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UMS Concert Program, May 69, 1992: May Festival --

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Season: 113th
Concert: Forty-fourth
Ann Arbor

99th Annual May Festival May 69, 1992
Detroit Symphony Orchestra and Neeme Jarvi, cond.
the 99th Annual
Ann Arbor
Greetings, and welcome to this 99th Annual Ann Arbor May Festival.
As we are closing in on a century of May Festivals, I am especially pleased to renew our relationship with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, which has graced our stages for 63 prior appearances and serves these four nights for the first time as the May Festival resident orchestra.
This union of two of Michigan's cultural treasures is most appropriate as this Festival marks the 175th anniversary of the founding of the University of Michigan in Detroit.
Combining the long histories of the Musical Society and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra represents 188 years of wonderful musicmaking that has filled concert halls throughout Southeastern Michigan. This 99th May Festival adds to the enriching musical life here and invites us to settle in and enjoy the exhilaration music provides.
Kenneth C. Fischer Executive Director University Musical Society of the University of Michigan
Table of Contents
8 The Detroit Symphony Orchestra
10 Neeme Jdrvi
13 May Festival Program for Wednesday, May 6
27 May Festival Program for Thursday, May 7
35 May Festival Program for Friday, May 8
47 May Festival Program for Saturday, May 9
84 199293 University Musical Society Concert Season Announcement
87 Encore Acknowledgements
Please relain this program book lo bring with you each night you attend Ihe festival.
Thanks to the Galliard Brass for their musicmaking throughout the May Festival.
Posters depicting ihe colorful and unique May Festival design ore available For sole in the lobby throughout the May Festival.
Thanks lo Ann Arbor artist Jacqueline Hoats for the May Festival poster design.
University Musical Society of the University oF Michigan Burton Memorial Tower ? Ann Anbor Michigan 481091270
A Salute To Our Corporate Angels.
Thank You Corporate Underwriters
On behalf ol the Un'Heisily Musical Society, I am privileged to recognize the conpanks whose support of UMS though theii coiporote undemiiling lefkcls theii position as leaders in the Southeastern Michigan business community.
Iheii generous support provides a solid base from which we are belter able to present outstanding performances lot the varied audiences of this part of the slate.
Kenneth Fischer
Executive Director University Musical Society
Edward Sorovell
The Edward Surovell Co.Reallors
"Oui support of the Univeiisty Muskal Society is based on the bekllkl Ik quality ol the aits in the community reflects the quality of Me in that community."
Douglas D. Freelli
First of America BankAnn Arbor
"We me proud to hep sponsoi this mojoi akml event in our community which perpetuates the wonderful May Festival liodition"
Howard S. Holme
Chelsea Milling Company
"The inn kba area is most loitunale to have the most enjoyable and outstanding musical entertainment mode available by Ik etioris ollhe Un'misilyMusical Society. We aie veiyfoitunate and I am happy to do my part to keep this actniy alive"
Dennis R. Toffolo
President Hudson's
"Excellence in the arts is a special inlersel of the Dayton Hudson Corporation and its iami ol conponies -Hudson's, Meivyn's, and Target. We aie pleased to recognize, though a special grant, three arts organizations whkh received the 1991 Concerned Citizens lor the Aits in Michigan Governor's kits kmrds. I congratulate the University Musical Society staff, board of directors, and volunteers for their commitment to excellence and for programming thai invokes the Southeast Mkhioan community."
Carl A. Brauer, Jr.,
Brauer Investment Company
"One of the mast exciting assets of out cukiafy tkhcommunity... UnnetsityMusicalSociety."
Gerald V. MacDonald
Chairman, Manufaclurers National Corporation
"As a locallybased coipaation, Manuloctviets is pioud to help support Ik Unmisity Musical Society and the aits in this community. Ihe peifoiming ails emich alloloui I'ms and tag us logelkiina spiiil ol celebialian."
Ronald M. Cresswell, Ph.D.
Vice President and Chairman Pharmaceutical Division, WarnerLambert Company
"Warneriambeii is veiy proud lo be associated with Ihe Un'mis'ty Musical Society and is grateful lor Ik cultural enrichment it brings lo our PaikeDavis Research Oman errployees in Ann Aibor."
Joe E. O'Neal
President, O'Neal Construction
"A commitment to quality is the main mason we am a ptoud supporter of the University Muskol Society's efforts to bring the finest oitists and special events to our community."
Eugene A. Miller
Chairman, President and CEO Comerica Incorporated
"Comeika Incoipoiated and its management sukidkny, Comeika Capital Management, aie delighted to be a pail of the pioud tiadilioit lepiesentedbythe Un'mriily MuskalSociety"
Ronald Welser
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, McKinley Associates, Inc.
"McKinley Associates is pioud lo support Ik Un'nersily Musical Society and the cukiol contribution it makes lo the community."
Patrick B. Long
Chairman, KMS Industries, Inc.
"KMS Industries is o proud sponsor of the University Musical Society."
Sue S. Lee, President
Regency Travel Agency, Inc.
" is cur pleasure to wak with such an outstanding oigan'aation as the Musical Society al the Univeisily of Michigan."
Harold A. Poling
Chairman, Chief Executive Officer Ford Molor Company
"FoidMoloi Company is proud of its longstanding association with the ilnmrs'ity Musical Society. Ik Society is a vital port ofoui artistic community, each year attracting outstanding orchestras and performers from throughout the world to our area. Jhe Society's international musical, dance and choral proqmmrring s recognized lor quality, creativity and excellence through the United Stales and Canada."
Marie K. Roienfeld
Presidenl, Jacobson Slores Inc.
"We ore pkased to share a pleasant lelationship with the Un'tets'ity Musical Society. Business and the aits have a natural affinity hi community commitment"
Roy E. Weber
Chairman, President
and Chief Executive Officer
Great Lakes Bancorp
"As longstanding members of the inn Arbor community, Great lakes Bancorp and the University Musical Society, share tradition and pride in performance. We 're pleased lo continue our long association with UMS and our support of Ann Arbor's fine arts showcase."
Iva M. Wiltoa
President, Philips Display Components Company
"Ptiilps Display Corrponenls Company is fnoud lo support Ik University Muskal Society and the oit'elk value H odds lo Ik comnvnity."
University Musical Society of the University of Michigan
What began in the spring of 1 879 as a club dedicated to the study and performance of choruses from Handel's Messiah soon became known as "The Choral Union" and gave its first concert in December 1 879. This led to the formation of the University Musical Society in February 1 880, and the newly formed chorus became an integral part of seasons to come. Today, the Choral Union refers not only to the devoted group of university and community singers who annually perform the wellloved December performances of Messiah, but to the Musical Society's acclaimed tenconcert series in Hill Auditorium featuring the world's finest orchestras and recitalists. It is this series, along with the eightconcert Chamber Arts series in Rackham Auditorium and the Choice Series of events that includes dance, opera, popular, and ethnic performances in Power Center and other venues, that ranks the University Musical Society among the finest performing arts presenters in the nation, including Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center, Boston Celebrity Series, and the Washington Performing Arts Society at the Kennedy Center.
The Musical Society has flourished these 113 seasons with the support of a generous musicloving community, which has gathered in three worldclass halls to experience the artistry of performers such as Leonard Bernstein, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Martha Graham, Igor Stravinsky, Enrico Caruso, Jessye Norman, James Levine, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Alvin Ailey, Philadelphia Orchestra, Arthur Rubinstein, Eugene Ormandy, Herbert von Karajan, Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, Budapest String Quartet, JeanPierre Rampal, Benny Goodman, Andres Segovia, Fritz Kreisler, Juilliard String Quartet, and New York Philharmonic.
The Musical Society is committed to preserving its finest traditions and building upon them. With new series offerings, programs for young people, group sales, educational endeavors, special projects and festivals, radio programs, collaborative projects, and the commissioning of new works, the Musical Society looks forward to carrying its tradition of excellence in performing arts presentation into the next century.
The University Musical Society
of the University of Michigan
ol Directors
Norman G. Herbert
Lois U. Slegeman
Vice President
Rebecca McGowan
Carl A. Brauer, Jr.
Robert G. Aldrich Herbert S. Amster Maurice S. Binkow Paul C. Boylan Jon Cosovich John H. D'Arms James J. Duderstadt Walter L. Harrison Thomas E. Kauper Thomas C. Kinnear Patrick B. Long Judylhe R. Maugh John D. Paul Ann S. Schriber George I. Shirley Herbert E. Sloan Carol Smokier Iva Wilson
Gail W. Rector President Emeritus
Kenneth C. Fischer
Executive Director
Catherine S. Arcure Sara J. Billmann Karen Cowles Sally A. Cushing Barbara L. Ferguson Judy Johnson Fry Michael I. Gowing Deborah Halinski Sarah Blair Hancock
Ann Schriber Chair
Milli Baranowski Gail Davis Barnes Sue Bonfield Charles Borgsdorf Janice Botsford Sandra Connellan Elena Delbanco Anne Duderstadt Margo Hoisted Charles Hills JoAnne Hulce Alice Davis Irani Perry Irish Stuart Isaac Frances Jelinek Howard King Judy Lucas Charlotte McGeoch Agnes Reading Janet Shatusky Helen Siedel James Telfer Jerry Weidenbach Mary White Shelly Williams Elizabeth Yhouse Nancy Zimmerman
Millicent Jones John B. Kennard, Jr. Michael J. Kondziolka Joseph Labert Thomas M. Mull Robin Stephenson Joan C. Susskind Carol G. Wargelin Arts Midwest Fellow: Brenda Walls
General Information
University Musical Society Hill Auditorium Directory and Information
Coat Rooms
Coat rooms are located on the east and west sides of the main lobby and are open only during the winter months.
Drinking Fountains
Drinking fountains are located throughout the main floor lobby, as well as on the east and west sides of the first and second balcony lobbies.
Handicapped Facilities
All auditoria now have barrierfree entrances. Wheelchair locations are available on the main floor. Ushers are available for assistance.
Lost and Found
Call the Musical Society Box Office at (313) 7642538.
Parking is available in the Thayer and Fletcher Street structures for a minimal fee. Limited street parking is also available. Please allow enough time to park before the performance begins. Free reserved parking is available to Encore members at the Guarantor, Leader, Concertmaster, and Bravo Society levels.
Public Telephones
A wheelchairaccessible public telephone is located at the west side of the outer lobby.
Men's rooms are located on the east side of the main lobby and the west side of the second balcony lobby. Women's rooms are located on the west side of the main lobby and the east side of the first balcony lobby.
Smoking Areas
University of Michigan policy forbids smoking in any public area, including the lobbies ana restrooms.
Guided tours of the auditorium are available to groups by advance appointment only. Call (313) 7633100 for details.
UMSEncoro Information Table
A wealth of information about events, the UMS, restaurants, etc. is available at the information table in the lobby of each audito?rium. Volunteers and UMS staff can assist you with questions and requests. The information table is open thirty minutes before each concert and during intermission.
Hill Auditorium
Since its completion in 1913, Hill Auditorium has been home to hundreds of University Musical Society concerts. In fact, it was the 20th Annual Ann Arbor May Festival that inaugurated the hall. Designed by architect Albert Kahn and acoustical engineer Hugh Tallant, Hill Auditorium has been established as a world renowned performance space. Every word spoken from the stage can be heard unamplified from virtually every part of the hall, making it a favorite of performers and concertgoers throughout the world. Flutist James Galway has referred to Hill Auditorium as the place where he most enjoys performing.
Former UM regent Arthur Hill saw the need at the University for a suitable auditorium for holding lectures, concerts, and other university gatherings, and, with his bequest of $200,000, construction of the 4,169seat hall commenced. Charles Sink, then UMS president, raised an additional $150,000.
Upon entering the hall, concertgoers are greeted by the gilded organ pipes of the Frieze Memorial Organ above the stage. The University Musical Society brought this organ in 1 894 from the Chicago Columbian Exposition for the first May Festival and installed it in old University Hall (which stood behind the present Angell Hall). The organ was moved to Hill Auditorium for the 1913 May Festival. Over the decades, the organ pipes have undergone many changes of appearance, but were restored to their original stenciling, coloring, and layout in 1986.
The UMS celebrated the 75th anniversary of Hill Auditorium in a gala performance on October 29, 1988 featuring the Vienna Philharmonic with conductor Leonard Bernstein celebrating his 70th birthday.
Detroit Symphony Orchestra
The 100 members of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra are heard live by over 350,000 people annually, performing yearround concerts that include 24 weeks of classical subscription concerts, the Pops Series, the annual Christmas Festival -featuring The Nutcracker Ballet at the Fox Theatre, The Detroit News Young People's Concerts, a summer season at the Meadow Brook Music Festival, and annual tours throughout the state of Michigan. Among the educational and community activities the Orchestra offers are free summer concerts in Detroit metropolitan parks, a free Educational Concert Series, Detroit Symphony Civic Orchestra concerts, a Docent and Ticket Distribution Program for high school students, the DSO Fellowship Program, and the annual Unisys AfricanAmerican Composers Forum and Symposium.
In September of 1990, internationally ac?claimed conductor Neemejdrvi became the eleventh music Director of the Detroit Sym?phony Orchestra. Born in Tallinn, Estonia, Mr. Jdrvi is one of today's most recorded conduc?tors. With the signing of a twoyear, fivedisc recording contract with Chandos Records, Mr. Jarvi ana the DSO released their first compact disc in June of 1991. This critically acclaimed disc of works by American composers is available on five continents and was on the
Billboard magazine Top Classical Albums chart for over 13 weeks. The second disc, containing French works, was released in November, ana the latest release, including Ives' Symphony No. 1 and Barber's Three Essays for Orchestra, is now available, and has been nationally recognized for being Neeme Jdrvi's 1 OOth release for Chandos. The Orchestra's distin?guished history of recording includes awardwinning discs on the Chandos, London, Columbia, RCA, and Mercury Records labels.
The DSO continues its long history of national radio broadcasts, which includes participation in the first complete symphonic radio broadcast in 1922. That same year it became the first official radio broadcast orchestra in the nation. The DSO could be heard this season on more than 390 radio stations nationwide. On October 11,1992, Neeme Jtirvi and the DSO will give a special concert commemorating the 500th anniversary of the Discovery of America with a live performance that will be broadcast live in Europe on the national radio networks in over 30 countries. It is expected that more than 20 million people will hear this performance.
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra gave its first Ann Arbor concert in 1919, and the ensemble now returns for its first May Festival residency. During the decades between these two events have Been many other performances, totaling 67 concerts for the Musical Society at the completion of this 99th May Festival.
Detroit Symphony Orchestra
First Violins
Emmanuelle Bohverl Concertmosler Katherine Iwk Choir John Hughes Associate (oncertm osier Joseph Goldman Assistant Concertmailer Walker I. OsierDetroit Edison foundation (hair Beatriz Budinszky' Marguerite Deslippe Derek Francis Alan Gerstel Elias Friederuohn Malvern Kaufman Laurie Landers' Richard Margitza' Bogos Mortchikion' Undo Snedden Smith' Ann Strubler" LeAnn Told' Margaret Tundo"
Second Violins
Geoffrey Applegate+ Felix Resnick++ Alvin Scne Lillian Fenstermachef Ronald Fischer' Lenore Sjoberg" Waller Moddox Roy Benglsson' Thomas Downs Yien Hung" Robert Murphy' Bruce Smith' Adam Stepniewski" Joseph Striplin" James Waring'
Alexander Mrshnaevskit James VanValkenburgt+ Philip Pabc LeRoy Fenstermacher Hart Hollman Walter Evidi Gary Schnerer Catherine Compton David Ireland Glenn Mellow Dorryl JeFfers John Madison'
NEEME JARVI, Music Director
Music directorship endowed by the Kresge foundation
Msociole Conductor
Pops Music Advisor
Director ol Choruses
llalo Bobini James C. Cordon Chair Morcy Chanteaux++ John Thurman Mario DiFiore Robert A Bergman' Barbara Hassan Oebra Foyroion" Carole Gatwooa" Haden McKay' Paul Wingerf
Robert Gladstone Stephen Molina++ Maxim Janowsky Union Bodwin Stephen Edwards Craig Rife! Donald Pennington Marshall Hulchinson Richard Robinson
Ervin Monroet Women'i Association lor the 0S0 Chair Shoul BenMeir Jeffery Zook
Jeffery Zook
Donald Baker Shelley Heron Brian Ventura+t Treva Womble
English Horn
Theodore Client Robert B. Semple Chair Douglas Cornelsen Laurence Liberson 11 Oliver Green Stephen MillerF
EFlat Clarinet
Laurence Liberson
Bass Clarinet
Oliver Green
Robert Williams Victoria King PaulGanson+t Lyell lindsey
Lyell Lindsey French Horn
Eugene Wade+ Bryan Kennedy Cabin Wagner Willard Darling Mark Abbott ? Keith Vernon
Ramon Parcelk Kevin Good Stephen Anderson ? t William Lucas
Nathaniel Gurin Joseph Skrzynski Randall Howes
Bass Trombone
Randall Howes
Wesley Jatobs+
Sal valor e Rabbiot Robert Pangborn.
Robert Pangborn+ Norman Fickert+ + Raymond Makowski Sam Tundo
Patricia MosriFletdiert Winifred ? Polk Chair
Charles Weaver, ksklanl
Personnel Managers
Oliver Green
Stephen Molina, Associate
Executive Director
Mark Volpe
+ Pr i n c i" pc I
?+Asshlonl Prinopol
Acting Prindpol
"Ortheslro Fdlow
'tnese members may volunlorily
reiolve seating within the setl'on on o
regular basis.
Arihrifcs ol Dtlroil Symphony Ofchesto Holl ore mode possible in port with Itie suppotl ol ihe Slole ol Michigan. Ibe City ol Detroit (ouncl ol tie Aits, and the Notionol [ndowmenl lor tie Arts. Oelrotl Symphony Orcheslro Holl is on equal opportunity, olh'rmolVe lion inslilulian.
Neeme Jarvi, conductor
Neeme Jarvi began his post as eleventh Music Director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra on September 1, 1990, his first such position with an American symphony orchestra. Internation?ally acclaimed for
his performances with orchestras and opera houses throughout the world, Mr. Jtirvi is also one of today's most recorded conductors.
Born in Tallinn, Estonia, in 1937, he graduated from the Tallinn Music School with degrees in
percussion and choral conducting and later completed his studies in opera and symphonic conducting at the Leningrad State Conserva?tory. He made his conducting debut at the age of 1 8 with a concert performance of Strauss' Night in Venice and his operatic debut with Carmen at the Kirov Theater. In 1963, he became Director of the Estonian Radio and Television Orchestra and began a thirteenyear tenure as Chief Conductor at the Tallinn Opera.
International acclaim came in 1971 when Mr. Jdrvi won first prize in the Conductors Competi?tion at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. This triumph led to invitations to conduct major orchestras throughout Eastern Europe, Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, Japan, Mexico, and Canada. In the Soviet Union he became Chief Conductor and Artistic Director of the Estonian State Symphony and also conducted the Soviet premier perfor?mances of Der Rosenkavalier, Porgy and Bess, and turco in Italia.
In January 1980, Mr. Jarvi immigrated to the United States and in the following month made his American orchestral debut with the New York Philharmonic. Since then he has con?ducted the major orchestras in
North America and Europe and has served as Principal Guest Conductor with the City of Birmingham (England) Symphony (198183).
