League. In addition to twentieth-century masterpieces, his performances included music of living composers, such as Pierre Boulez, Oliver Knussen, Witold Lutoslawski, Marc Neikrug, Per N0rgaard, and Toru Takemitsu.
In addition to the current recital tour with Itzhak Perlman, Zukerman's current season features the world premiere of the Tobias Picker viola concerto with the Houston Symphony and Christoph Eschenbach, appearances in Carnegie Halls's Centennial Celebration, concerts in Australia and Japan, and appearances with the symphony orchestras of Cleveland, Chicago, Baltimore, San Francisco, St. Louis, and the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra.
A guest in numerous television specials, the artist has performed with the Chamber Music Society in a "Live From Lincoln Center" concert, and has participated in the "Here to Make Music" series, a Brahms series, and a Schubert series. For PBS, he collaborated with the Chicago Symphony and colleagues Perlman and Victor Borge in a special entitled "Mozart By the Masters" that was aired nationally by WWTW in Chicago during the past year.
Born in Tel Aviv in 1948, Pinchas Zukerman began his musical training with his father and then studied at the Israel Conservatory and the Academy of Music in Tel Aviv. Under the guidance of Isaac Stern and Pablo Casals, he came to America in 1962 to study with Ivan Galamian at The Juilliard School. Five years later, he set the stage for his solo career by winning First Prize in the Leventritt International Competition. Since then, he has won numerous awards that include an honorary doctorate from Brown University, the King Solomon Award from the America-Israel Cultural Foundation, and in 1983 a Medal of Arts presented by President Reagan for his leadership in the musical world.
Pinchas Zukerman now makes his fifth appearance on this stage. Prior performances were two recitals with pianist Marc Neikrug (1981 and 1989), conductor and soloist (Mendelssohn Concerto) with the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, and soloist in the 1987 May Festival (Beethoven Concerto) with Kurt Masur and the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra.
Jonathan Feldman is recognized as an extremely accomplished ensemble player and accompanist and has per?formed on four continents with some of the world's greatest instrumentalists. Among them are Itzhak Perlman, Pierre Fournier, Kyung-Wha Chung, Joshua Bell, Zara Nelsova, and the legendary Nathan Milstein, with whom Feldman collaborated in Ann Arbor in 1981. He also enjoys an active solo career throughout the United States and Europe.
Jonathan Feldman performs in concert regularly with members of the New York Philharmonic and the Boston Symphony Or?chestra. He has participated in the concerts of the New York Philharmonic Chamber Ensembles on the orchestra's tours of the Far East, South America, Russia, and Europe. In the field of education, Feldman has given master classes throughout the United States and recently lectured at the University of Maryland International Piano Festival and
William Kapell competition on "The Collaborating Pianist." In the fall of 1989, he became a faculty member of New York's Juilliard School of Music.
A graduate of The Juilliard School, Jonathan Feldman's teachers have included Dorothy Taubman, Rosetta Goodkind, and Irwin Freundlich. He has recorded for Columbia Master-works, RCA Red Seal, Titanic, Philo, and Nonesuch.
He now makes his second Ann Arbor appearance in this evening's recital.
November 14 The Prism and Chester Quartets, 8 p.m. Rackham Auditorium. Featuring Michael Sahl's Stomu, for saxophones and strings. Philips Pre-concert Presentation: U-M Prof. Donald Sinta, 7 p.m. Rackham (free). November 17 The Billy Taylor Trio, 8 p.m. Hill Auditorium. With Victor Gaskin, bass, and Bobby Thomas, drums. November 19 Royal Winnipeg Ballet, 8 p.m. Power Center.
Featuring Anne of Green Gables (Mark Godden), and Grand Pas Classique from Raymonda (Petipa), Nuages (Jiri Kylian), and Symphony No. I (Godden).