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UMS Concert Program, February 11, 1991: Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quartet --

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Season: 112th
Concert: Twenty-second
Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Daniel Briiggen Bertho Driever
Paul Leenhouts Karel von Steenhoven
Monday Evening, February 11, 1991, at 8:00 Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
From the Baldwine Commonplace Book (England, 1581-1606): Four-part piece by John Baldwine ( 1615) Four-part piece by Luca Marenzio (15534-1599)
Canto Fermo Primo del Primo Tuono...........Giovanni Maria Trabaci
(1575-1647) Canzon Francesa Terza........................Trabaci
Ricercar del quarto tono ...............Giovanni Battista Conforti
(Italy, 16th Century)
Canzon Decima detta la Paulini ..............Girolamo Frescobaldi
Capriccio V sopra la Bassa Fiamenga .................Frescobaldi
Canzon la Lusignuola ....................Tarquinio Merula
Three Motets from primo libra de Motetti a quattro voce pari (1584) ....................Claudio Merulo
Dum llluscescente Beati (1533-1604)
Iste Est Joannes
O Gloriosa Domina
Fantasia on the Hexachord ................Alfonso Feirabosco II
Suite No. 1 in D minor ....................Matthew Locke
Fantasia Courante (1621-1677)
Ayre Sarabande From The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080: ............Johann Sebastian Bach
Contrapunctus IV (1685-1750)
Contrapunctus IX Quartet in C major ...................Johann Christian Bach
Allegro Rondo grazioso (1735-1782)
The Amsterdam Locki Stardust Quartet is represented by Hillyer International, Inc.. New York City. The Quartet records for L'Oiseau Lyre (Polygram, London).
Twenty-second Concert of the 112th Season Twenty-eighth Annual Chamber Art Series
Program Notes
Most instrumental works writ?ten between 1550 and 1650 were based on vocal compo?sitions, such as arrangements of polyphonic French songs, the Canzone Francese, Eventually, these can-zonas took on their own identity, separate from the vocal forms. Besides the canzona, instrumental works such as the ricercar, ca-priccio, and fantasia grew in popularity. Most of them are based on contrapunctal imitation and variation in rhythm and proportion. In the fantasia, the form takes second place to extemporization and imagination, rather than following a standard structure.
The Royal Manuscript, from which the first two compositions derive, was copied in a very fine hand during the years 1581 to 1606 by John Baldwine. It contains numerous vocal and instrumental works by 24 different composers. Tonight's first four-part piece, composed by Baldwine himself, has a cantus firmus written in unusual 54 time in the bass line. {Cantus firmus is a preexistent melody used as the basis of a new polyphonic compo?sition; cantus firmus dominated the music of the fourteenthand fifteenth centuries, par?ticularly sacred vocal music.) The first piece also features changing proportions and con?tinuous syncopation between parts. The sec?ond work from this exceptional collection is by the Italian master of the madrigal Luca Marenzio. (Headings of these pieces as they appear in the Baldwine Commonplace Book: 4:voc:iohn:baldwine:-; luca marensio:4 voc:-.)
Girolamo Frescobaldi is no doubt the best known of the Italian composers represented in the first half of this program. It is still worth noting, how?ever, that the musical culture of his time was to a very large extent shaped and sustained by less famous masters. Composers and musi?cians traveled extensively during the second half of the sixteenth century, particularly within the triangle of musical centers -Milan, Venice and Rome. Tarquinio Merula was organist in his home town of Cremona; Claudio Merulo was employed as organist at St. Mark's in Venice and later in Parma; and Giovanni Battista Conforti was a gambist at the Court of Rome. Most of these musicians would have been attached to a church or
court, changing employment as conditions altered. Some even received invitations to work abroad, as did a number of Italians who fulfilled important positions at the Chapel Royal in England. The organist Giovanni Maria Trabaci was an exception, remaining and working in Naples under the Spanish house of Aragon.
Alfonso Ferrabosco II, second generation of an Italian family of musicians at the Royal Court of England, was music master to Prince Henry and King Charles I. Compositions based on scale fragments, often used as a ground, enjoyed considerable popularity in the sixteenth cen?tury. In his Fantasia of the Hexachord, the scale formula descends chromatically each time it returns, creating hitherto uncommon tonalities.
Matthew Locke was one of the most talented and vocal proponents of English music in the seventeenth century. He was appointed Composer-in-Ordinary to King Charles II after the Restoration, but shortly afterwards fell out of favor as musical tastes began to change. The English tradition of polyphonic compositions for consort was being challenged by foreign elements flooding England. The court was enamoured of the French style, and many Italian performers and composers helped popularize the violin and the trio sonata. Locke steadfastly refused to bow to popular taste and claimed that he "never saw any Forain Instrumental Compo?sition [a few French Courants excepted] worth an Englishman's Transcribing."
J oh.inn Sebastian Bach composed The Art of Fugue during the last years of his life and was only partially able to over?see the first publication shortly before his death. The main body of his im?pressive musical testament consists of 14 fugues, all based on the same subject, in which Bach exploits the widest possible vari?ety of contrapunctal devices. The score, in which each part has its own stave, bears no indication of any instrumentation. Because of this, earlier generations considered the work merely a textbook for scholars. It is only in the present century that it has revealed its treasures to performers and audiences alike.