He has served as Music Director of the Royal Scottish Orchestra (198188),
of which he presently serves as Conductor Laureate, and he holds the post of Principal Conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony of Sweden. Standing in at the last minute for an ailing Seiji Ozawa, Mr. Jdrvi recently led the Boston Symphony Orchestra in performances at Symphony Hail in Boston, as well as an exciting concert in New York's Carnegie Hall. Equally renowned for his opera conducting, Mr. Jdrvi made his Metropolitan Opera debut with Eugene Onegin during the 197879 season and returned during 198586 to conduct a new production of Khovanshchina. His first performances in Detroit were on tour with the Metropolitan Opera, conducting performances of Samson et Dalila.
Mr. Jdrvi has recorded many award winning discs for Chandos, BIS, Orfeo, and Deutsche Grammophon, including releases with the Chicago Symphony, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Royal Scottish Orchestra, London Symphony, London Philharmonic, Philharmonia Orchestra, Bamberg Symphony, Gothenburg Symphony, and Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. With the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Jdrvi is in the process of recording five discs for Chandos over the next two seasons. Three are now available, the third being Neeme Jdrvi's 1 OOth disc for Chandos.
Awards received by Mr. Jdrvi include honorary doctorates from the University of Aberdeen in Scotland and the Music Conservatory of Tallinn, Estonia. An honorary member of the Swedish Academy of Music, Neeme Jdrvi was dubbed a Knight Commander of the North Star Order by the King of Sweden in September of 1990.
Maestro Jdrvi made his Ann Arbor debut in November 1973 conducting a special concert of the Leningrad Philharmonic, The Festival Chorus, and soloist Joy Davidson in Prokofiev's Alexander Nevsky. It wasn't until February 1991 that he returned, then as the new music director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra.
University Musical Society
Wednesday, May 6, 1992, 8:00 pm Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
NEEME JARVI, conductor MARILYN HORNE, mezzosoprano
Overture to Semiramide................................................................ROSSINI
Five Songs on Poems by Friedrich Ruckert........................................MAHLER
Ich atmet' einen linden Duft Liebst du urn Schonheit! Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder Um Mitternacht
Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen Marilyn Home
The Planets, Op. 32....................................................................... HOLST
Mars, the Bringer of War
Venus, the Bringer of Peace
Mercury, the Winged Messenger
Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity
Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age
Uranus, the Magician
Neptune, the Mystic (with women's voices)
The preconcert carillon recital was performed by Judy Ogden, Lecturer in the School of Public Health.
Marilyn Home is represented by Columbia Artists Management Inc., New York City.
Ms. Home con be heard on Columbia, Deutsche Grammophon, Erato, FonitCetra, London, EMI, and RCA Records.
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra can he heard on Chandos, London, RCA, Columbia, and Mercury Records.
Photographing or taping of DSO concerts is prohibited. The box office in the outer lobby is open during intermission for tickets to May Festival and 199293 Season concerts.
Fortyfirst Concert of the 113th Season Ninetyninth Annual May Festival
Program Notes
by Michael Fleming
Overture to Semiramide
Gioacchino Rossini
Born febwary 29, 1792, Pesaro
Died November 13, 1868, Pussy, Frame
Semiramide was first performed at the Teatro la Fenice in Venice on February 3, 1 823. The Overture is scored for piccolo, flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, bass drum, and strings (duration: 12 minutes).
When Gustav Kobbe wrote, in his Complete Opera Book, published in 1922, that "Semiramide seems to have had its day," he could hardly have foreseen the Rossini revival that would gather strength over the next halfcentury. His complaint, that singers adequate to Rossini's florid vocal writing were no longer to be found, has been remedied by such specialists as Marilyn Home. And the drama?turgy of his serious operas, which seemed creaky in Kobbe's day, now seems much more credible.
In February 1992, the 200th anniversary of Rossini's birth was celebrated, but in a larger sense, the festivities have been going on for decades, and will continue well into the future. To take only the case of Semiramide, both the Metropolitan Opera and the Dallas Opera are mounting major productions this fall.
By coincidence, Semiramide was the last work Rossini wrote for the Italian stage: better working conditions, and finally, a life of leisure, awaited him in Paris. "It was the only one of my Italian operas which I was able to do at my ease," he wrote, "the contract gave me forty days...But I didn't put in forty days at writing it."
The opera, which Rossini labeled a "melodramma tragico," is based on Voltaire's play Semiramis. The title character, the queen of Babylon, has conspired with Prince Assur to murder her husband Nino. Assur expects to be named king for his part in the deed, but Semiramide is in love with Arsace, who, unknown to her, is her own son. After much intrigue and a supernatural appearance of Nino from the grave, the three protagonists meet at Nino's tomb. Arsace, making a sword thrust at Assur, strikes his mother instead, and is proclaimed the legitimate heir to the throne.
The first act of the opera was indifferently received at its premiere, but the audience warmed by the end, and there were 27 more performances that season at La Fenice. By the time the run was over, Rossini had headed back to Bologna, en route to Paris, where he would spend the rest of his life. Semiramide quickly made the rounds of Naples, Milan, Vienna, Munich, and London. After the 1 894 revival at the Metropolitan in New York with Nellie Melba, it virtually disappeared from sight, only to resurface for good after a 1962 performance with Joan Sutherland in the title role.
The overture never ceased to be a favorite in concert, and it captures some of the solemnity of the opera, along with the effervescense one expects of Rossini. The introduction, sounded by the horns, derives from a chorus in the opera, taken over more or less intact. The chirping melody that introduces the quick section undergoes a change of context: in the opera, this "graceful and lively" melody, as Kobbe calls it, accompanies the solemn entrance of the Assyrian priests into a darkened temple. This, ana an even sprightlier second theme, are worked out in the characteristic Rossini manner: with more flash than rigor, and with the inevitable buildup to a thunderous climax.
Ruckert Lieder
Gustav Mahler
Bow July 7, 1860, Kolischt (now Kolhte), Bohemia
Died May 18,1911, Vienna
Texts by Friedrich Ruckert (17881 866)
Gustav Mahler wrote less than 50 songs throughout his lifetime, for the most part using texts by early poets, folk verses, or even writing his own. The poetry of the German romantic Friedrich Ruckert had appealed to several composers, including Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms. Though Ruckert was not a major poet, he was the only relatively modern poet that Mahler chose for his song settings. Mahler's bestknown setting of Riickert poems is his Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the death of children). Just as beautiful, however, are the other five songs he composed in 1901 and 1902. They were not published until after his death, appearing with two of the earlier Das Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth's Magic Horn) songs as Seiben Lieder aus der litzen Zeit (Seven Songs of Latter Days). The five Ruckert Lieder are contemporaneous with Mahler's Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Symphonies.
The five Ruckert songs do not comprise a cycle in the true sense of the word. They are often performed as a group, however, even though the texts are not closely related, and the orchestra is dissimilar from song to song. Moreover, different singers choose to perform them in different sequences.
The delicate Ich atmet' einen linden Duft contains a play on the words linde (lime tree) and lind (gentle), which cannot be directly translated into English. The second song, Liebst du um Schonheit, was composed for Mahler's new wife, Alma. Since he never orchestrated this love song, Max Puttmann was asked to score it when the entire set was published. Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder is the only fast song in the set. Um Mitternacht portrays the despair of one who must face death alone, countered by the serene confidence of faith in God. Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen is the emotional climax of the set, especially the last stanza that parallels Mahler's isolation from the world and the peace he was able to find through music.
Ich atmet' einen linden Duft
Ich atmet' einen linden Duft.
Im Zimmer stand
ein Zweig der Linde,
ein Angebinde
won lieber Hand.
Wie lieblich war der Lindenduft!
Wie lieblich war der Lindenduft!
Das Lindenreis
brachst du gelinde;
ich atmet' leis'
im Duft der Linde
der Liebe linden Duft.
Liebst du um Schonheit!
Liebst du um Schonheit, o nicht mich liebe!
Liebe die Sonne, sie tragt ein goldnes Haar! Liebst du um Jugend, o nicht mich liebe!
Liebe den Fruhling, der Jung ist jedes Jahr!
Liebst du um Schatze, o nicht mich liebe!
Liebe die Meerfrau, sie hat viel Perlen klar!
Liebst du um Liebe, o ja mich liebe!
Liebe mich immer, dich liebe ich immerdar!
Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder
Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder! Meine Augen schlag ich nieder wie ertappt auf boser Tat. Selber darf ich nicht getrauen ihrem Wachsen zuzuschauen. Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder! Deine Neugier ist Verrat. Bienen, wenn sie Zellen bauen, Lassen auch nicht zu sich schauen, schauen selbst auch nicht zu. Wenn die reichen Honigwaben sie zu Tag befordet haben dann vor alien nasche du!
I Breathed a Gentle Fragrance
I breathed a gentle fragrance.
In the room there was
A branch of the lime tree,
A gift
From a beloved hand.
How lovely was the lime fragrance!
How lovely was the lime fragrance!
The lime tree sprig
You gently plucked;
I softly breathed
In the fragrance of lime
The fragrance of love.
If You Love for Beauty!
If you love for beauty, do not love me! Love the sun, she displays
Solden hair! you love for youth, do not love me!
Love the spring which is young every year!
If you love for treasure, do not love me!
Love the mermaid, she has many clear pearls!
If you love for love, oh, yes, love me!
Love me forever, as I will always love you!
Do Not Look at my Songs
Do not look at my songs! I lower my eyes As if I were caught in a crime. Even I do not dare Watch their evolution. Do not look at my songs! Your curiosity is a betrayal. Bees, when they build their cells Also let no one watch. When the rich honeycombs Have seen the light of day You shall be the first to taste them!
Um Mitternacht
Um Mitternacht
hab' ich gewacht
und aufgeblickt zum Himmel;
kein Stern vom Sterngewimmel
hat mir gelacht
Um Mitternacht.
Um Mitternacht
hab' ich gedacht
hinaus in dunkel Schranken.
Es hat kein Lechtgedanken
mir Trost gebracnt
Um Mitternacht.
Um Mitternacht
nahm ich in Acht
die Schlage meines Herzens;
ein einz'ger Puts des Schmerzens
war angefacht
Um Mitternacht.
Um Mitternacht
kampft' ich die Schlacht
O Menschheit, deiner Leiden;
nicht konnt ich sie engscheiden
mit meiner Macht
Um Mitternacht.
Um Mitternacht
hab' ich die Macht
in deine Hand gegeben!
Herr! Herr! uber Tod und Leben!
Du halst die Wacht! usw.
Um Mitternacht!
Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen
Ich bin der welt abhanden gekommen mit der ich sonst viele Zeit verdorben. Sie hat so nichts von mir vernommen sie mag wohl glauben, ich sei gestorben.
Es ist mir auch gar nichts daran gelegen, ob sie mich fur gestorben halt. Ich kann auch gar nichts sagen dagegen, den wirklich bin ich gestorben der Welt.
Ich bin gestorben dem Weltgetummel und ruh' in einem stillen Gebiet. Ich leb' allein in meinem Himmel in meinem Lieben, in meinem Lied.
At Midnight
At midnight
I awoke
And gazed into the heavens;
No star in the firmament
Smiled down at me
At midnight.
At midnight My thoughts went Beyond dark boundaries. There was no light To bring me comfort At midnight.
At midnight
I looked after
The beat of my heart;
A single pulse of pain
Was roused
At midnight.
At midnight
I fought the battle
0 mankind, your suffering;
1 could not resolve it With my might
At midnight.
At midnight
I gave all my might
Into your hand!
God! God! Over death and life!
You keep watch! etc.
At midnight!
I Am Out of Touch With the World
I am out of touch with the world Where I once wasted so much time. It has heard nothing from me in so long It may well think I have died.
To me, it hardly matters Whether they take me for dead. I can not even deny it. For truly, I am dead to the world.
I am dead to the world's bustle And rest in a quiet domain. I live alone in my heaven In my love, in my song.
-Provided by Columbia Artists Management
The Planets, Op. 32
Gustav Hoist Born September 21,1874, Cheltenham Died May 25, 1934, London
first complete pe
took place in London on November 15, 1920, Albert Coates directing. There had been several previous partial performances. The score calls for four flutes (third and fourth doubling piccolo, fourth also doubling alto flute), three oboes and English horn (third oboe doubling bass oboe), three clarinets and bass clarinet, three bassoons and contrabassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, tenor tuba, bass tuba, six timpani (two players), triangle, snare drum, tambourine, cymbals, bass drum, tamtam, chimes, glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone, two harps, organ, and strings. In "Neptune," there is a hidden sixvoice choir of female voices (duration: 53 minutes).
The Planets was a mixed blessing to Gustav Hoist. On the one hand, it brougnt him worldwide acclaim, and overnight, secured his place as a composer in Britain. But during his lifetime, he found his position of notoriety painful, and after his death in 1934, The Planets put even the finest of his other works in the shade, and in the process cast the shy, scholarly Hoist as a musical Colonel Blimp, a representative of the Philistine side of the English character.
That false image might have amused him: he drew a clear portrait of the Mystic, the Artist, and the Philistine in an essay, one reprinted as an appendix to Imogen Hoist's biography of her father. That he was a mystic, there is no doubt -as a young man he was so taken with Hindu philosophy that he set himself to learn Sanskrit. But often as he returned to the texts of Hinduism, or the apocryphal Acts of St. John for his Hymn of Jesus, he was reluctant to say much in words about his spiritual beliefs. For his artistic side, the music itself speaks. A fuller view of Hoist as a composer awaits only wider performance of such works as the chamber opera Savitri, the Choral Hymns from the Rig Veda, and the tone poem Egdon Heath. And even if he would not have admitted it, there was a healthy touch of the Philistine about him, a disdain for the pretense and swank that often accompany the arts.
Where does this leave The Planets As a work in which many currents converge: the stylistic mastery Hoist had acquired in two previous decades of composing (or rather, as Imogen Hoist points out, the "unlearning" of manner?isms foreign to him); his interest in the exotic and the occult and the ability to draw deep musical inspiration from these; and finally, the ear for orchestral color and the nononsense attitude toward orchestral players acquired during his years of eking out a living as a trombonist. The notion of writing a suite based on the astrological characters of the planets then known to astronomers came to Hoist from his friend Clifford Bax. "As a rule I only study things that suggest music to me," he wrote. "That's why I worry at Sanskrit. Then recently the character of each planet suggested lots to me, and I have been studying astrology fairly closely." Even after his musical work was over, Hoist continued to cast horoscopes for his friends, fascinated by the insight it seemed to offer into their characters, though a bit embarrassed at what might pass for supersti?tion. Nevertheless, he did not pursue the astrological connections of the individual sections of The Planets. "Once he had taken the underlying idea from astrology," writes Imogen Hoist, "he let the music have its way with him."
He began work on "Mars" in the summer of 1914, just before the outbreak of World War I, completed "Venus" and "Jupiter" that fall, "Saturn," "Uranus," and "Neptune" in 1915, and "Mercury" in 1916. Hoist was not an extraordinarily slow composer; the work took so long because he could work uninterrupted only on weekends and in August, when he was free from his teaching duties at St. Paul's Girls' School. Hoist first heard the work in a twopiano arrangement made by two of his St. Paul's colleagues; the first orchestral perfor?mance, of five movements only, took place on September 29, 1918, a gift from the composer H. Balfour Gardiner to Hoist, who was about to leave for noncombatant war service.
I. MARS, THE BRINGER OF WAR: When listeners first heard this, they assumed that Hoist was depicting the horrors of the First World War; in fact, he completed it before the outbreak of hostilities. A hammering quintuple meter never yields: a monstrous deformation of march time that captures the "stupidity" of war, as Sir Adrian Boult said, was Hoist's aim.
II. VENUS, THE BRINGER OF PEACE: Meter and melody are smoothed out here, and in contrast to the closepacked brass chords in "Mars," the composer scores for woodwinds, harps, and strings.
III. MERCURY, THE WINGED MESSENGER: The mysterious, changeable aspects of the god are celebrated here, in chiaroscuro instrumentation, and in rhythms that waver between 3 plus 3, and 2 plus 2 plus 2.
IV. JUPITER, THE BRINGER OF JOLLITY: There are three alternating strains here: the first, a dance that hardly seems to know which foot goes first; the second, a rollicking song awash in triplets; the last, a Grand Tune that Elqar might have been proud of. To the last or these, in 1921, Hoist set the words, "I vow to thee, my country," thus confirming the British pedigree of this scene of rustic jollity.
V. SATURN, THE BRINGER OF OLD AGE: This was Hoist's favorite movement, one built out of murmuring melodies and gently rocking chords. Except for its rather dense orchestration, it could pass as the work of one of the French impressionists.
VI. URANUS, THE MAGICIAN: The "magic" here is found in a strange set of intervals, incorporating the "diabolical" tritone. When these have been sounded by trumpets and trombones, as if practicing the charm, they are turned into a dance that grows ever more reckless, only to vanish as daylight ap?proaches.
VII. NEPTUNE, THE MYSTIC: This was the outermost known planet in Hoist's time -Pluto was not discovered until 1930. For it, Hoist provides some mysterious music, built up, like that for "Saturn," out of small fragments. Here, we are as close as we ever get to the very heart of Hoist, to the spirit he described in 1920:
"All mystic experiences seem to be forms of union. It is worth noting that all these experi?ences, whether sublime or ridiculous, have one thing in common. They are hard to describe...and yet in themselves they are so convincing. It is easy to disbelieve other people's experiences, but you have to work hard before you disbelieve your own."
Marilyn Home
Following Marilyn Home's 1960 perfor?mance in Wozzeck with the San Francisco Opera, Alfred Frankenstein of the Son Francisco Chronicle wrote: "In Miss Home's hands -or, rather in her beautiful voice, her sensitive face,
and her tremen?dous gifts as a actress -lie a good portion of the future of American opera, and its future is therefore bright indeed." Marilyn Horne went on to fulfill this prophecy with a career that has assured her place in the annals of
operatic achievement. A major force in the revitalization of the works of Handel and Rossini, Ms. Home was the first artist to bring Handel to the Metropolitan Opera. In 1984, she appeared as the only living artist on the New York Times list of the nine "alltime, allstar singers in the Met's 100 years."
Ms. Home was recently awarded the prestigious Fidelio Gold Medal by the International Association of Opera Directors for her substantial contributions to opera houses throughout the world. It was the first time that an American artist has been so honored. Shortly thereafter, Ms. Home received the Covent Garden Silver Medal for outstanding service. This tribute also marked the 25th anniversary of her debut at the Royal Opera House. Most recently, she received the 30year silver medal for "outstanding artistry" from the San Francisco Opera and was featured on "In Performance at the White House."
Along with her operatic triumphs at La Scala, Covent Garden, La Fenice, and Lyric Opera of Chicago last season, Ms. Home was again featured as Arsace in nine performances of Semiramide at the Met, 26 years after her historic performance of the opera at Carnegie Hall with Joan Sutherland. Semiramide, which had not been performed at the Met for 96 years, was mounted especially for Marilyn Home. For the Carnegie Hall Centennial Celebration, she premiered a new song
cycle, Will Breathe a Mountain, written expressly for her by William Bolcom, UM Professor of Music.
At least half of Marilyn Home's performing life consists of recitals. Having performed welfover 1,000 recitals, she remains one of the few vocalists who can sell out a house in this most exacting realm of singing.
Ms. Home has won Grammy Awards for her albums "Presenting Marilyn Home," "In Concert at the Met with Leontyne Price and Marilyn Home," "Carmen" (conducted by Leonard Bernstein), and the Prix du Disque for "Souvenir of a Golden Era." Her other albums include a live La Scala recital, Beethoven's Ninth Symphony with the New York Philhar?monic, a Christmas album with the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, rare French arias, and a live recording of Tancredi made at La Fenice in Venice. "Beautiful Dreamer," her London collection of wellloved American songs, was number one on Billboard's list of crossover discs for many weeks during the 198687 season. In February 1992, a recording of Rossini songs was released in con unction with the composer's 200th bicentennia celebration. Two other releases scheduled for 1992 are Falstaffand an album of lullabies from around the world.
Born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, Marilyn Home began her musical studies with her father and first sang in public at the age of four. She studied voice with William Vennard and song recital works with Gwendolyn Koldofsky (her accompanist for ten years thereafter) at the University of Southern California. She also participated in many master classes led by Lotte Lehmann. Ms. Home's early career included performances with Igor Stravinsky conducting various orchestras (Stravinsky dedicated his last work, instrumental arrange?ments of two Hugo Wolf Sacred Songs, to Ms. Home), and as Dorothy Dandridge's singing voice in the motion picture of Oscar Hammerstein's Carmen Jones. Her autobiogra?phy, Marilyn Home -My Life, written with Jane Scovell, was published by Atheneum in 1984.
Ms. Home now returns to Ann Arbor for her fourth appearance in this auditorium, after May Festivals in 1972 and 1976 and a recital in 1979.
University Musical Society
Thursday, May 7, 1992, 8:00 pm Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
NEEME JARVI, conductor
Essay No. 1 for Orchestra, Op. 12..................................................BARBER
Concerto for Orchestra -Ann Arbor premiere.................................BASSETT
Pensive, then driving Quietly lyrical Scurrying Conclusion
Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67........................................BEETHOVEN
Allegro con brio Andante con moto Allegro-Allegro
The University Musical Society extends thanks to Professor Leslie Bassett for tonight's Philips Preconcert Pressentation. The preconcert carillon recital was performed by Ray McLellan, doctoral student in organ and a student
of Margo Hoisted, University Carillonneur. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra can be heard on Chandos, London, RCA, Columbia, and Mercury Records.
Photographing or taping of DSO concerts is prohibited. The box office in the outer lobby is open during intermission for tickets to May Festival and 199293 Season concerts.
Fortysecond Concert of the 113th Season Ninetyninth Annual May Festival
Program Notes
by Michael Fleming
Essay No. 1 for Orchestra, Op. 72
Samuel Barber Bom March 9, 1910, West Chester, Pennsylvania Died January 23, 1981, Hew York
Arturo Toscanini conducted the NBC Sym?phony in the first performance of Barber's Essay No. 1, November 5, 1938. The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, timpani, piano, and strings (duration: 8 minutes).
There is a longstanding prejudice to the effect that a composer of songs is by nature one who snatches melodies from the air, and who cannot be expected to tackle so demanding a task as composing instrumental music. Schubert's symphonies and sonatas have been undervalued on this premise, as have the instrumental works of Samuel Barber. Scholars are now hard at work explaining that Schubert was more than the jolly tunesmith of popular misconception, and it is high time that someone did the same for Samuel Barber. To be sure, his instrumental works are few in number, but they are lovingly and ingeniously crafted.
The godfather of the First Essay for Orchestra was the conductor Arthur Rodzinski, who had led performances of Barber's Symphony No. 1 in Cleveland, New York, and at the Salzburg Festival (the first work by an American to be given at the Festival). Toscanini, no particular friend of American music but determined to do his duty as conductor of the New York Philharmonic, had asked for suggestions of new pieces by American composers, and Rodzinski named Barber. The Essay was written while Barber was in Rome, in 1937, and sent off to Toscanini along with the Adagio for Strings, arranged from his String Quartet. The 193738 concert season passed with no reply, and Barber despaired of having either work performed.
The Essay -the first of three works by Barber that bear that title -parallels the literary genre of the same name. Rather than developing his ideas dramatically, in the manner of the sonata, Barber treats them more casually, counting on the conciseness of his subject matter to give shape to the piece. The main topic to be considered is a changingnote
Concerto for Orchestra
Ann Arbor Premiere
Leslie Bassett Born January 22, 1923, Hanhrd, California Currently living in Ann Arbor
A joint commission of the Koussevitzky Music Foundation and the Detroit Symphony, the Concerto for Orchestra received its first perfor?mances by the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in February 1992.
The score calls for three flutes (one doubling piccolo),
three oboes (one doubling English horn), three clarinets (one doubling bass clarinet), three bassoons (one doubling contrabassoon), four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, a large percussion battery played by four players, piano, celesta, harp, and strings (duration: 20 minutes).
Composer Leslie Bassett is widely known for the more than 100 works that have come from his Ann Arbor studio over the past four decades, music for a large variety of media, bringing him a substantial number of perfor?mances, publications, awards, prizes, commissions, and honors, including the Pulitzer Prize (1966), Prix de Rome (1961 63), Koussevitzky (1971 and 1991), two Guggenheim Fellowships (1973 and 1980), a Fulbright Fellowship to Paris (195051), several National Endowment for the Arts
commissions, and membership in the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. His music has been performed by most of the country's major orchestras, and numerous civic and university groups.
Long identified with the University of Michigan, Bassett is its Albert A. Stanley Distinguished Professor of Music and was the 1984 Henry Russel lecturer, the University's highest honor. He served as Chairman of composition from 197085 and was a founding member of the University's electronic music studio.
After early training in California on piano, cello, ana trombone, he served as a trombonist and arranger with the 13th Armored Division Band during World War II. His formal music study began at Fresno State College, with graduate work at the University of Michigan under Ross Lee Finney, and in Paris, with both Nadia Boulanger and Arthur Honegger. He also worked with the SpanishBritish composer Alberto Gerhard and in electronic music with Mario Davidovsky.
Among his notable prizewinning and commissionea works are the Variations for Orchestra, which took the 1966 Pulitzer Prize (given its Ann Arbor premiere by the DSO in January 1967); and Echoes from an Invisible World (given its Ann Arbor premiere by The Philadel?phia Orchestra during the 1976 May Festival), commissioned by a consortium of American orchestras for the 1976 Bicentennial and subsequently recorded. This concerto is Bassett's second commission from the Koussevitzky Music Foundation. The first was for the Sextet for Piano and Strings, which received its premiere at the Library of Con?gress.
The composer has provided the following note:
"The Concerto for Orchestra, completed in July 1991 and edited during the fall, consists of four movements sewn together by solos. The music is at times lyrical, pensive, driving, assertive, scurrying, highlytextured, layered, colorful, forceful. I wished to display to advantage the expressivity and the virtuosity of the performers as individuals and in sections. Solos emerge from textures and harmonies, and various instrumental groups project their
own particular messages. Such circumstances offer rich opportunity For orchestral fantasy, the delight of any composer.
"The first movement begins quietly, expectantly, introductory in texture and mood, leading to the fast, driving and energetic music that domi?nates. A quiet ending precedes the clarinet's brief connecting solo.
"The second movement, lyrical, muted, expressive, features an English horn solo, followed by the bass clarinet. A flute solo emerges, then the solo cello. The concertmaster provides a bridge to the third movement.
"Muffled scurryings open this passage, then quickly move to energetic and interruptive figures, repetitions and climaxes. Muted brass groups jostle and overlap. The ending, suddenly quiet, is marked by resumed rustlings. A bassoon solo points to the finale.
"The Conclusion begins dramatically, with forceful references to fast music from earlier movements. Loudquiet contrasts, pyramids, imitations, overlapping solos, opposing brass and wind groups move to a climactic ending. "One primary and conspicuous motive appears frequently throughout the Concerto, a turn of phrase that I have used in one form or another for many years, closely resembling Bach's own musical signature. BACH, whose German spelling yields Bflat, A, C, B natural, is a tight, potent cluster of pitches -the tightest possible. We find countless examples of similar intense fournote turns of phrase throughout Western music. Here my usual order is B, C, Bflat, A, often followed by Csharp. The line sometimes continues, rising through the other seven remaining pitches within the octave. While such a twelvenote melody suggests earnest serialism, there is really nothing of the sort worth mentioning, beyond a few straightforward canons. The motif (and its extensions) is the thing. My work remains intuitive, colored by tonal and serial influences, based upon thorough and careful hearing, the instruments' distinctive qualities, imagination, fantasy, and a lifetime of delight in the wonders and joys of music."
Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67
Ludwig van Beethoven Born December 16,1770, Bonn Died March 26,1327, Vienna
The Fifth Symphony was first performed in Vienna on December 22, 1 808. The score calls for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, contrabassoon, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, and strings (duration: 30 minutes).
A hundred years aqo, Sir George Grove wrote that Beethoven's Firth Symphony could always be counted on to fill the room. "And this not only among amateurs who have some practical familiarity with music, but among the large mass of persons who go to hear music pour passer le temps." Even today, when we have heard the opening bars of the symphony discoized, commercialized, and used as a tag to identify Beethoven to those who never set foot in a concert hall, the Fifth retains its power.
Generations of conductors have bent the symphony this way and that, and generations of critics and commentators have heaped interpre?tation on interpretation. But even the most willful conductor or the most fanciful program annotator cannot obscure the essential character of the work: it is foolproof, and even the interpreta?tions that stretch credibility to the limits are but exaggerations of traits that anyone can perceive.
The symphony sounds inevitable and irrefutable; as with many works that seem to have fallen readymade from heaven, it required years of licking into shape. Beethoven began sketching his Cminor Symphony in 1 804, after finishing work on the Eroica. He worked on it sporadi?cally until 1 806, breaking off to write the Razumovsky String Quartets, the Fourth Piano Concerto, the Fourth Symphony, and the Violin Concerto. He finished work on the Fifth in 1 807 and 1 808, and it was presented to the public in December of that year, on a concert that also included the Pastoral Symphony, the Choral Fantasy, the Fourth Piano Concerto, several movements from the Mass in C, and the aria Ah! perfido.
Because the first four notes have taken on a life of their own in the popular mind -and because some conductors fell into the habit of setting apart these and the phrase that follows in a slower tempo --the notion has grown up that the movement is in fact "built" out of four notes. Tovey pointed out the fallacy of this assumption,
observing that the movement, far from being a mosaic of short motifs, is exceptionally longbreathed. The secret of the movement's psychological impact lies in Beethoven's total control or its progress: a bar more or less, and the structure would begin to teeter.
E.T.A. Hoffmann, in a famous review of the Fifth Symphony, proclaimed Beethoven "a purely romantic composer (and for this reason, a truly musical composer)." But the Andante con moto, on the surface, seems like an oldfashioned set of double variations, such as Papa Haydn might have written. The modern listener has to imagine himself back into the early nineteenth century to hear the strange pauses, interrup?tions, and changes of pace as "romantic."
The last two movements form a unit, but it was not always so: there are sketches for a finale in C minor, in 68 time, marked I'ultimo pezzo (the last piece). The solution Beethoven finally arrived at an unsettling Scherzo, in which strange mutterings alternate with passionate cries; dissolving into a Cmajor blaze, inter?rupted once by the ghost of the Scherzo -was one that appealed strongly to the following generations. Its lesson was not lost on Brahms, who exploited the minorturnedtomajor in his First Symphony.
Beethoven has been criticized as a poor orchestrator, and there are passages, like the one in the first movement where bassoons have to stand in for horns, that were conditioned by the limitations of the instruments for which he wrote. But no one who listens closely to the last two movements of the Fifth Symphony will believe that he was insensitive to instrumental color. Who has more knowingly exploited the double basses' ability to strike a mysterious pose -or their grotesque comic talents And if sophisticates deride the outbursts of trombones and contrabassoon, and the whoops of joy in the piccolo in the finale, can anyone suggest how they might be improved upon
University Musical Society
Friday, May 8, 1992, 8:00 pm Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
NEEME JARVI, conductor ANDRE WATTS, piano
Symphony No. 1 in D major, Op. 25 ("Classical").......................PROKOFIEV
Allegro Larghetto Gavotta Molto vivace
Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18 .........................RACHMANINOFF
Moderato Adagio sostenuto Allegro scherzando
Andre Watts
Symphony No. 1 ...............................................................................IVES
Adagio molto: Sostenuto Scherzo: Vivace Allegro molto
The preconcert carillon recital was performed by lionna Wong, a student of University Corillonneur Margo Hoisted and a recent UM graduate in music and biology.
Andre Watts plays a Yamaha piano.
Mr. Watts is represented by IMG Artists, New York City.
Andre Watts records for AngelEMI and CBS Mosterworks.
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra can be heard on Chandos, London, RCA, Columbia, and Mercury Records.
Photographing or taping of DSO concerts is prohibited. The box office in the outer lobby is open during intermission for tickets to May Festival and 199293 Season concerts.
Fortythird Concert of the 113th Season Ninetyninth Annual May Festival
Program Notes
by Michael Fleming
Symphony No. 1 ("Classical")
Sergei Prokofiev
Born April 23, 1891, Sonlsovka Died March 5,1953, Moscow
The Classical Symphony was first performed on April 21, 1918, in Petrograd, with the composer conducting. The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings (duration: 15 minutes).
Last year marked the hundredth anniversary of Prokofiev's birth, and the event brought an outpouring of performances of his music. His instrumental music has never lacked exposure in the concert hall, so the past season brought mostly more frequent performances of works that have estab?lished themselves as audience favorites. Prokofiev's operas are another matter, and it is significant that one of the most contro?versial, War and Peace, was a stunning success when the Seattle Opera presented it in 1990.
From Harlow Robinson, we have at last a balanced biography of the composer, replacing the older ones by Israel Nestyev (which toes the Soviet party line of the 1950s, when it was published) and by Victor Seroff (an antiSoviet diatribe). Even with the disintegration of the Soviet Union and a general reassessment of Soviet composers who worked during the darkest days of Stalinism, however, some are not yet willing to make peace with Prokofiev. In an article in The New York Times, entitled "Prokofiev, Hail ... and Farewell" the musicologist Richard Taruskin tarred some of Prokofiev's most popular scores with the brush of opportunism. "He is our musical Faust," Taruskin concluded, "our pitiable and terrifying Everyman. His biography, with its central crossroadsmotif, has become myth. More than just a cautionary tale, it is the elementary parable of the buffeting the arts have suffered in the great 20thcentury totalitarian states."
Robinson wrote a letter to the Times rebutting Taruskin's portrayal of Prokofiev as a political tool, but the debate is far from being resolved. Of the durability of his music, there seems little doubt, but there
remain troubling questions about the man himself. Did he really believe he would be exempt from bureaucratic tinkering when he returned to the Soviet Union to live in 1936, after more than a decade in the West Why did he abandon his first wife, marry another without bothering to divorce her, and then fail to raise his voice when she was hustled off to prison on trumpedup charges
It may take decades more until the records of the Stalinist period are made accessible to scholars and the information in them incorpo?rated into our understanding of those who had to live under a regime in which the Party reached into every corner of life, including the arts. Meanwhile, we can continue to savor the music of Prokofiev, and withhold final judgment on his character until all the facts are available. In any case, if we excluded from the concert halls the music of any composer found politi?cally suspect, Richard Strauss, Wagner, and many more might find themselves on the forbidden list.
The Old Russia in which Prokofiev was brought up was under siege from within when he wrote his Classical Symphony, but Prokofiev was far away from the lines of battle, physically and psychologically. In the spring of 1917, when he began work on the Symphony, he was on a steamboat trip along the Volga and Kama rivers, a landscape that Prokofiev found "wild, virginally pure, and incredibly beautiful."
He spent the summer outside Petrograd (as St. Petersburg had by then been renamed), reading Kant and composing. "Up to that time, I had usually composed at the piano," he wrote in his 1941 autobiography, "but I had noticed that thematic material composed without the piano was often better in quality...I was intrigued with the idea of writing an entire symphonic piece without the piano."
His model for such a piece, he wrote, was Haydn, but with a twentiethcentury twist. As the symphony developed, he gave it the nickname Classical, "first of all, because it was easier that way," he explained; "secondly, out of naughti?ness and a desire to 'tease the geese,' hoping that in the end I would have my way if the title 'Classical' stuck."
It did stick, and the symphony has remained one of Prokofiev's most beloved, alongside the Fifth. But in what sense is it "Classical" First of all, it follows the fourmovement pattern of the eighteenthcentury symphony, departing from it only by replacing the customary minuet with a gavotte. Also, the instrumentation is what Haydn might have expected in a large city like London, with the addition of a third kettledrum
being the only departure from Classical practice.
But this is not a pure homage to Haydn: rather, it takes his own characteristic humor a step further, introducing "wrong" notes, grouping the phrases sometimes by threes and fives instead of fours and eights, and exploiting the comical possibilities of the instruments them?selves, as in the hiccupping violin theme over a humdrum bassoon accompaniment that takes second place in the first movement. Both the first and last movements move with exceptional speed, some of the jokes almost thrown away. It is here that the relationship to Haydn is defined: not pure homage, but more than parody, and without a trace of disrespect.
The second movement, with its ticktock accompaniment and singing melody might almost pass for a genuine antique, except that no eighteenthcentury composer would have let the melody enter in the stratospheric register Prokofiev does. Like Haydn, Prokofiev cleverly varies the reprise, letting the rising scales from the middle section sneak back as accompani?ment when the main tune returns.
The Gavotta, with its irregular phrasing and shocking changes of harmonic direction, is the most purely tongueincheek movement. Prokofiev evidently enjoyed "teasing the geese," because he used it once again in the ball scene of his ballet Romeo and Juliet (never mind that a Gavotte is as much out of place in a medieval ballroom as in an eighteenthcentury symphony).
Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18
Sergei Rachmaninoff Bow April 1, 1873, Novgorod DiedMarh28,1943, Bemly Hills, California
Rachmaninoff was born in the gloomiest period Russia had experienced for over a century. All the sublime efforts of the generation that had entertained such high hopes in the 1 870s had ended in defeat. The great social reforms (including the abolition of serfdom in 1 861) brought about by Alexander II were looked upon as grave mistakes. The reactionary elements that rallied around Alexander III after
the assassination of his liberalminded father in 1 881 tolerated no opposition. The new emperor counteracted the liberalism of his father's reign by indicating he had no intention of limiting or weakening the aristocratic power inherited from his ancestors. A feeling of hopeless despair was shared by the young "intellectuals," whose inability to solve problems of renovation or to break the inertia of the masses soon became tragically appar?ent. Their loss of faith in the future, the destruction of their illusions, was impressively reflected in the short stories of Vsevolod Garshin and in the nostalgic fiction and drama of Anton Chekhov.
Rachmaninoff, like so many young men living in Moscow at the turn of the century, suffered from the contagion of his times. His melan?choly turn of mind and pessimistic outlook offered little protection against the disappoint?ments and frustrations he met at the outset of his career as a composer. His first symphony, written in 1 895 ana produced in St. Peters?burg, was a complete failure, receiving one performance and never heard again in his lifetime. [Whether or not he destroyed the score, it disappeared, and only during the 1940s was it reconstructed from the set of orchestral parts that had been kept in the Leningrad Conservatory.]
.This failure of his symphony threw the young composer into the depths of despair. In his memoirs, he writes:
"I returned to Moscow a changed man. My confidence in myself had received a sudden blow. Agonizing hours spent in doubt and hard thinking had brought me to the conclusion that I thought to give up composing. I was obviously unfitted to it, and therefore it would be better if I made an end to it at once.