Johann Christian Bach was the youn?gest son of J. S. Bach. He was a student of Martini in Bologna, Italy, and became organ?ist at the Milan cathedral. He later moved to England, hence his nickname as the "London" or "English Bach." He dominated the English musical scene just as Handel had done before him, becoming opera and concert
director and music master to the family of King George III. He obtained a reputation as a composer of symphonies and chamber music and did much to increase the popularity of the pianoforte, which was still in the early stages of development in England at that time. The Quartet in C major was originally written for string quartet.
About the Artists
Combining their unique talents to bring a fresh and unconven?tional approach to recorder music, Karel van Steenhoven, Daniel Bruggen, Bertho Driever, and Paul Leenhouts formed the Am?sterdam Loelci Stardust Quartet in 1978 while they were students at Amsterdam's Sweelinck Conservatory. From the start, they have ex?plored and extended the instrument's range with music from the Renaissance and Baroque eras to modern compositions, including their own works and arrangements of others. One of their goals is to present the wide range of techniques and sonorities within the frame?work of a recorder consort.
The Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quartet has won worldwide recognition as a serious ensemble of unparalleled virtuosity. Since 1981, when it received acclaim for its prize-winning (albeit unorthodox) rendering of a
sixteenth-century piece at the Musica Anti-qua Competition in Bruges, the ensemble has made numerous radio and television broad?casts, performed in most European countries, and undertaken concert tours in Indonesia, Australia, Japan, and the United States. Its U.S. debut was in 1987 with appearances in Chicago and at the Boston Early Music Fes?tival. In addition to their concerts, the four musicians teach at diverse workshops for in?terpretation of early and modern recorder music.
The Quartet has worked with instru?ment makers throughout the world and has built up a unique collection of 50 Renaissance and Baroque recorders, ranging from the eight-inch Exilent to the Great Bass Recorder measuring over six feet. The Quartet also works closely with several modern composers in Holland, such as Frans Geysen and Daan Manneke, and for the last few years has published a series of new recorder music in association with Moeck, under the title "The Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quartet Presents . . .."
In the recording field, the Quartet has released two recordings on Decca's L'Oiseau-Lyre label: "Virtuoso Recorder Music" (1984) and "Baroque Recorder Music" (1987), both of which received the prestigious Edison Award. The jury stated in its report: "It is the intense musical quality, complete sincerity, and evident pleasure in performance that immediately holds one's attention to the music itself." Two new recordings, "Extra Time" and "Sixteenth-Century Consort Music," are being released on London Re?cords early this year.
The Quartet chose its whimsical name from one of its early arrangements: the "Loeki the Leeuw" (Loeki the Lion) jingle featured in Dutch TV commericals.
The Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quar?tet now makes its first appearance in Ann Arbor with this program of early music.
Daniel Briiggen was born in Haarlem, Holland, in 1958, and studied recorder with Kees Boeke at the Sweelinck Conservatory, receiving his soloist diploma in 1983. He teaches extensively and gives concerts and workshops in Holland, France, Germany, and Austria.
Paul Leenhouts, born in Leiden in 1957, studied recorder with Marijke Ferguson and Walter van Hauwe at the Sweelinck Conservatory, where he received his soloist diploma in 1981. He teaches at Leiden, is closely involved with the Dutch Chamber Music Society, and regularly gives concerts and workshops in the Netherlands and abroad. Mr. Leenhouts is well known for his numerous arrangements of jazz works for the recorder.
Born in Wageningen, Holland, in 1953, Bertho Driever studied with Carla Mahler and Jerome Minis in Arnhem, going on to study under Walter van Hauwe at the Sweelinck Conservatory. He is active as an arranger of recorder music and presently teaches at the Hilversum Conservatory and gives workshops on recorder techinque.
Born in Voorburg, Holland, in 1958, Karel van Steenhoven was the First Prize winner at the German-Dutch Recorder Festi?val in Miinster in 1976. He went on to study with Kees Boeke and Walter van Hauwe at the Sweelinck Conservatory and was awarded his soloist diploma in 1983. Since then, he has studied composition with Robert Heppner and Tristan Keuris and gives workshops in contemporary music and improvisation tech?nique.
The Amsterdam Loeki Stardust Quartet's battery of recorders in?cludes representatives of the two distinct families: Renaissance and Baroque. The Renaissance family, pictured horizontally, have an almost cylindrical bore and are quite plain looking, with little decoration. They produce a rich tone, especially in the lower registers.
Baroque instruments contrast with those of the Renaissance in almost every way.
Pictured vertically, the Baroque instruments show a conical bore, ornate embellishment including ivory joints, and a sound more intimate and flexible than that of the Renais?sance.
The Quartet's recorders are made for them by the finest craftsmen in Denmark, Japan, Holland, and Germany. The Great Bass, shown at top, measures over six feet -the Sopranino, not quite eight inches.

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