"I gave up my room and returned to Satins' [close friends of the composer]. A paralysing apathy possessed me. I did nothing at all and found no pleasure in anything. My only occupation consisted of a few piano lessons which I was forced to give in order to keep myself alive. This condition lasted more than a year. I did not live; I vegetated, idle and hopeless. The thought or spending my life as a piano teacher gave me cold shudders. Once or twice, I was asked to play at concerts. I did this, and had some success. But of what use was it to me The opportunities came my way so seldom that I could not rely upon them for my existence. Nor could I hope that the Conservatoire would offer me a situation as a pianoforte teacher."
In 1898, Rachmaninoff had great success in London conducting and playing the piano, but continued to remain in a depressed mental state. In 1900, the Satins sent him to a psychiatrist by the name of Dr. N. Dahl:
"My relatives had told Dr. Dahl that he must at all costs cure me of my apathetic condition and achieve such results that I would again begin to compose. Dahl had asked what manner of composition they desired and had received the answer, 'a concerto for pianoforte,' for this I had promised to the people in London and had given it up in despair. Consequently I heard the same hypnotic formula repeated, day after day, while I lay half asleep in an armchair in Dahl's study. 'You will begin to write your concerto...You will work with great facility...The concerto will be of an excellent quality..." It was always the same, without interruption. Although it may sound incredible, his cure really helped me. Already at the beginning of the summer I began again to compose. The material grew in bulk, and new musical ideas began to stir within me -far more than I needed for my concerto. By the autumn I had finished two movements of the concerto -the Andante and the Finale -and a sketch for a suite for two pianofortes. The two movements of the concerto I played during the same autumn at a charity concert directed by Siloti...they had a gratifying success. This buoyed up my selfconfidence so much that I began to compose again with great keenness. By the spring I had already finished the first movement or the concerto and the suite for two pianofortes.
"I felt that Dr. Dahl's treatment had strength?ened my nervous system to a miraculous degree. Out of gratitude I dedicated my second concerto to him. As the piece had had a great success in Moscow, everyone began to wonder what possible connection it coula have had with Dr. Dahl. The truth, however, was known only to Dahl, the Satins, and myself."
The Second Concerto needs no further explanation. It is among the most famous and familiar of all Rachmaninoff's compositions, and its facile melodies have even round their way into the popular music of our day.
-Note by Glenn D. McGeoch
Symphony No. 1
Charles Ives
Born October 20, 1874, Donbury, Connecticut
Died May 19, 1954, New York (ily
Charles Ives wrote his First Symphony between 1 895 and 1 898; Richard Bales led the first performance, April 26, 1953, in Washington, D.C. The score calls for two flutes, two oboes (one doubling English horn), two clarinets, two bassoons, contrabassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani, and strings (duration: 37 minutes).
It is difficult to think of a composer who has derived much benefit from a college education, and easy to name some who did well to escape it. Would Bach, for example, have been any greater a composer or had any sharper an intellect, had he been put to the study of the law, as his contemporaries Handel and Telemann were
For Charles Ives, a thoroughgoing original, the best that can be said was that he slid through his four years at Yale without the experience doing him any harm. His skills as a composer and pianist made him indispensable for trie musicals staged each year by his fraternity, Delta Kappa Epsilon. While in New Haven, he had the chance to continue his organplaying at Center Church, where the choirmaster even tolerated some of his farout harmonic excur?sions in accompanying the hymns (shades of Bach in Arnstadt!). And if Horatio Parker, under whose tutelage Ives studied music, was rigidly conservative and Germanic in his tastes, at least Ives did learn some discipline from him.
One of the tasks Parker assigned his pupil was to make new settings of poems that had been previously set by the accepted masters, such as Brahms. Here, at least, Ives scored a few points over his teacher, who complained that his setting of Feldeinsamkeit (best known in the Brahms version) moved through too many keys. But George Chadwick, Parker's own teacher, stopped through New Haven one day and sat in on Parker's class. He was effusive in his praise of Ives' Feldeinsamkeit, which he proclaimed "almost as good a song as Brahms'," to the discomfiture of Parker.
Privately, Ives expressed his opinions of Parker's fuddyduddy ways in no uncertain terms. On the sketch of a fugue for organ assigned by his teacher, he wrote "a stupid fugue on a stupid subject." According to his later recollections, Ives "got a little fed up on too much counter?point and classroom exercises," but at least in public, he did not challenge his teacher.
Not long after entering Yale, Ives began work on a symphony, which took shape movement by movement over the next four years. This would be his senior thesis, and when he showed it to Parker, the older man was
fjredictably appalled. In its original form, the irst subject of the first movement went through "six or eight keys," Ives wrote, "so Parker made me write another first movement." This was polite enough to satisfy Parker, but Ives found it inferior to his original, and persuaded Parker to let him return to his first ideas if he promised to end in the same key in which he had begun.
And so it went: Ives bringing in a movement at a time, Parker ripping it to slireds, Ives grudgingly making cnanges. Ives duly receivedhis degree, but by then he had concluded that to make a living at music would involve impossible compromises, and he settled on a career as an insurance agent. From Ives' bandmaster father came the attitude that "a man could keep his music interest keener, stronger, bigger, and freer if he didn't try to make a living out of it. Assuming that a man lives by himself with no dependents, no one to feed but himself, and is willing to live as simply as Thoreau, he might write music that no one would play prettily, listen to, or buy. But -if he has a wife and some nice children, how can he let his children starve on his dissonances So he has to weaken (and if he is a man should weaken for his children): But his music...more than weakens -it goes tata for money! Bad for him, bad for music!"
Ives made no compromises in the other three symphonies he wrote, and though the First, Second, and Third were performed during his lifetime, the knotty Fourth had to wait a decade longer, and only recently have all four Ives symphonies begun to be seen in perspective, as the record of an American composer finding his own voice in the wilderness.
Even the conservative Parker could have found few faults in the first movement, a symphonic waltz of the type Tchaikovsky had made his own. What is most amazing, from the pen of an avowed musical rebel, is the elegance of the partwriting, the transparency of the orchestration. Formally, too, the movement is exquisitely balanced, never staying too long in one place, and building up to a climax so skillfully integrated into the movement that it nearly surpasses a similar one in Dvorak's New World Symphony, first heard in New York just a year before Ives began work on his First.
Master and pupil wrangled even more over the second movement, which started in the far?away key of Gflat. No problem for Ives, whose father had toughened his ears by making him play hymns with the right hand in one key and the left in another. But in a graduation exercise, this would not do, so Ives replaced his original slow movement with a more conventional one in the politer key of F. Thirty years later, Ives was still grumbling that his original inspiration was better after all, but today, we can marvel at his skill in melodic variation and in orchestration. Particularly telling is the use of the English horn, which he uses just enough to color the movement, not so much that its distinctive voice grows tiresome.
Both Ives' organplaying and his counterpoint lessons with Parker bore fruit in the symphony's Scherzo, in which the voices enter as neatly as in any textbook. The spirit of the waltz hovers here, too, but does not make itself obvious until the trio, which gently recalls the second theme of the opening movement.
There is more reminiscence in the finale, which brings back material from both the first and second movements. If there was any doubt about Ives' ability to control a great musical expanse, it is dispelled here. The movement is both leisurely and purposeful, not a note wasted, and building up to a rousing, marchlike conclusion that must have gladdened the heart of a composer who sneered at the purveyors of parlor music for "Rollo" -Ives' personification of the timid listener with toodelicate ears.
Andre Watts, piano
Andre Watts burst upon the music world at the age of 16 when Leonard Bernstein asked him to substitute at the last minute for the
ailing Glenn Gould in performances of Liszt's Eflat Concerto with the New York Philharmonic. Only two weeks before, he had been chosen by Bernstein to appear in their Young People's Concerts, broadcast nation?wide on CBS. In
the intervening years, Mr. Watts has become one of today's most celebrated and beloved superstars.
Known by millions though his many television appearances, Mr. Watts presented the first fulllength solo recital in television history with his 1976 PBS Sunday afternoon telecast on "Live from Lincoln Center." Other TV appearances include an internationally telecast United Nations Day Performance; BBC presentations with the London Symphony; and performances with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Philadelphia Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, and Indianapolis Symphony. During the 198788 season, PBS broadcast his 25th anniversary concert from Lincoln Center in performances with the New York Philharmonic and Zubin Mehta.
An active recording artist, Mr. Watts has recently completed two solo albums on the EMIAngel label. Other recent discs include two solo albums of Liszt, which won the Grand Prix du Disc Liszt in Europe; and a live record?ing of his 25th Anniversary recital, "Andre Watts at Carnegie Hall."
A muchhonored artist, Mr. Watts is the youngest person ever to receive an honorary doctorate from Yale University. Other awards include the 1984 Peabody Conservatory Distinguished Alumni Award; the 1988 Avery Fisher Award; and induction into the Philadel?phia Music Foundation Hall of Fame.
This evening's concert marks Andre Watts' eighth visit to Ann Arbor since 1969 as he performs in his third May Festival.
University Musical Society
Saturday, May 9, 1992, 8:00 pm Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
NEEME JARVI, conductor CYNTHIA HAYMON, soprano
THOMAS HILBISH, interim director
Symphony No. 6 in D major, Op. 60.............................................DVORAK
Allegro non tanto
Furiant: Presto; Trio: Poco meno mosso
Allegro con spirito
Carmina Burana, Secular Songs for Chorus, Soli, and Orchestra .............ORFF
("Fortune, the Ruler of the World") Prologue: Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi Part I: Primo Vere ("In Springtime")
Uf dem Anger ("On the Green") Part II: In Taberna ( A Sequence of Drinking Songs) Part III: Cour d'Amours ("The Court of Love") Intermezzo: Blanziflor et Helena Epilogue: O Fortuna (reprise)
Cynthia Haymon Craig Estep Kevin McMillan The Festival Chorus Boychoir of Ann Arbor
Die preconcert carillon recital wos performed by Laura Schulz, a student of University Corillonneur Margo Hoisted and a recent
UM graduate in philosophy. Cynthia Haymon is represented by Columbia Artists Management Inc., New York City.
Craig btep is represented by Trawick Artists Management, New York City.
Kevin McMillan is represented by Thea Dispeker Artists' Representative Inc., New York City.
Die Detroit Symphony Orchestra can be heard on Chandos, London, RCA, Columbia, and Mercury Records.
Photographing or toping of DSO concerts is prohibited.
Fortyfourth Concert of the 113th Season Ninetyninth Annual May Festival
Program Notes
By Michael Fleming
Symphony No. 6 in D major, Op. 60
Antonin Dvorak Born September 8, 1841, Helahozeves, Bohemia Died May I, 1904, Prague
Adolf Cech conducted the Prague Philharmonic in the first performance of Dvorak's Symphony in D major on March 25, 1 881. When Fritz Simrock published it later that year in Berlin--it was the first of Dvorak's symphonies to be published-he gave it the opus number 60. The score calls for two flutes (one doubling piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani and strings (duration: 40 minutes).
Fame came late to Antonin Dvorak, and not without opposition. As a Czech composer in the AustroHungarian empire, he was both blessed and cursed: on the one hand, there was a rising tide of Czech nationalism that buoyed up works by native composers; on the other, the power of the press and publishers lay in the Germanspeaking part of the Empire, and Dvorak always had mixed feelings about trimming his music to Germanic tastes.
He was thirtysix when he applied for the fourth time for a stipend from the Ministry of Educa?tion, submitting his Stabat Mater. This time, he was successful, thanks in no little part to the influence of Brahms and of Eduard Hanslick, the music critic for the Neue Freie Presse in Vienna. Writing to announce the award of 600 gulden, Hanslick ended his letter with the advice that "it would be advantageous for your things to become known beyond your narrow Czech fatherland, which in any case does not do much for you."
True as Hanslick's advice was, it was a bitter pill for Dvorak to swallow, and throughout his career, he would struggle to maintain his Czech identity. When his first works were published by Fritz Simrock in Berlin, he insisted that the Czech form of his name, Antonin, appear on the title page. And he persistently turned down commissions to write Germanlanguage operas, which would have given him an instant entree to Vienna. International fame came first from his first set of Slavonic Dances, which the Berlin critic Louis Ehlert proclaimed to be "a work which will make its way around the world," praising the "heavenly naturalness [which] flows through this music." So successful were the Dances, that Simrock was persuaded to publish in addition the Slavonic Rhapsodies, the
Bagatelles, and the Serenade in D minor for winds. By the beginning of 1 879, the Dances had been performed as far away as Boston, and the Rhapsodies soon became as popular.
In November of that year, Dvorak went to Vienna, where the Philharmonic under Hans Richter played the Third Slavonic Rhapsody. It was "very much liked," he reported in a letter to a friend, "and I was obliged to show myself to the audience. I was sitting next to Brahms by the organ in the orchestra, and Richter pulled me out. I had to come. I must tell you that I won the sympathy of the whole orchestra, and of all the novelties they considered, they liked my Rhapsody best."
The next day, Richter invited the members of the orchestra and Dvorak to a banquet to celebrate his success, asking him then and there for a symphony for the Vienna Philharmonic's next season. Dvorak was delighted: though he had written five sympho?nies, none of them had been published. Between August and October, Dvorak finished his symphony, ending it with his customary acclamation, "thanks be to God."
A performance was first planned for the day after Christmas, but there was insufficient rehearsal time, so the premiere was postponed until the following March. Now began a series of excuses from Richter: his mother and two of his children had contracted diphtheria, which had interfered with his work. In fact, the members of the Philharmonic had objected to playing a new work by a Czech composer two seasons in a row. Impatient with Richter's procrastination, Dvorak offered the premiere to Adolf Cech, who led the first performance in Prague on March 25, 1 881. Richter remained a loyal supporter, however, and when the symphony was printed, Dvorak dedicated it to him. A footnote to history: since this was the first of Dvorak's symphonies to be published, it became known as his Symphony No. 1, and as such it was generally known until the earlier symphonies were published, the real First Symphony in C minor having to wait until 1955.
Many writers have found it irresistible to compare the first movement of this symphony to the corresponding one in Brahms' Second, written two years earlier. The two do share th same key, D major; and the same triple meter and an opening theme built on a simple triad. But there, much of the similarity ends. While Brahms begins his Dmajor Symphony with a nod of the cellos and basses, then plunges right into the opening theme, Dvorak indulges in some preliminary deepknee bends, with the theme only gradually taking shape. And there is no confusing the Brahmsian orchestra, with its somber colors, with Dvorak's, which is alive with the sounds of the woodland.
For the second movement, Beethoven is often the point of comparison, specifically the slow movement of his Ninth Symphony. That is a rare compliment, but in fact, Dvorak's Adagio is a much more homely movement, hardly departing from the friendly main theme. Sir Donald Tovey, in his commentary on this symphony (which he knew as Dvorak's First), makes much of the composer's naivete. That is not an inappropriate word to use here, for if Beethoven's slow movements more and more reached toward the heavens, Dvorak's always kept a foot on the ground.
The Scherzo is subtitled "furiant," the first time Dvorak uses this folk dance in his music. The game here is to keep the listener guessing, with a meter that is a merry mixture of twos and threes. At the beginning of the movement, the composer asks the second flutist to set his or her instrument aside for the piccolo. At first, this merely adds spice to the flute line, but in the Trio, it comes into its own, with a sprightly and wideranging melody against the sound of sustained winds ana plucked strings.
The finale has also been subjected to compari?sons with the one in Brahms' Dmajor Sym?phony, and here the parallel is closer, with a quick, hushed opening, moving gradually into full light. In some of his later symphonies, even the New World, Dvorak lost his composure in the finale, but here, he never makes a false step. This movement, Tovey aptly writes, "is a magnificent crown to this noble work, and is admirably endowed with that quality that is rarest of all in postclassical finales, the power of movement."
Many writers have found it irresistible to compare the first movement of this symphony to the corresponding one in Brahms' Second, written two years earlier. The two do share th same key, D major; and the same triple meter and an opening theme built on a simple triad. But there, much of the similarity ends. While Brahms begins his Dmajor Symphony with a nod of the cellos and basses, then plunges right into the opening theme, Dvorak indulges in some preliminary deepknee bends, with the theme only gradually taking shape. And there is no confusing the Brahmsian orchestra, with its somber colors, with Dvorak's, which is alive with the sounds of the woodland.
For the second movement, Beethoven is often the point of comparison, specifically the slow movement of his Ninth Symphony. That is a rare compliment, but in fact, Dvorak's Adagio is a much more homely movement, hardly departing from the friendly main theme. Sir Donald Tovey, in his commentary on this symphony (which he knew as Dvorak's First), makes much of the composer's naivete. That is not an inappropriate word to use here, for if Beethoven's slow movements more and more reached toward the heavens, Dvorak's always kept a foot on the ground.
The Scherzo is subtitled "furiant," the first time Dvorak uses this folk dance in his music. The game here is to keep the listener guessing, with a meter that is a merry mixture of twos and threes. At the beginning of the movement, the composer asks the second flutist to set his or her instrument aside for the piccolo. At first, this merely adds spice to the flute line, but in the Trio, it comes into its own, with a sprightly and wideranging melody against the sound of sustained winds ana plucked strings.
The finale has also been subjected to compari?sons with the one in Brahms' Dmajor Sym?phony, and here the parallel is closer, with a quick, hushed opening, moving gradually into full light. In some of his later symphonies, even the New World, Dvorak lost his composure in the finale, but here, he never makes a false step. This movement, Tovey aptly writes, "is a magnificent crown to this noble work, and is admirably endowed with that quality that is rarest of all in postclassical finales, the power of movement."
Cynthia Haymon, soprano
Since her first major operatic success as Thea Musgrave's Harriet, A Woman Called Moses in the 1985 Virginia Opera world premiere, Cynthia Haymon has made acclaimed operatic debuts at Covent Garden, Glyndebourne, Paris, Venice,
Brussels, Canada, Hamburg, Munich, and across the United States. She recently collabo?rated with Simon Rattle as Bess in Glyndebourne's production of Porgy and Bess, one marked by high public and critical acclaim. This production's EMI recording was
soon released and won a 1990 Grammy Award. Winner of the Most Distinguished New Artist at Santa Fe Opera in 1984, Ms. Haymon created the role of Coretta King in the musical King, opposite Simon Estes, which opened in London's West End in the spring of 1990. She has also appeared with many of the world's finest orchestras and conductors, including the Boston Symphony for the world premiere of Ned Rorem's Swords and Plow?shares. With a discography that includes the role of the Fifth Maid in Elektra under Seiji Ozawa and the Boston Symphony for Philips, Ms. Haymon made her first solo recording this season for Decca's Argo label, featuring art songs by American composers.
Cynthia Haymon, a native of Jacksonville, Florida, and a graduate of Northwestern University, makes her first Ann Arbor appear?ance this evening.
Craig Estep, tenor
As a 1990 Adler Fellow with the San Francisco Opera Center, Craig Estep has a continuing professional relationship with the San Francisco Opera. He made his company debut in the 198990 season as Dr. Caius in Falstaff, and has since
appeared in many other productions. He has also been a guest at the Calgary Opera, Greater Miami Opera, North Carolina Opera, Charleston Opera, South Carolina Opera, Birmingham Civic Opera, Charlotte Opera, and Connecticut Grand Opera. An advocate of new works, Mr. Estep sang the role of Student Arkenholz in the 1990 American premiere of Reimann's Ghost Sonata at the San Francisco Opera Center Showcase. He also appeared as Hal in the 1989 world premiere of Gorden Getty's opera Plump Jack with the Marin Opera, and with the San Francisco Opera he sang the lead role of Noburo in the United States premiere of Henze's Das verratene Meer in November 1991. During the 198889 season Mr. Estep made his Asian debut singing the role of Pinkerton in Madama Butterfly in Japan, a tour made possible by the San Francisco Opera Center's Pacific Rim Exchange Program. He also traveled to mainland China with the San Francisco Opera Center to sing Spoletta in the first production of Tosca ever seen in China. His growing number of orchestral appearances have included those with the San Francisco Sym?phony, Calgary Philharmonic, Phoenix Symphony, Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, and the CBC Vancouver Symphony.
This evening, Craig Estep is heard in his Ann Arbor debut.
Kevin McMillan, baritone
In a few short years, Canadian baritone Kevin McMillan has earned a place among his generation's most respected and admired concert artists. Trained in Canada, Great Britain, and at The Juilliard School of Music, his appearances are
now taking him to the major concert halls or the United States, as well as those in Toronto, Montreal, Paris, Berlin, and London. He has been a guest with such orchestras as the New York Philharmonic, Boston Symphony, National Symphony, Calgary Philharmonic, and Minnesota Orchestra. Mr. McMillan has recorded twice for Decca Records, including Orff's Carmina Burana with the San Francisco Symphony. His first recording, on the Marquis Denson label, featured the music of Vaughan Williams and Britten and was nominated for a Juno award. His next recital album is of selected Lieder by Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Mendelssohn, and Liszt for CBC Enterprises.
Now, Kevin McMillan gives his first performance in Ann Arbor.
Carmina Burana
Carl Orf f Born July 11, 1895, Munich Died March 29,1982, Munich
Carmina Burana was first performed June 8, 1937, at the Stadtische Buhnen in Frankfurt am Main. The score calls for soprano, tenor, and baritone soloists; brief solos by two tenors, baritone, and two basses, small and large chorus, and boys' chorus; and an orchestra comprising three flutes (two doubling piccolo), three oboes (one doubling English horn), two clarinets (one doubling bass clarinet), two bassoons, contrabassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, five large timpani and one small one, celesta, two pianos, three glockenspiels, xylophone, castanets, rattle, jingles, triangles, two antique cymbals, four cymbals (crash and suspended), tamtam, three bells, tubular bells, tambourine, two side drums, bass drum, and strings (duration: 65 minutes).
No less than Respighi, Carl Orff was a devotee of early music, though his increasing interest in its purely theatrical side invariably led him in a different direction. One intriguing point of contact between the two: in 1925, ten years before Respighi undertook a similar task, Orff arranged Monteverdi's Orfeo for modern performance. He had done similar work for the Lamento d'Arianna and the 8ao delle ingrate, so both the spirit and the repertoire of the Italian Baroque were at least as familiar to him as to Respighi.
Where they parted company was in Orff's insistence on a total work of art, in which scenery and movement would play crucial roles, and music would be only one element among many. During the 1930s, he had followed closely the work of such dancers as Mary Wigman, and by the time he wrote Carmina Burana, in 1935 and 1936, he had become convinced that "the theater is the only place where words, music and gesture can make their full impact. I have never been concerned with music as such, but rather with music as 'spiritual discussion.' I think in terms of musical 'gestures' rather than in abstractions."
Those words might serve as an introduction to Carmina Burana, which he considered the beginning of his mature work, writing to his publisher that everything he had written before that might as well be destroyed. The texts of the Carmina, written in Medieval Latin, Middle High German, and Old French, come from a thirteenthentury manuscript discovered in
1 803 in the monastery of Benediktbeuren, hence the title Carmina Burana: "Songs of Beuren." The manuscript was first published in 1 847, but scholars could not, and for the most part, still cannot, read the musical notation. The neums that accompany the text -descendants of the accent marks in late Greek -indicate the rise and fall of the melody, but not its precise pitches. Modern performermusicologists have exercised great ingenuity in reconstructing the melodies, relying in part on other copies in more precise notation, in part, on pure guesswork. Anyone who cares to hear what these songs may have sounded like to a thirteenthcentury listener can do no better than seek out the recordings of the Studio der fruhen Musik, a group coincidentally based at one time in Orff's own city of Munich.
Not a note of the original music has found its way into Orff's score. Rather, he has con?cocted imaginary medieval music, as it might sound to a twentiethcentury listener. The orchestra, too, is his own creation, with strings reduced to a subsidiary role, winds only slightly more prominent, and a massive percussion battery powerfully underlining the beat and coloring the score.
The most famous parts of Carmina Burana are the massive choruses, with their chugging rhythm, such as the paean to Fortune that opens and closes the work. But there are other styles to be savored: the broad parody of liturgical chant in the song of the Abbot of Cucany; and the timeless lyricism of much of the music from the "courtly love" section. Ironically, this wholly modern recreation of the Middle Ages has had a more enduring life than Respighi's somewhat more literal tran?scriptions from the Renaissance and Baroque. If there is any lesson there, it is one that the wandering studentpoets who wrote the Carmina would have endorsed: if you sin, sin boldly.
Part I celebrates the glories of spring, and is divided into two subsections. The first, Primo vere ("In Springtime"), comprises three songs welcoming the season; the second, Ufdem Anger ("On the Green"), begins with a rumbustious Dance, the only piece without voices in the entire work, and continues with four increasingly lusty choral songs.
Part II, In Tabema, is a sequence of drinking songs for the two male soloists and male chorus. Most striking here are the plaint of a roasting swan (tenor, falsetto) and the song of the Abbot of Cucany, a parody of Gregorian chant for the baritone and chorus.
Part III, Cow a"Amours ("The Court of Love") is an intoxicating glorification of youth and pleasure, rewarding the solo soprano for her patience through the preceding sections with some stunning (and challenging) opportunities for display. If the rollicking and insinuating Tempus est jocundum (in which the baritone and the boys have the most fun) is the single most ingratiating portion of the score, the soprano's Dulcissime, which follows to conclude Part III, is surely the most brilliant.
Blanziflor et Helena follows Part III as a brief intermezzo, leading to a reprise of the opening O Fortuna as epilogue.
O Fortuna
O Fortuna,
velut Luna,
statu variabilis,
semper crescis
aut decrescis;
vita detestabilis
nunc obdurat
et tune curat
ludo mentis aciem,
dissolvit ut glaciem.
Sors immanis
et inanis,
rota tu volubilis,
status malus,
vana salus
semper dissolubilis,
et velata
michi quoque niteris;
nunc per ludum
dorsum nudum
feri tui sceleris.
Sors salutis
et virtutis
michi nunc contraria
est affectus
et defectus
semper in angaria.
Hac in hora
sine mora
corde pulsum tangite;
quod per sortem
stern it fortem
mecum omnes plangite!
Fortune plango vulnera
Fortune plango vulnera stillantibus ocellis, quod sua michi munera subtrahit rebellis. Verum est, quod legitur fronte capillata, sed plerumque sequitur occasio calvata. In Fortune solio sederam elatus, prospehtatis vario flore coronatus; quicquid enim florui felix et beatus, nunc a summo corrui gloria privatus.
Fortune, the Ruler of the World
O Fortune
0 Fortune, like the moon changing shape, you constantly wax or wane;
a hateful life
weighs us down
and then cures us,
making a game of our thoughts,
and power
she dissolves like snow.
Fate both fearsome
and empty,
you are a turning wheel.
and vain happiness
are both dissolved.
Covered in clouds
and veiled,
you threaten me;
Now by chance
my bare back
is turned to your wickedness.
Good fortune
and virtue
are now turned from me.
and defeat
are always at your service.
Right now,
without delay,
pluck the string;
since by fate
the strong man is overthrown,
weep with me, all of you!
1 bewail the wounds of fortune
with brimming eyes,
for the rebellious one
has taken her gifts from me.
It is true that one reads
with a full head of hair,
but then by chance
you turn bald.
On Fortune's seat
I was lifted up,
crowned with the blossoms
of prosperity.
But though I bloomed,
happy and blessed,
now I am struck down from on high
deprived of glory.
The wheel of fortune turns;
Fortune rota volvitur: descendo minoratus; alter in altum toltitur; nimis exaltatus rex sedet in vertice -caveat ruinam! nam sub axe legimus Hecubam reginam.
Veris leta facies
Veris leta facies mundo propinatur hiemalis acies victa iam fugatur, in vestitu vario Flora principatur, nemorum dulcisono que cantu celebratur. Flore fusus gremio Phebus novo more risum dat, hoc vario iam stipatur flore Zephyrus nectareo spirans in odore; certatim pro bravio curramus in amore. Cytharizat cantico dulcis Philomena, flore ridet vario prata iam serena, salit cetus avium silve per amena, chorus promit virginum iam gaudia millena.
Omnia Sol temperat
Omnia Sol temperat purus et subtilis, novo mundo reserat facies Aprilis, ad amorem properat animus herilis, et iocundis imperat deus puerilis. Rerum tanta novitas in solemni vere et veris auctoritas iubet nos gaudere; vias prebet solitas, et in tuo vere fides est et probitas tuum retinere. Ama me fideliter! fidem meam nota: de corde totaliter et ex mente tota sum presentialiter
I fall down, abased.
Another is raised up.
Greatly exalted
the king sits at the top --
let him beware of ruin!
For beneath the axle we see
Queen Hecuba.
The Joyful Face of Spring
The joyful face of spring
is presented to the world;
winter's forces
flee in defeat.
In colorful garments,
Flora reigns,
and with the sweet song of the woodlands
she is celebrated.
Reclining on Flora's bosom
Phoebus smiles again,
and he is attended by flowers of every
Zephyrus, breathing
the scented fragrance.
Striving for the prize,
let us hurry to love.
Sweet Philomel
sings her sweet song.
The field smiles,
serene in her flowers.
A pleasant flock of birds
rises from the woods.
The chorus of maidens
brings a thousand joys.
The Sun Tempers All Things
The sun tempers all things pure and subtle. In a new world, April reveals her face. The mistress' spirit hurries to love, and the boygod rules over the joyful. Such great renewal of things at spring's solemnity and spring's authority bid us be joyful.
Spring offers our accustomed paths and in your springtime there is faithfulness and honor in keeping one's lover. Love me faithfully, note my own faithfulness. With my whole heart and whole mind I am with you
presents SAMUEL WONG, Music Director Designate
"Wong directed with clarity, confidence and passion."
The Washington Post
" always like Mr. Wong's work--in Beethoven, Berlioz, whatever."
The New Yorker
"In an age of musical hucksterism, it is refreshing to encounter a musician of his seriousness."
The Toronto Star
"His baton work and graceful platform manner seemed aimed at allowing the musicians freedom to do their best..."
The New York Times
"Life is not a dress rehearsal; it's a performance. And there's only one performance. Conducting is exactly what I want to do."
Samuel Wong
The Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra cordially invites May Festival Patrons to join us as a new era of musical excitement begins with the debut of Dr. Samuel Wong.
Call 9944801 for information.
absens in remofa. quisquis amat taliter, volvitur in rota.
Ecce gratum
Ecce gratum
et optatum
Ver reducit gaudia,
floret pratum,
Sol serenat omnia,
iamiam cedant tristia!
Estas redit,
nunc recedit
Hyemis sevitia.
lam liquescit
et descrescit
grando, nix et cetera,
bruma fugit,
et iam sugit
Ver Estatis ubera;
illi mens est misera,
qui nee vivit
nee lascivit
sub Estatis dextera.
te letantur
in melle dulcedinis
qui conantur,
ut utantur
premio Cupidinis;
simus jussu Cypridis
et letantes
pares esse Paridis.
Floret silva nobilis
Floret silva nobilis
floribus et follis.
Ubi et antiquus
meus amicus
hinc equitavit.
eia, quis me amabit
Floret silva undique.
nach mime gesellen ist mir we.
Gruonet der wait allenthalben
wa ist min geselle alse lange
der ist geriten hinnen,
owi, wer sol mich minnen
even when I am far away. Whoever loves so is turned on the wheel.
Behold Pleasant Spring
Behold pleasant
and longawaited spring,
which brings back pleasures
and with purple flowers
decks the fields.
The sun makes all peaceful,
let sadness depart.
Summer comes,
and now flees
the winter's harshness.
Now melts and decreases
hail, ice and snow.
The mist flees,
and now spring
suckles at the breasts of
He is troubled at heart
who does not live and
in the embrace of summer.
They rejoice
and take pleasure in you,
in your honeyed sweetness --
those who seek
and take advantage of
Cupid's prize;
At Venus' command,
let us rejoice
and take our pleasure,
equals to Paris.
On the Green
The Noble Forest Blooms
The noble forest blooms with blossoms and leaves. Where shall I find my former lover He has ridden away. Alas, who shall love me. (The second verse repeats the first, in German)
Chramer, gip die varwe mir
Chramer, gip die varwe mir,
die min wengel roete,
damit ich die jungen man
an ir dank der minnenliebe noete.
Seht mich an,
jungen man!
lat mich iu gevallen!
Minnet, tugentliche man,
minnecliche frouwen!
minne tuot ih hoch gemuot
unde lat iuch in hohlen eren schouwen
Seht mich an,
jungen man!
lat mich iu gevallen!
Wol dir, werlt, das du bist
also freudenriche!
ich wil dir sin undertan
durch din liebe simmer sicherliche.
Seht mich an, jungen man!
lat mich iu gevallen!
Swaz hie gat umbe
Swaz hie gat umbe
daz sint allez megede,
die wellent an man
alle disen sumer gan.
Chume, chum geselle min
Chume, chum geselle min,
ih enbite harte din,
ih enbite harte din,
chume, chum geselle min.
Suzer roservarwer munt,
chum unde mache mich gesunt,
chum unde mache mich gesunt,
suzer rosenvarwer munt.
Swaz hie gat umbe
Swaz hie gat umbe
daz sint allez megede,
die wellent an man
alle disen sumer gan.
Were diu werlt alle min
Were diu welt alle min
von dem mere unze an den Rin,
des wolt ih mih darben,
daz diu chunegin von Engellant
lege an minen armen.
Estuans interius
Estuans interius ira vehement!
Merchant, Give me my Makeup
Merchant, give me my makeup
to redden my cheeks,
so that I can make the young men
fall in love with me.
Look at me,
young men.
Let me please you!
0 you virtuous men, love us worthy women. Love raises your spirits,
and makes you look radiant.
Look at me,
young men.
Let me please you!
Hail to you, O world,
so full of joy!
1 will be in your debt for your kindness. Look at me,
young men.
Let me please you!
Round Dance
Those who are circling around are all young maidens. They will be without a man all summer long. Come, come, my companion, I long for you so deeply, I long for you so deeply, come, come, my companion. Sweet, rosy lips, come and make me well, come and make me well, sweet, rosy lips. Those who are circling around are all young maidens. They will be without a man all summer long.
If all the World Were Mine
If all the world were mine from the sea to the Rhine, I would let it all go, if the queen of England lay in my arms.
II. In the Tavern 11.
Burning inside
Burning inside with a raging anger
in amaritudine loquor mee menti: factus de materia, cinis elementi similis sum folio, de quo ludunt venti. Cum sit enim proprium viro sapienti supra petram ponere sedem fundamenti, stultus ego comparor fluvio labenti sub eodem tramite nunquam permanent!. Feror ego veluti sine nauta navis, ut per vias aeris vaga fertur avis; non me tenent vincula, non me tenet clavis, quero mihi similes, et aniungor pravis. Mihi cordis gravitas res videtur gravis; iocus est amabilis dulciorque favis; quicquid Venus imperat, labor est suavis, que nunquam in cordibus habitat ignavis. Via lata gradior more iuventutis, inplicor et vitiis immemor virtutis, voluptatis avidus magis quam salutis, mortuus in anima curam gero cutis.
Olim lacus colueram
Olim lacus colueram,
olim pulcher extiteram
dum cignus ego fueram.
Miser, miser!
modo niger
et ustus Fortiter!
Girat, regirat garcifer;
me rogus urit Jortiter:
propinat me nunc dapifer,
Miser, miser!
modo niger
et ustus fortiter!
Nunc in scutella iaceo,
et volitare nequeo,
dentes fredentes video:
Miser, miser!
modo niger
et ustus fortiter!
in bitterness
I talk to myself:
made of the material
of elemental dust
I am like a leaf
blown by the winds.
Though it is proper
for a wise man
to build his foundation
on a rock,
I am a fool,
like a wandering river
never staying
in the same path.
I am carried along
like a ship without a sail,
as a migratory bird is carried
through the sky;
no chains bind me,
no key locks me in,
I seek those like me
and join the depraved.
To me the burdens of my heart
seem a grave matter;
a joke is pleasant
and sweeter than the honeycomb;
whatever Venus commands,
her work is a delight
and she never dwells
in listless hearts.
I move along the broad path
in the way of youth,
and I am tangled up in vices
heedless of virtue,
eager for pleasure
more than for salvation,
dead in soul
I take care of my body.
Once, I dwelt in the lake
Once, I dwelt in the lake,
then I was beautiful
when I was a swan.
Wretched, wretched!
Now charred
and roasted to a cinder.
The spitboy turns and turns me,
the pyre burns me through;
and the waiter carries me in.
Wretched, wretched!
Now charred
and roasted to a cinder.
Now I lie on the platter
and cannot fly,
I see the gnashing of teeth.
Wretched, wretched.
Now charred
and roasted to a cinder.
Ego sum abbas
Ego sum abbas Cucaniensis et consilium meum est cum bibulis, et is secta Decii voluntas mea est, et qui mane me quesierit in taberna, post vesperam nudus egredietur, et sic denudatus veste clamabit: Wafna, wafnal Nostre vite gaudia abstulit omnia!
In taberna quando sumus
In taberna quando sumus, non curamus quid sit humus, sed ad ludum properamus, cui semper insudamus. Quid agatur in taberna, ubi nummus est pincerna, hoc est opus ut queratur, si quid loquar, audiatur. Quidam ludunt, quidam bibunt, quidam indiscrete vivunt. Sed in ludo qui morantur, ex his quidam denudantur, quidam ibi vestiuntur,
Juidam saccis induuntur. i nullus timet mortem, sed pro Bacho mittunt sortem. Primo pro nummata vini; ex hanc bibunt libertini, semel bibunt pro captivis, post hec bibunt ter pro vivis, quater pro Christianis cunctis, quinquies pro fidelibus defunctis, sexies pro sororibus vanis, septies pro militibus silvanis. Octies pro katribus perversis, nonies pro monachis dispersis, decies pro navigantibus, undecies pro penitentibus, tredecies pro Her angentibus. Tarn pro papa quam pro rege bibunt omnes sine lege. Bibit hera, bibit herus, biti miles, bibit clerus, bibit ille, bibit ilia, bibit servus cum ancilla, bibit velox, bibit piger, bibit albus, bibit niger, bibit constans, bibit vagus, bibit rudus, bibit magus. Bibit pauper et egrotus, bibit exul et ignotus, bibit puer, bibit canus, bibit presul et decanus, bibit soro, bibit hater, bibit anus, bibit mater, bibet ista, bibet ille,
I am the Abbot of Cucany
I am the Abbot of Cucany
and my council is with drinkers,
and my pleasure is in the sect of Decius,
and if someone comes looking for me
in the tavern in the morning,
he will leave naked by evening, and thus
stripped of his garments, he will cry:
Wafna, wafna! What has miserable fate done
to me It has taken away all life's pleasures.
In the Tavern
When we are in the tavern
we don't care about the grave
but we hasten to our games
over which we sweat.
What happens in the taverns,
where a coin brings a drink,
here is what you want to hear:
when I tell you, listen.
Some gamble, some drink,
some live indiscreetly.
But of those who stay in the game,
some will be stripped naked,
some get dressed here,
some put on sackcloth.
Here, none fears death,
but casts lots for wine.
First they throw for the price of a glass,
this the libertines drink.
Once they drink for the prisoners,
after this, they drink three times for the living,
four times for all Christians,
five for the faithful departed,
six times for the vain nuns,
seven times for the woodland soldiers.
Eight times for the delinquent brethren,
nine times for dispersed monks,
ten times for the sailors,
eleven for those in battle,
twelve for the penitent,
thirteen for travelers.
Then for the pope and the king,
they all drink without restraint.
The mistress drinks, and the master,
the soldier drinks, and the clerk,
the man drinks, and the woman,
the servant drinks, and the maid,
quick or lazy, they both drink,
white and black, they drink,
the steady man drinks, and the tipsy one,
the yokel and the sage.
The poor man drinks, and the sick one,
the exile and the unknown,
the boy and the old man,
the bisnop and the dean,
the sister drinks, and the brother,
the old crone and the mother,
bibunt centum, bibunt mille. Parum sexcente nummate durant cum immoderate bibunt omnes sine meta. Quamvis bibant mente eta; sic nos rodunt omnes gentes, et sic erimus egentes. Qui nos rodunt confundantur et cum iustis non scribantur.
Amor volat undique
Amor volat undique, captus est libidine. luvenes, iuvencule coniunguntur merito. Siqua since socio, caret ommi gaudio, tenent noctis infima sub intimo cordis in custodia: fit res amarissima.
Dies, nox et omnia
Dies, nox et omnia mihi sunt contraria, virginum colloquia me fay planszer, oy suvenez suspirer, plu me fay temer. O sodales, ludite, vos qui scitis dicite, michi mesto parcite, grand ey dolur, attamen consulite per voster honur. Tua pulchra fades, me fey planszer milies, pectus nabens glacies, a remenders tatim vivus fierem per un baser.
St et it puella
Stetit puella
rufa tunica;
si quis earn tetigit,
tunica crepuit.
Stetit puella,
tamquam rosula;
facie splenduit,
os eius floruit.
this one drinks, that one drinks,
a hundred drink, a thousand drink.
Six hundred coins don't last long
when they drink themselves silly
and without stopping.
Although they drink with a merry heart,
everyone criticizes us,
and thus we are poor.
Let our critics be confounded
and stricken from the book of the just.
III. The Court of Love 15.
Love flies everywhere
Love flies everywhere,
and is seized by desire.
Young men and women
properly come together.
If anyone is without a companion,
she has no fun.
Deepest night
inside he holds her heart captive:
a bitter thing.
Night, day, and everything
Night, day, and everything
is against me,
girls' talk
makes me weep,
I often hear sighing
and it makes me more afraid.
O friends, be merry,
tell whatever you know,
but have mercy on me, a wretch,
in great sorrow.
But give me counsel
for your honor.
Your lovely face
makes me weep a thousand tears.
Your heart is ice;
it must be changed.
At once I would come to life
with a kiss.
There stood a girl
There stood a girl
in a red tunic;
if anyone touched her,
the tunic rustled.
There stood a girl
like a rosebud,
her face glowed
and her mouth flowered.
Circa me pectora
Circa mea pectora multa sunt suspiria de tua pulchritudine, que me ledunt misere. Manda liet, manda liet, min geselle chumet niet. Tui lucent oculi sicut solis radii, sicut splendor fulguris lucem donat tenebris. Manda liet, manda liet, min geselle chumet niet. Vellet deus, vellent dii, quod mente proposui, ut eius virginea reserassem vincula. Manda liet, manda liet, min geselle chumet niet.
Si puer cum puellula
Si puer cum puellula moraretur in cellula, felix coniunctio. Amore sucrescente, pariter e medio propulso procul tedio, fit ludus ineffabilis membris, lacertis, labiis.
Veni, veni, venias
Veni, veni, venias, ne me mori facias, hyrca, hyrca, nazaza, Trillirivos . . . Pulchra tibi fades, oculorum acies, capillorum series, o quam clara species! Rosa rubicundior, lilio candidior, omnibus formosior, semper in te gloriorl
In trutina
In trutina mentis dubia
fluctuant contraria
lascivus amor et pudicitia.
Sed eligo quod viedo,
collum iugo prebeo;
ad iugum tamen suave transeo.
In my heart
are many sighs
for your beauty,
and these sighs
wound me sorely.
Manda liet,
manda liet,
my sweetheart
does not come.
Your eyes shine
like the rays of the sun,
like the splendor of lightning,
they illuminate the darkness.
Manda liet,
manda liet,
my companion
does not come.
May God grant, all the gods,
what I have in mind:
to undo the chains
of her virginity.
Manda liet,
manda liet,
my companion
does not come.
If a boy and a girl
If a boy and a girl
linger in a little room,
this is a happy union.
Love increases,
and from their midst,
boredom is driven away,
there is unspeakable pleasure
for their limbs, their arms, their lips.
Come, come, oh come
Come, come, oh come, don't let me die, hyrca, hyrca nazaza, trillirivos. . . Your face is beautiful, the glint of your eyes, the plaits of your hair,
0 how beautiful you are! Ruddier than a rose, fairer than a lily,
more beautiful than any other,
1 shall always glory in you!
In the Balance
In the balance of my doubtful heart
contraries pull back and forth:
earthly love and chastity.
But I choose what I see,
I bend my neck to the yoke:
to the yoke that is, after all, so sweet.
Tempus est iocundum
Tempus est iocundum, o virgines, modo congaudete vos iuvenes. Oh -oh, totus floreo, iam amore virginali totus ardeo, novus, novus amor est, quo pereo. Mea me confortat promissio, mea me deport atnegatio. Oh -oh, totus floreo, iam amore virginali totus ardeo, novus, novus amor est, quo pereo. Tempore brumali vir patiens, animo vernali lasciviens. Oh -oh, totus floreo, iam amore virginali totus ardeo, novus, novus amor est, quo pereo. Me mecum ludit virginitas, mea me detrudit simplicitas. Oh -oh, totus floreo, iam amore virginali totus ardeo, novus, novus amor est, quo pereo. Veni, domicella, cum gaudio, veni, veni, pulchra, iam pereo. Oh -oh, totus floreo, iam amore virginali totus ardeo, novus, novus amor est, quo pereo.
totam tibi subdo me!
The Season is Pleasant
The season is pleasant,
0 maidens,
now rejoice together, you young men. Oh -oh,
1 am bursting into bloom, I am burning
with youthful love,
in a new, new love
I perish.
When she yields,
she comforts me.
But when she refuses,
she banishes me.
Oh -oh,
I am bursting into bloom,
I am burning
with youthful love,
in a new, new love
I perish.
In winter time
a man is patient,
but in spring,
his heart is lusty.
Oh -oh,
I am bursting into bloom,
I am burning
with youthful love,
in a new, new love
I perish.
My virginity
plays games with me,
but by simplicity
restrains me.
Oh -oh,
I am bursting into bloom,
I am burning
with youthful love,
in a new, new love
I perish.
Come, my darling,
with pleasure,
come, come, my fair one,
I am perishing.
I am bursting into bloom,
I am burning
with youthful love,
in a new, new love
I perish.
O sweetest one
0 sweetest one,
1 give my all to you.
Ave formosissima
Ave formosissima, gemma pretiosa, ave decus virginum, virgo gloriosa, ave mundi luminar ave mundi rosa, Blanziflor et Helena, Venus generosa.
O Fortuna
O Fortuna,
velut Luna,
statu variabilis,
semper crescis
aut decrescis;
vita detestabilis
nunc obdurat
et tune curat
ludo mentis aciem,
dissolvit ut glaciem.
Sors immanis
et inanis,
rota tu volubilis,
status malus,
vana salus
semper dissolubilis,
et velata
michi quoque niteris;
nunc per ludum
dorsum nudum
feri tui sceleris.
Sors salutis
et virtutis
michi nunc contraria
est affectus
et defectus
semper in angaria.
Hac in hora
sine mora
corde pulsum tangite;
quod per sortem
sternit fortem
mecum omnes plangite!
Blanchefleur and Helen 24.
Hail, most lovely
Hail, most lovely, precious gem, nail, the pride of virgins, the glorious virgin, hail, light of the world, hail, rose of the world. Blanchefleur and Helen, noble Venus, hail.
Fortune, the Ruler of the World 25.
O Fortune
O Fortune,
like the moon
changing shape,
you constantly wax
or wane;
a hateful life
weighs us down
and then cures us,
making a game of our thoughts,
and power
she dissolves like snow.
Fate both fearsome
and empty,
you are a turning wheel.
and vain happiness
are both dissolved.
Covered in clouds
and veiled,
you threaten me;
Now by chance
my bare back
is turned to your wickedness.
Good fortune
and virtue
are now turned from me.
and defeat
are always at your service.
Right now,
without delay,
pluck the string;
since by fate
the strong man is overthrown,
weep with me, all of you!
Thomas Hilbish
Professor Emeritus of Music and Director Emeritus of University Choirs at the University of Michigan, Thomas Hilbish is also serving as
interim director of The Festival Chorus and the University Choral Union. Throughout his career, he has established himself as one of America's leading conductors of choral music. After earning degrees at the University of Miami and Westminster Choir
College, Professor Hilbish spent 16 years as supervisor of music at the Princeton Public Schools before joining the UM School of Music faculty in 1965. There, he formed the Univer?sity or Michigan Chamber Choir, which became internationally recognized for its excellence as it toured through Italy, the Soviet Union, Spain, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. The Chamber Choir made several recordings, one of which -Menotti's The Unicorn, the Gorgan, and the Manticore -received a Grammy nomination in 1981.
Professor Hilbish has prepared choirs for many distinguished conductors, including Robert Shaw, Thomas Schippers, Leonard Bernstein, Kurt Masur, and tonight for Neeme Jarvi. He was selected on three occasions to conduct the United States University Chorus (drawn from ten universities) at Washington's Kennedy Center and New York's Lincoln Center for the International Choral Festival. Through the years, he has served as visiting lecturer in conducting at Indiana University, Western Michigan University, University of Wisconsin, Westminster Choir College, Princeton and Harvard Universities, Florida State University, University of California Los Angeles, and the University of Southern California.
Time magazine recognized Professor Hilbish for his skillful and authoritative conducting of difficult contemporary works, naming those by Stravinsky, Webern, and Schoenberg. This year, he adds Carl Orff's Carmina Burana to that list.
The Festival Chorus
Since its debut in the spring of 1970, The Festival Chorus has performed annually with distinguished orchestras and conductors from around the world. In addition to these perfor?mances in Ann Arbor, the Chorus has traveled abroad for three concert tours -to Europe in the 1976 bicentennial year, to Egypt in 1979, and to Spain in 1982.
In addition to its annual May Festival appear?ances and other performances with worldfamous visiting orchestras and conductors, The Festival Chorus has presented, numerous special concerts. Among them are Founders Day concerts, concerts of Schubert's songs and his Mass in Aflat, American folk songs and spirituals, and special oratorio concerts of Handel's Israel in Egypt and Judas Maccabaeus. Chorus members also partici?pated in the Tribute Concert salute to Donald Bryant in January 1990 and last year collabo?rated with the Ann Arbor Cantata Singers and the Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra under Carl St. Clair to present Maurice Durufle's "Re?quiem."
This evening's performance of Carmina Burana is the last or four given by the Detroit Sym?phony Orchestra and The Festival Chorus; the previous three took place last weekend in Detroit's Orchestra Hall.
The longestablished choral tradition of the University Musical Society goes back to 1879, when a group of local church choir members gathered to sing choruses of Messiah. Soon after the first concert of the Choral Union (as the group was named) on December 16, 1 879, the University Musical Society came into being on February 24, 1880. Continuing this centuryold spirit of community collaboration, chorus membership remains open to all by audition, resulting in a mixture of townspeople, students, and faculty with a common love or music and singing.
The Festival Chorus
First Sopranos
Joan M. Bell Cheryl BrownWest Ann Burke Letitia J. Byrd MatyEllen Cain Susan Campbell Young S. Cho Elaine Cox Marie Davis Kathryn Foster Elliott Katherine Gardner Lori Kathleen Gould Julie A. Jacobs Doreen Jessen Carolyn Leyh Nancy Lodwick Kim Mackenzie Beth Macnee Amy K. McGee Christine Mclntyre Margaret Nesse llannette Patrice Carole Lynch Pennington Sara J. Peth Sarah Pollard Karwyn Rigan JoAnne Ripley Kelly Ripley Alice M. Schneider Laurene E. Schuman Virginia Smith Susan E. Topol Margaret Warrick Linda Kaye Woodman Susan Wortmon
Second Sopranos
Debra Joy Allen Lynne de Benedette Patricia Hackney Kathleen M.Higley Karen L. Keip Stephanie Kosarin Ann Kathryn Kuelbs Judy Lehmann Loretto Lovalvo Marilyn Meeker Kalherine M. Metres Nancy Rae Morehead
Interim Conductor
Rehearsal Accompanist
Assistant Conductor
Conductor Emeritus
Audrey C. Murray
Ann O'Beoy
Virginia Reese
Marion Robinson
Kay Stefonski
Sue Ellen Straub
Patricia Tompkins
Jean Marion Urquhart
(atberine Wadhams
Barbara Hertz Wallgren
Brendo Walls
Dr. Rachelle B. Warren Charlotte
Charlotte Wolfe
First Altos
Morgo Angelini Martha Ause Leslie Austin Carol A. Beardmore Lubomyra Chapelsky Leemoy Chen Laura Clausen Mary C. Crichton Deborah A. Dowson Anna Egert Anne Facione Russell Marilyn Finkbeiner Andrea Foote Martha Friedlonder Ruth Gewanter Jacqueline Hinckley Nancy Houk Jean Huneke Carol Hurwitz Gretchen Jackson Nancy Karp
Carolyn King Lisa lavoKellor Carrie O'Neill Marianne Page Sara Ryan Ccrren Sandoll Jari Smith Joan Stahman Anna Vakil Jane Van Bolt Marianne Webster Amy White Ann F. Woodward
Second Altos
Anne Lampman Abbrecht Morjorie Boird Anne Dovis Siri Gottlieb Laura Graedel Mary E. Haab Nancy Heaton Carol Kraemer Hohnke Dana Hull Wendy Jerome Loree Kallay Katherine Klykylo Sally Kope Patricia Kowolski Elsie W. Lovelace Frances Lyman Cheryl Melby MacKrell Patricia Kaiser McCloud Anna Millard Lois P. Nelson Anne Ormand Julie Ann Ritter
Carol Ann Rosemon Cynthia J. Sorensen Patricia Steiss
First Tenors
John Ballboch Charles Cowley Father Timothy Dombrowski Bob Douglas James Frenza Marshall J. Grimm Arthur Gulick, M.D. Alfred 0. Hero Forrest G. Hooper Thomas Jameson Joseph Kubis Robert K. MacGregor Helen F.Welford
Second Tenors
Steve M. Billcheck
JohnW.Etsweiler.lll Carl T. Gies Albert P. Girod, Jr. Ted Helley Thomas Hmoy Henry Johnson Martin G. Kope Jason Moraleda David M. Rumford Henry Schuman Carl R. Smith Vince Zuellig
First Basses
John R. Alexander Chris Borllell Ronald C. Bishop Dean Bodley Michael Brand John M.Brueger Wah Keung Chan John J. Dryden C. William Ferguson David A. Jaeger Lawrence L. Lohr Charles Lovelace John MacKrell Robert A. Markley Joseph D.McCadden John McGowon Sol Metz Tom Morrow Mark Nelson John Gordon Ogden William Ribbens David Sandusky James C. Schneider Jeff Spindler
Second Basses
James David Anderson Howard Bond Kee Man Chang Don Faber Philip Gorman Howard Grodman Donald L. Howorth Geoffrey Henderson Charles! Hudson Steven D.Jones Donald Kenney Charles F. Lehmann William P. McAdoo W. Bruce McCuaig Gerald Miller Raymond 0. Sihankin Marshall Schuster William Shannon Robert Stowski Robert D. Strozier Terril 0. Tompkins John Van Bolt
Thomas Strode
Dr. Thomas Strode, founder and director of the Boychoir of Ann Arbor, has been active in the training of children's voices for several years. He is organist, choirmaster, and music director at St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in Ann Arbor,
posts he has held since 1977. He received a Doctor of Musical Arts degree from the University of Michigan in 1981, under Dr. Marilyn Mason, and holds the Associateship Certificate of the American Guild of Organists. Dr. Strode is active in the Association of Anglican Musicians, and has given organ recitals in Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, England, and Spain. In addition, he directs the SixthEighth Grade Chorus at the Rudolph Steiher School of Ann Arbor.
Boychoir of Ann Arbor
Thomas Strode, conductor
Dane Beebe George Blevins Thomas Cavnar William Cederquist Christopher Cochran Nathanael Custer Sean Duffy Christopher Eaglin Daniel Ebeling Zachary Evans Michael Freese Christopher French David Griffith Brendan Held Peler Heydlauff Chad Huard Benjamin Landes Joshua Leckrone
Stefan Lennon Ryan Liddiard Andrew Mead Jon Ophoff Andrew Pomerville Mark Repasky Jason Rogers Jake Rollefson Tristan Stani Quinn Slrassel Charles Sutherland Kevin TolinScheper Jonas TraxlerBallew Matthew Tuckey Joseph Tyler Peter WilsonTobin Timothy Winter Ian Wolff
The Boychoir of Ann Arbor
The Boychoir of Ann Arbor began in 1986 as a special project: to provide a boys' chorus for the production of Bernstein's "Mass" in January 1987; Dr. Thomas Strode formed the choir with this immediate goal in mind. But beyond that was the broader goal to create opportunities for musically gifted boys to become part of the 1,000yearold boychoir tradition. The choir performs music of the highest caliber and covers all periods of music. They have pre?sented concerts in "The Cathedral Tradition," concerts of Christmas music, and Viennese Masses of Schubert and Mozart, as well as performing in concerts with the Ann Arbor Symphony and with the Pittsburgh Symphony in the 1988 May Festival.
The Boychoir of Ann Arbor began its current season last October with a "Choral Evensong," a celebration of the Feast of All Saints that reflected the cathedral repertoire heard in the great cathedrals and colleges of England. Most recently was their "Welcome to Spring" concert on March 22 that included a wide variety of selections: romantic songs by Schubert and Brahms, specially arranged American folk songs, and music of Marcello, Faure, Couperin, George Dyson, and James Nares.
Future plans for the choir include touring in the Midwest and a Michigan Boychoir Festival in June of 1993 with boychoirs from Grand Rapids and Battle Creek. The Boychoir of Ann Arbor now makes its third appearance for the University Musical Society.
1 9 9 293
114th Annual Choral Union Series
One of the Country's Oldest and Most Respected Great Performance Series
Midori, violinist Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra
Dmitri Kitaenko, conductor
Cho Liang Lin, violinist Kirov Orchestra of St. Petersburg
Valery Gergiev, conductor
Vladimir Feltsman, pianist Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
Vladimir Ashkenazy, conductor
Mstislav Rostropovich, cellist Vienna Chamber Orchestra
Philippe Entremont, conductor
and pianist
Horacio Gutierrez, pianist Orchestra of St. Luke's
Roger Norrington, conductor
Arleen Auger, soprano Cecilia Bartoli, mezzosoprano Detroit Symphony Orchestra
University Choral Union
and Soloists
David Zinman, conductor
Verdi's "Manzoni" Requiem
30th Annual Chamber Arts Series
Emerson String Quartet and
David Shifrin, guest clarinetist Chanticleer Arditti String Quartet and
Ursula Oppens, guest pianist Tokyo String Quartet Leipzig Chamber Orchestra Endellion String Quartet Chicago Symphony Winds Venneer String Quartet
Special Concert
Available now to series subscribers.
Guameri String Quartet
22nd Annual Choice Series
Any combination you come up with is sure to equal fun!
Choose 4 or 5 concerts to make a series and lake 10 off
Choose 6 or more concerts to make a series and lake 15 ofj
Keith Brion and His New
Sousa Band Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
Coppelia Shanghai Acrobats &r Dance
"The Parade of Dynasties" Marcel Marceau, mime American Indian Dance Thea Sergio and Odair Assad, guitarists Handel's Messiah Sweet Honey In The Rock Urban Bush Women Little Angels Children's Folk
Ballet of Korea Krasnayarsk Siberian Dance
Company Andre Previn Trio Mummenschanz Mask
and Mime Troupe New York Pops
Skitch Henderson, conductoi New York City Opera
National Company Bizet's Carmen Mark Morris Dance Group The King's Singers
Other Series also available. Please call or write for a free color brochure for more information.
Forces Afoot
This Series will make you kick up your heels.
Family Affair
Bring the whole family to these concerts for kids of all ages.
Cheers Sampler
Four concerts to give you a taste of the performing arts.
Tops in Pops
A mix of oldies, goldies, goodies, and a sweet and singing melodies, these four concerts are sure to please.
Saturday Night On The Town
Saturday night's alright!
Sunday Matinee Series
Bask in the welcoming glow of Sunday afternoons filled with, and relaxation. i
Have We Met Before
Looking back at past May Festival programs, something about the 1976 Festival caught our attention. Namely, mezzosoprano Marilyn Home, pianist Andre Watts, and composer Leslie Bassett. These three artists featured in this 99th Annual May Festival also had joined forces in 1976 with The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy, and guest conductor Aaron Copland for the 83rd Annual May Festival. May we meet yet again.
Eugene Ormandy and Andre Walts at the 1976 May Festival.
Subscriber Benefits
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UMS Ushers
Absolute chaos. That is what would ensue without ushers to help concertgoers find their seats at UMS performances. Ushers serve the essential function of assisting patrons with seating and distributing program books. With their help, concerts begin peacefully and pleasantly.
The UMS Usher Corps is comprised of 275 individuals who volunteer their time to make concertgoing easier. Music lovers from the community and the university constitute this valued group headed by Usher Coordinator Jane Stanton. The allvolunteer group attends an orientationtraining session each fall. Ushers are responsible for working at every UMS concert in a particular hall (Rackham, Hill, or Power) for the entire concert season. Usher signups occur at the end of the first week of September at the Hill Auditorium box office.
But the ushers must enjoy their work, because 85 of them return to volunteer each year. In fact some ushers have served for 30 years or longer.
Bravi Ushers!
Aaron Copland, Eugene Ormandy Leslie Bassett at the 1976 May Festival.
Eugene Ormandy and Marilyn Home at the 1976 May Festival.
Thank You Encore!
Great music happens through the University Musical Society because of the much needed and greatly appreciated gifts of Encore Members.
The list below represents names of current donors through April 8, 1992. If an error or omission is noted, we sincerely apologize and would appreciate a call at your earliest convenience (7471178).
UMS would also like to thank those generous donors who wish to remain anonymous.
Mr. and Mrs. Carl A. Brauer, Jr. Miss Dorothy Greenwald Richard and Norma Sarns Herbert Sloan
Dr. and Mrs. Harry A. Towsley Emil Weddige
Dr. and Mrs. Robert G. Aldrich
Herb and Carol Amster
Bowles Family Trust George and
Catherine Bowles Carol and Irving Smokier Wilma SteketeeBean Edward Surovell and Natalie Lacy Ron and Eileen Weiser
Maurice and Linda Binkow Dr. and Mrs. James H. Botsford Margaret and Douglas Crary William T. Dobson and Mary
Hunter Dobson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Evans Ken, Penny and Matt Fischer John and Esther Floyd Dale and Marilyn Fosdick Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Frohlich Rosemary and Wood Geist Carl and Sue Gingles James and Millie Irwin Sally and William C. Martin Mr. and Mrs. Roger Maugh Rebecca McGowan and Michael
B. Staebler
Dr. and Mrs. Joe D. Morris Maxine and Wilbur K. Pierpont
John and Dorothy Reed Elizabeth L. Stranahan Mary and Ron Vanden Belt Marina and Robert Whitman Robert Winfield and Lynn Chandler Paul and Elizabeth Yhouse
Catherine S. Arcure
Bob and Martha Ause
P.E. Bennett
Mr. and Mrs. E. Robert Blaske
Sue and Bob BonField
Daniel T. Carroll and Julie A.C.
Mr. and Mrs. John Alden Clark Katharine and Jon Cosovich Dr. and Mrs. Ronald Cresswell Jack and Alice Dobson President and Mrs. James
Duderstadt Judy and Richard Fry Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Graham Mr. and Mrs. Elmer F. Hamel Mrs. Robert Hamilton Mrs. Judith M. Heekin Mr. and Mrs. Howard S. Holmes Robert and Joan Howe Keki and Alice Irani Dr. and Mrs. Richard D. Judge Thomas E. and Shirley Y. Kauper David and Sally Kennedy Mr. Alex Kraski Alexander Krezel Mr. and Mrs. David G. Loesel Mr. and Mrs. Patrick B. Long Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Lutkehaus, Jr. R. B. Lyons David W. McComb Paul and Ruth McCracken Mr. F. N. McOmber Ginny and Cruse Moss Dr. and Mrs. Mark B. Orringer Mr. and Mrs. William B. Palmer Mr. Randolph Paschke Dory and John Paul John and Lois Porter Tom and Mary Princing Mr. and Mrs. Gail W. Rector Elisabeth J. Rees
Dr. and Mrs. Rudolph E. Reichert Ginny and Ray Reilly Mr. and Mrs. Harold Y. Sakoda Carren and Gary Sandall Ms. Ruth Siegel
Gerard H. and Colleen Spencer Dr. Hildreth H. Spencer Mr. and Mrs. John C. Stegeman Maya Savarino and Raymond
Tanter Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Tisch
Marilyn Twining
Jerrold G. Utsler
Dr. and Mrs. Francis V. Viola III
Mr. and Mrs. Marc von Wyss
Karl and Karen Weick
Len and Maggie Wolin
Dr. and Mrs. Gerald D. Abrams
Gardner and Bonnie Ackley
Mr. William J. Adams
Anne and George Amendt
Tim Andresen
James R. and Lisa Baker
Louis and Judith Basso
Bradford and Lydia Bates
Mr. Hilbert Beyer
Elizabeth S. Bishop
Mary Steffek Blaske and Thomas
Charles and Linda Borgsdorf Jeanne and David Bostian Allen and Veronica Britton David and Sharon Brooks Drs. Susan S. and Wesley M. Brown John H. and Barbara Everitt Bryant Mrs. Wellington R. Burt Jean M. and Kenneth L. Casey Dr. and Mrs. George Chatas C.F. Clippert
Mr, and Mrs. David S. Clyde Mr. and Mrs. Roland J. Cole Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Conger Ray and Eleanor Cross Colby and John C. Duffendack Martin and Rosalie Edwards Mark and Patricia Enns Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Figgins Dr. and Mrs. William L. Fox Henry and Beverly Gershowitz William and Ruth Gilkey Drs. Sid Gilman and Carol G.
Seymour D. Greenstone John R. and Helen K. Griffith Walter and Dianne Harrison Harlan and Anne Hatcher Dr. Bertram Herzog JoAnne W. Hulce Ralph and Del Hulett Gretchen and John Jackson Ms. Diane P. Johnson Frank and Sharon Johnson Elizabeth and Lawrence Jordan Robert and Gloria Kerry Howard King and Elizabeth
Charles and Barbara Krause Jack and Roberta Lapides Olya Lash
Carolyn and Paul Lichter Brigitte and Paul J. Maassen 37
Madalyn B. MacNaughton
Geraldine and Sheldon Markel
Prof, and Mrs. John M. McCollum
Marie R. McCullough
Richard and Elizabeth McLeary
Dr. and Mrs. H. Dean Millard
Dr. Barry Miller
Mr. Chris Mistopoulos
Alison Myers
M. Haskell and Jan Barney
Bill and Marguerite Oliver William R. and Joan J. Olsen Barbara and Fred Outwater Mr. R.V. Palmer Mr. Harold M. Patrick Kathleen Phillips Eleanor and Peter Pollack Jim and Bonnie Reece Glenda Renwick Mr. H. Robert Reynolds William and Katherine Ribbens Amnon and Prudence Rosenthal Mrs. Richard C. Schneider Professor Thomas J. and Ann Sneed
Mr. Sandro D. Segalini Julianne and Michael Shea Mrs. Charles A. Sink Robert A. Sloan and Ellen M
Paul and Betty Snearline Mr. and Mrs. Richard Snyder Mrs. Ralph Steffek Victor and Marlene Stoeffler Mrs. John D. Stoner Dr. and Mrs. Jeoffrey K. Stross Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Teeter James L. and Ann S. Telfer Dr. and Mrs. John F. Ullrich Jack and Marilyn van der Velde Dennis and Joyce Wahr Martha Wallace and Dennis White Mr. Craig Warburton Dr. and Mrs. Andrew S. Watson Elise and Jerry Weisbach Robert O. and Darragh H.
Brymer and Ruth Williams Shelly F. Williams Thomas and Iva Wilson Carl and Mary Ida Yost Mr. R. Roger and Bette F. Zauel
Armand and Marilyn Abramson Bernard and Raquel Agranoff Dr. and Mrs. Peter Alifens Judith Dow and Robert Alexander Margaret and Wickham Allen Joan and David Anderson David Andrea
Mr. and Mrs. Max K. Aupperle
Mr. and Mrs. Cyril H. Barnes, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Mason Barr, Jr.
Neal Bedford and Gerlinda Melchiori
Henry J. Bednarz
Dr. and Mrs. Rodney R. Benlz
Raymond and Janet Bernreuter
Mr. and Mrs. Philip C. Berry
Suzanne A. and Frederick J. Beutler
Carl and Pauline Binder
Steve Binder
Visvaldis and Elvira Biss
Bob and Liz Bitterman
H. Harlan Bloomer
Edward and Ruth Bordin
Gil and Mono Borlaza
Ernie and Betsy Brater
Dr. and Mrs. Don Briggs
Helen L. Brokaw
Jeannine and Robert Buchanan
Laurence and Valerie Bullen
Arthur and Alice Burks
Helen S. Butz
H. D. Cameron
Jean W. Campbell
Charles and Martha Cannell
Mr. and Mrs. David Caplan
Bruce and Jean Carlson
Professor Brice Carnahan
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond S. Chase
David Chivas
Dr. Kyung and Young Cho
Leon and Heidi Cohan
Maurice and Margo Cohen
Howard and Vivian Cole
John and Penelope Collins
Kenneth Collinson
Wayne and Melinda Colquitt
Mr. William V. Coltre
Gordon and Marjorie Comfort
Sandra S. Connellan
M.C. Conroy
James and Constance Cook
Lolagene C. Coombs
Pedro and Carol Cuatrecasas
Peter and Susan Darrow
Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Davenport
Ronald and Dolores Dawson
James M. Deimen
Elena and Nicholas Delbanco
Ellwood and Michele Derr
Dr. and Mrs. Edward F. Domino
Prof, and Mrs. William G. Dow
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Dunham
Kenneth C. and Kathryn E. Eckerd
Richard and Vee Edwards
Julia and Charles Eisendrath
Mrs. Genevieve Ely
Emil and Joan Engel
David and Lynn Engelbert
Dr. Stewart Epstein
Daniel and Judith Fall
Claudine Farrand and Daniel Moerman
Dr. and Mrs. John A. Faulkner
Inka and David Felbeck
Dr. James F. Filgas
Sidney and Jean Fine
Ray and Patricia Fitzgerald
Mr. and Mrs. Robben Fleming
Anne and James Ford
Mrs. George H. Forsyth
Phyllis Foster
Dr. David Noel Freedman
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas D. Freeth
Harriet and Daniel Fusfeld
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Gale
Arthur Gallagher
Victor and Marilyn Gallalin
Mr. Georgis Garmo
Beverly and Gerson Geltner
Paul and Anne Glendon
Dr. Alexander Gotz
Mrs. William Grabb
Jerry and Mary K. Gray
Dr. and Mrs. John F. Greden
Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Green
Mr. and Mrs. Carl E. Guldberg
Hugh L. Harsha
Dr. and Mrs. Keith S. Henley
Debbie and Norman Herbert
Fred and Joyce Hershenson
Mr. and Mrs. Peter N. Heydon
Ms. Barbara Hill
Charles and Virginia Hills
Julian dnd Diane Hoff
Robert and Frances Hoffman
John and Maurita Holland
Mr. and Mrs. William B. Holmes
Mrs. Janet Woods Hoobler
Kristin and Wolfgang Hoppe
Arthur G. Homer
Drs. Linda Samuelson and Joel Howell
Mrs. Teresa Huang
Mrs. V. C. Hubbs
Frederick G. L. Huetwell
Mrs. George R. Hunsche
Patricia and John Huntington
Donald and Lynn Hupe
Ann K. Irish
John and Joan Jackson
Donald E. Jahncke
Wallie and Janet Jeffries
Keith and Kay Jensen
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth E. Jochim
Paul D. Johnson
Stephen G. Josephson and Sally C.
James J.Judson Robert L. and Beatrice H. Kahn Elizabeth Harwood Katz Mr. Herbert Katz Mr. and Mrs. Robert Katz Nancy and Robert Kauffman Anna M. Kauper Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Kellman Richard and Ann Kennedy Emily and Ted Kennedy Mr. Richard E. King Thomas and Constance Kinnear Dr. David E. Klein and Heidi
Castleman Hermine R. Klingler Mr. and Mrs. A. William Klinke II Carolyn and Jim Knake
Masato and Koko Koreeda
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Kowaleski
Christopher J. Kresge
Alan and Jean Krisch
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Kueng
Bud and Justine Kulka
Barbara and Michael Kusisto
Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Landau
Mr. and Mrs. Lee E. Landes
Mae and Arthur Lanski
Ms. Adele Laporte
Dorothy and John Lapp
John K. Lawrence
Fred and Ethel Lee
Professor and Mrs. John C. Lee
Leo A. Legalski
Mr. and Mrs. Fernando S. Leon
Professor and Mrs. Harold M. Levinson
Jody and Leo Lighthammer
Lawrence B. Lindemer
Daniel E. and Susan S. Lipschutz
ViCheng and HsiYen Liu
Harold J. Lockett, M.D.
Dr. Robert G. Lovell
Dr. and Mrs. Charles P. Lucas
Mr. Ross E. Lucke
John and Cheryl MacKrell
Ms. Mary Madden
Steve and Ginger Maggio
Virginia Mahle
Alan and Carla Mandel
Melvin and Jean Manis
Dr. and Mrs. Edwin L. Marcus
James and Ingrid Martin
Jack and Joanne Martin
Marilyn Mason
Margaret Massialas
Mrs. Lawrence Maugh
Margaret and Harris McClamroch
Mrs. Lester McCoy
Bruce and Mary McCuaig
Griff and Pat McDonald
Michael and Barbara Medvec
Robert and Doris Melling
Ann and Robert Meredith
Herman and Bernice Merte, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Metzger
Dr. and Mrs. Leo J. Miedler
Myrna and Newell Miller
Mr. and Mrs. John Mohler
C. Richard and Sharon Molenaar
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Monaghan
Mr. and Mrs. Fredrick E. Moncrieff
Dr. and Mrs. Richard A. Morin
Dr. Eva L. Mueller
Frederick C. Neidhardt and Germaine
Chipault Ms. Lois Nelson Dr. Barry Nemon and Barbara Stark
Sarah Winans Newman George and Claire Nichols Virginia and Gordon Nordby Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Nottingham Dr. and Mrs. Frederick C. O'Dell Marylen and Harold Oberman Lois and Michel Oksenberg Dr. and Mrs. T. N. T. Olson
Richard and Miranda Pao
Donna D. Park
Colonel and Mrs. Clare Passink
Elizabeth and Beverly Payne
Lorraine B. Phillips
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick R. Pickard
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Pierce
Mai. Gen. and Mrs. Robert R. Ploqer
USA (ret.)
Stephen and Tina Pollock Mr. and Mrs. L. Norris Post Cynthia and Roger Postmus Mrs. J.D. Prendergost Lawrence and Ann Preuss William and Christine Price Jerry and Millard Pryor Leland and Elizabeth Quackenbush Hugo and Sharon Quiroz Michael and Helen Radock Mrs. Joseph S. Radom Agnes and Stephen Reading La Vonne and Gary Reed Mr. Donald H. Regan and Ms. Elizabeth
Dr. and Mrs. Richard D. Remington William and Mary Revelli Paul Rice Mr. Ronald Rice Jack and Margaret Ricketts Mr. and Mrs. Stephen J. Rogers Robert and Joan Rosenblum Dr. and Mrs. George C. Rosenwald Daria A. Rothe Mrs. Bernard J. Rowan Dr. Nathaniel H. Rowe David Sadler
Jerome and Lee Ann Salle Dr. and Mrs. Albert J. Sayed Mr. and Mrs. F. Allan Schenck Andy Achenbaum and Mary Schieve Dr. and Mrs. David W. Schmidt Charlene and Carl Schmult Dr. and Mrs. David Schottenfeld JohnJ. H. Schwarz, M.D. Harriet and Marvin Selin Michael and Janet Shatusky Constance Sherman Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Shultz Fred and Pat Shure George and Helen Siedel Leon Sirvantes Allan and Alene Smith Carl and Jari Smith Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Smith Renate and Richard Soulen Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Sprecher E. Lloyd and Theodore J. St. Antoine Neil and Burnette Slaebler Dr. and Mrs. Stanley Strasius Steven and Mary Swanson Dr. Jean K. Takeuchi Richard and Yvonne Teske Dr. and Mrs. E. Thurslon Thieme Tom and Judy Thompson Mrs. Mischa Tiliev Paul and Barbara Trudgen Madeleine Vallier
Joe and Eleanor Voldrich
Dr. Detlof von Berg
John and Maureen Voorhees
Bruce and Raven Wallace
Lawrence A. Weis and Sheila Johnson
Alice and Ira Wheariey
B. Joseph and Mary White
Janet F. White
Dr. and Mrs. S. B. Winslow
Ms. Linda WirtanenFitzgerald
Dr. Grant J. Withey
Noreen Ferris and Mark Wolcott
Dr. and Mrs. Ira S. Wollner
Patricia A. Woodworth
Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Wooll
Stan and Pris Woollams
Charles R. and Jean L. Wright
Dr. and Mrs. Clyde Wu
Don and Charlotte Wyche
Mr. and Mrs. A. Michael Young
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin H. Young
Martin and Nancy Zimmerman
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald G. Zollars
Victor Adamo and Michelle Smith
George C. Adams
Tim and Leah Adams
William James and Barbara Adams
Jody Alexander
Mrs. John Alexander
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon E. Allardyce
Mr. and Mrs. David Aminoff
Hugh B. and Margaret S. Anderson
Harlene and Henry Appelman
Bert and Pat Armstrong
Thomas J. and Mary E. Armstrong
Dr. and Mrs. Allan A. Ash
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Ashe
Nancy and Eric M. Aupperle
Charlene and Eugene Axelrod
Donald and Shirley Axon
Jerald and Virginia Bachman
Robert L. Baird
Jean and Gaylord Baker
Barbara and Daniel Balbach
Ms. Gwendolyn L. Ball
Gail Davis Barnes
Donald C. Barnette, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Bartholomy
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Bartlett
Dr. and Mrs. Jere M. Bauer
Robert M. Beckley and Judy Dinesen
Harry and Betty Benford
Ronald and Linda Benson
Richard S. Berger
Ruth Ann and Stuart J. Bergstein
Mr. and Mrs. S.E. Berki
Eric and Doris Billes
Sally Lynch Binard
Joan and Howard Binkow
Drs. Ronald C. and Nancy V. Bishop
Bill and Susan Black
C. John Blankley and Maureen Foley
Marshall J. Blondy, M.D.
Dr. and Mrs. Lynn W. Blunt
Amal H. Bogary
Beverly J. Bole
Lee C. Bollinger and Jean Magnano
Bollinger Mark D. Bomia Robert and Sharon Bordeau Drs. Laurence and Grace Boxer William Brashear Ms. Tess Brioness Norman and Doreen Bristol Mr. and Mrs. Olin L. Browder Hugh C. and Ella M. Brown Morton B. and Raya Brown John M. and Mary Brueger Mrs. Webster Brumbaugh Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Burslein Marilyn Buss Letitia J. Byrd Mrs. Theodore Cage Dr. and Mrs. Darrell A. Campbell Ms. Margot Campos Isabelle Carduner Mr. and Mrs. Edwin F. Carlson Jim and Priscilla Carlson Mr. and Mrs. John Carow Mr. and Mrs. Roy A. Carpenter Jeannette and Robert I. Carr Dr. and Mrs. James T. Cassidy Dr. and Mrs. Joseph C. Cerny Mr. David Chambers Ms. Kathran Chan Mr. and Mrs. Tsun Chang Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas G. Chapekis, Sr. J. Wehrley and Patricia Chapman Jean Chenoweth Nancy Cilley
Prof, and Mrs. Donald Cleveland Irene W. Cleveland Alice S. Cohen
Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. Collins Graham H. Conger Mr. and Mrs. L. Thomas Conlin Gage R. Cooper Dr. and Mrs. Arnold G. Coran Alan and Bette Cotzin Clifford and Laura Craig Marjorie A. Cramer H. Richard and Florence Crane Merle and Mary Ann Crawford Dr. Mary C. Crichton Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey L. Crosbie Jean and James I. Crump Audrey and Edward Curtis Dean and Mrs. John H. D'Arms Orien Dalley Jane and Gawaine Dart Dr. and Mrs. Charles Davenport Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Davidge Ed and Ellie Davidson James A. Davtes
James H. and Elizabeth W. Davis Roy C. and Donna B. Davis Ms. Gail DavisBarnes Ms. Pamela M. Day Jean and John Debbink Dr. and Mrs. Raymond F. Decker
Kenneth and Judith DeWoskin Benning and Elizabeth Dexter Nelson and Eleanor Dingle Ms. Delia DiPietro Mrs. Carl T. Doman James and Patsy Donahey Thomas and Esther Donahue Dr. and Mrs. Steven Donn Thomas Doran Dr. and Mrs. Richard Dorr Eugene and Elizabeth Douvan Roland and Diane Drayson Nancy Griffin DuBois Ivan and Betty Anne Duff
Duane F. Dunlap and Laura M. Merrihew
Charles and Dorothy Dybvig
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Earle
Morgan and Sally Edwards
Dr. Alan S. Eiser
Mr. William Ensminger
Dr. and Mrs. J. L. Epstein
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Erb
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Eschman
Adele Ewell
Karen and Mark Falahee
Dr. and Mrs. Harvey Falit
Gerald E. Faye
Michael and Ann Feeney
George J. and Benita Feldman
Phil and Phyllis Fellin
Mrs. Beth B. Fischer
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin J. Flamenbaum
Stephen and Suzanne Fleming
Jennifer and Guillermo Flores
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Fontheim
David A. Fox and Paula I. Bockenstec
Mr. and Mrs. Howard P. Fox
Joanna and Richard Friedman
Philip and Renee Frost
Mr. Mack Fuhrer
Lourdes and Otto Gago
Mrs. Don Gargaro
Stanley and Priscilla Garn
Mr. and Mrs. Garnet R. Garrison
Helen Gay
James and Jane M. Gay
Drs. Steve Geiringer and Karen Bante
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Gelehrter
Michael Gerstenberger
Allan Gibbard and Beth Genne
Ms. Lydia Gilmour
Fred and Joyce Ginsberg
Albert and Ameda Girod
Drs. Vijay and Sara Goburdhun
Robert and Barbara Gockel
Laura J. Gold, M.D.
Mr. Albert L. Goldberg
Mrs. Eszter Gombosi
Clara Ellen Gonter
Adon A. Gordus
Keiko Goto
Elizabeth Needham Graham
Lila and Bob Green
Shirley Greene
Dr. and Mrs. Lazar J. Greenfield
Louise and Bill Gregory
Donald and Elizabeth Gresch
Daphne and Raymond Grew
Werner H. Grilk
Arthur W. Gulick, M.D.
Dr. Howard B. Gutstein
James and Veronica Haines
George N. Hall
Harry L. and Mary L. Hallock
Mrs. William Halstead
Margo Hoisted
Susan R. Harris
Larry and Jean Hauptman
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Hayes
Mr. Charles Heard
Kenneth and Jeanne Heininger
John L. Henkel and Jacqueline Stearns
Hershey Family
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hilbish
Herb and Dee Hildebrandt
Louise Hodgson
Mr. Matthew C. Hoffmann
Ken and Joyce Holmes
Fred and Betty House
Graham and Mary Jean Hovey
Dr. and Mrs. James F. Huffman
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald R. Humphrey
Ann D. Hungerman
Marilyn C. Hunting
Mr. and Mrs. Russell L. Hurst
Dr. Dorothy A. Huskey
Mr. Stuart Hyke
Stuart A. Isaac
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Israel
Mr. and Mrs. Jerome Jelinek
John M. Jenks
Jim and Dale Jerome
Ms. Cherylann Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. Johnson
Paul and Olga Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Juett
Ms. Mary B. Kahn
Dr. and Mrs. Mark S. Kaminski
Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred Kaplan
Mr. John B. Kennard, Sr.
Frank and Patricia Kennedy
Thomas E. Kenney and Linda D. Atkins
Donald F. and Mary A. Kiel
Paul and Leah Kileny
Rhea and Leslie Kish
Drs. Paul and Dana Kissner
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Klinke
Kay Delle Koch
Mr. John Koenig
Joseph J. and Marilynn G. Fox Kokoszka
Michael E. Korybalski
Dimilri and Suzanne KosacheK
Jerome and Geraldine Koupal
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Krimm
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold H. Kuethe
Robert L. Kyes
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour R. Lampert
George and Beth Lavoie
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lawler
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Leahy
Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Lehmann
Mr. and Mrs. E. Daniel Long
Leslie and Susan Loomans
Ms. Rona Lum
Edward and Barbara Lynn
Susan E. Macias
Ms. Marcy MacMahan
Mr. Chun Mah
Geoffrey and Janet Maher
Mark Mahlberg
Suzanne and Jay Mahler
Roseann and Donald Majkowski
Claire and Richard Malvin
Drs. Michael and Pamela Marcovitz
Alice and Bob Marks
Rhoda and William Martel
Dr. and Mrs. Josip Matovinovic
Mr. Ron McCullough
W. Joseph McCune and Georgiana M.
Elaine J. McFadden Charlotte McGeoch Bill and Ginny McKeachie Martha and Dady Mehta Professor and Mrs. Gustav Meier Jerry and Rhona Meislik Mr. and Mrs. Warren A. Merchant Henry D. Messer and Carl A. House Bettie and Robert Metcalf Mr. Gordon R. Metzger Professor and Mrs. Donald Meyer Mr. and Mrs. Francis L. Michaels Jack and Carmen Miller Tim and Pat Miller Arnold and Gail Morawa Mr. James N. Morgan Dr. and Mrs. George W. Morley Anne Moroun Rona and Cyril Moscow Ms. Anna Hillenius Muller Dr. and Mrs. Gunder A. Myran Mr. Tatsuyoshi Nakamura Dr. and Mrs. James V. Neel Mr. William Newman Mr. and Mrs. Marvin Niehuss Ms. Hulda Novak Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Oncley Mr. and Mrs. David W. Osier Helen L. Osterlin Mr. and Mrs. Brian P. Patchen Richard C. Patterson Ara and Shirley Paul P. D. Pawelski Ruth and Joe Payne
Professor and Mrs. J. Raymond Pearson Mr. Sumer Pek
Thomas V. and Stephanie Peterson Jim and Julie Phelps Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Pierce Mr. and Mrs. William Pierce Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Plummer Senator Lana Pollack Susan Pollay and Bruce Watkins Mary and Robert Pratt Bill and Diana Pratt Ernst Pulgram Mrs. Tad Rae
Robert H. and Betty A. Rasmussen Susan L. Rasmussen Kalherine R. Reebel
Dorothy R. and Stanislaw Rehak
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen P. Reinhart
Mr. and Mrs. G. Robert Richards
Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Richart
Frances Greer Riley
Ms. Constance Rinehart
Mary Ann Ritter
Peter Roberts and Shirley Casebolt
Willard and Mary Ann Rodgers
Dr. Susan Rose and Mr. Robin Rose
Dr. and Mrs. John Rosella
Gustave and Jacqueline Rosseels
Jonathan Rubin and Grelia Spier
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Ruzicka
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Ryan
Dolores and Thomas E. Ryan
Mitchell and Carole Rycus
Theodore and Joan Sachs
John and Reda Santinga
Dr. and Mrs. John E. Schenk
Mr. Donald Schmaltz
David E. and Monica N. Schleingart
Marshall S. Schuster, D.O.
Ms. Patricia H. Schwartz
Mary and John Sedlander
Suzanne Selig
Janet C. Sell
Richard and Susan Shackson
Mr. and Mrs. Kirtikant Shah
Dr. and Mrs. J. N. Shanberge
Stuart E. Sheill
Ms. Sharon Shelton
Howard and Aliza Shevrin
Thomas and Jean Shope
Dr. Douglas and Barbara Siders
Milton and Gloria Siegel
Paul and Pamela Sieving
Ken Silk and Peggy Buttenheim
Gene and Alida Silverman
Ms. Anne Sullivan Smith
Cynthia J. Sorensen
Mrs. Jay Spaulding
Mr. and Mrs. H.W. Spendlove
Mr. Ward H. Squires
Dr. Phoebe Stanzler
Betty M. Stark
Kathryn J. Stebbins and Dr. William C.
Eric and Virginia Stein Dr. and Mrs. Alan Steiss James L. Stoddard W.F. Slolper
Mr. and Mrs. Louis J Stout Ellen M. Strand and Dennis C. Regan Mrs. William H. Stubbins Ms. Barbara Sullivan Mr. and Mrs. J. Wilner Sundelson Joan C. Susskind Alfred S. and Selma Sussman Brian and Lee Talbot Gerald W. and Susan J. Tarpley Eva and Sam Taylor Mary H. Thieme Edwin J. Thomas Joseph Thompson Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Thrasher Dr. and Mrs. Robert F. Todd
Dr. and Mrs. Merlin C. Townley
Irene Truesdell
Dr. and Mrs. Vincent J. Turcotte
Ms. Carol Turner
Alvan and Katherine Uhle
Mr. George Unterburger
Donald and Wendy Urquhart
Michael L. Van Tassel
William C. Vassell
Mrs. Durwell Verier
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore R. Vogt
Mrs. Nancy Wacker
Cindy and Christopher Wackerman
Warren H. and Florence S. Wagner
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Wail
Eric and Sherry Warden
Charles and Ruth Walts
Robin and Harvey Wax
Christine L. Webb
Raoul Weisman
Angela and Lyndon Welch
Mr. and Mrs. Stanfield Wells, Jr.
Dr. Steven Werns
P,MJ,C, and A Westen
Scott and Marcy Westerman
Clara G. Whiting
Father Francis E. Williams
John Troy Williams
Ms. Diane Willis
Ms. Dorothy N. Wilson
Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Wirth
Professor and Mrs. Charles Witke
Charlotte Wolfe
Ms. Linda L. Wotring
Leslie and Tadataka Yamada
MaryGrace and Tom York
Christine Young and Alex Halliday
Martin and Gertrude Zeile
Gail and David Zuk
Richard and Marie Abbott
Mr. and Mrs. Michihiko Akiyama
Ms. Karen Svendsen AlSaadi
James and Catherine Allen
Forrest Alter
Pamela Amidon
Ms. Anne Andersen
Mr. Edwin Anderson
James and Kathleen Andonian
Catherine M. Andrea
Dr. Lyle and Shirley Andress
Ms. Lynn Anslow
Ms. Carolyne Anthony
Tammy K. Antonucci
Ms. Carolyn Arnal
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence E. Arnett
Dr. and Mrs. Peter Ash
Mr. and Mrs. Dan E. Atkins III
Doris E. Attaway
Mr. David August
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Avsharian
Jonathan and Marlene Ayers
Professor and Mrs. Reeve Bailey
M. A. Baranowski
Gary N. Barber
Ms. Korla Barber
Andrea and Simon Bare
Leonard Barkan
Ms. Ellen P. Barks
Norman E. and Mary E. Barnett
Gary W. Baron
Marjorie and Loren Barritt
Karen and Karl Bartschl
Leslie and Anita Bassett
Harold F. Baut
Gilbert and Mary Ellen Bazil
MaryMartha and William Beierwaltes
Tamar and Harel BeitOn
Mr. Robert Bell
Billie and Bill Bell
Soly S. Bencuya
Mrs. Walter Benenson
Alice R. Bensen
Mr. and Mrs. Ib BentzenBilkvist
Reuben and Barbara Levin Bergman
Abraham Berman
Mark and Pauline Bernhard
Gene and Kay Berrodin
Robert Hunt Berry
Bharat C. and Patsy A. Bhushan
Roderick Bieber and Catherine
Ms. Margaret C. Bignall Claire Billingham Mr. and Mrs. Guido A. Binda William and llene Birge Kathleen Crispell Blackmer John E. Bloom
Mr. and Mrs. Francis X. Blouin Mrs. Gretta Bocciardi Ronald and Mimi Bogdasarian Dr. and Mrs. David Bohr C. Richard and Patricia S. Boland Paul D. Borman Dr. and Mrs. Morris Bornstein John D. and M. Leora Bowden Robert and Jan Bower Mr. and Mrs. Bruce M. Bowman Dean Paul C. Boylan Dr. and Mrs. Ralph Bozell Kathryn L. Bradley Marilyn and Donald Breiter George and Lucia Brewer Robert R. Brewster Cy and Luan Briefer Judge Kenneth Branson Razelle and George Brooks William M. and Sandra Broucek Linda Brown and Joel Goldberg Ms. Michelle A. Brown Ms. Stephanie J. Brown Sylvia C. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Edward W. Browning Dr. Joachim Bruhn Dr. and Mrs. Donald Bryant Ms. Ruth Bucsh Fred and Julia Buesser Sibyl Burling Marjorie H. Burnell Dan and Virginia Butler Dr. and Mrs. Robert S. Butsch Dr. Ruth Cantieny
Dennis and Kathleen Canlwell
Ms. Susan Cares
Philip C. Carpenter
Brenda and Michael Casher
Joanne C. Ceru
Mr. and Mrs. J.P. Chandler
Bill and Susan Chandler
Evelyn M. Chase
Joan and Mark Chesler
Mr. Chi Cheung
Soon and Kwang Cho
Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Choale
Edward and Rebecca Chudacoff
Maggie and Toby Citrin
Patty Clare
Mr. Eric Coates
Mr. and Mrs. R. N. Coe
Dorothy Burke Coffey
Jan and Carl Cohen
Hubert and Ellen Cohen
Alfred and Georgia Conard
Dr. and Mrs. William W. Coon
Ann and Russell Copeman
Robert and Charlotte Copp
Morton and Mary Sue Cox
Ms. Shelley Winters Cranmer
Mary Crawford
James E. Crooks
Ms. Julia K. Cucuro
Richard J. Cunningham
Sally A. Cushing
Janice and Donald Cutler
Roderick and Mary Ann Daane
Marylee Dalton
Sunil and Merial Das
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Dascola
Dr. Laning Davidson
Ruth and Bruce Davis
Dr. and Mrs. Leonard E. Davis
Philip C. Davis
Dean and Cindy Degalan
Ms. Carol Dejong
Raymond A. Delter
Norma Diamond
Elaine and Gordon Didier
Douglas and Ruth Doane
Dr. and Mrs. Edward R. Doezema
Heather and Stuart Dombey
Father Timothy J. Dombrowski
Ruth P. Dorr
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Dreffs
Allan and Cecilia Dreyfuss
Mr. John J. Dryden and Ms. Diana Raimi
Thomas and Edith Dunn
Ms. Jane Dutton
Frances E. Dyer
George C. and Roberta R. Earl
Mona East
Dwight and Mary Ellen Eckler
Barry and Joyce Eisenstein
David A. Eklund
Judge and Mrs. SJ. Elden
Sol and Judith Elkin
Dr. and Mrs. Charles Ellis
Ethel and Sheldon Ellis
James Ellis and Jean Lawton
Jack and Wilma Elzay
Mackenzie and Marcia Endo
Mr. and Mrs. H. Michael Endres
Mr. Paul Epstein
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Erickson
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Erlich
Lawrence J. Ernst
Ms. Joyce Ewing
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Fair, Jr.
Mary K. Fancher
Mr. and Mrs. John Feikens
Dorothy Gittleman Feldman
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Ferguson
Mr. Dennis Fernly
Kathryn Ferriell
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin G. Fiegel
Clarisse Finkbeiner
Mrs. Carl H. Fischer
Winifred Fisher
Larry and Carol Files
Linda and Thomas Fitzgerald
George and Kathryn Foltz
Ms. Andrea Foote
Ms. Kay Ford
Ms. Cheryll Forgue
Leo and Dianna Fox
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Frank
Mr. and Mrs. Jarvis Franzblau
Selma and Newton L. Freedman
Julia M. Freer
Richard and Joann Freethy
Otto W. and Helga B. Freilag
Linda and Larry French
Richard and Vivian French
Gail Fromes
Bart and Fran Frueh
Elizabeth and Keith Gadway
Rebecca and Bruce Gaffney
Jane Galantowicz
Mr. and Mrs. George J. Gallas
Bernard and Enid Galler
Mrs. Shirley H. Garland
Ms. Marie Garlick
Janet and Charles Garvin
David and Marian Gates
Mr. and Mrs. Matthew J. Germane
Mr. Mark Gersovitz
W. Scott Gerstenberger and Elizabeth A.
Drs. John and Marcia Gilroy Beverly Jeanne Giltrow Dr. and Mrs. F.B. Glaser Edward and Judith Glass Gary and Rachel Glick Dennis and Jayne Glocke Peter and Roberta Gluck Dr. David W. Gnegy Ed and Mono Goldman Howard Goldman Anita and Al Goldstein Steve and Nancy Goldstein Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell A. Goodkin Lana Gore
William and Jean Gosling Naomi Gottlieb
Vivian Sosna Gottlieb and Norm Gottlieb Dr. and Mrs. Serge Gratch Whit and Svea Gray
Bertha M. Green
Dr. and Mrs. Leslie M. Green
Suzanne and Frank Grefsheim
Mr. and Mrs. James J. Gribble
Susan and Mark Griffin
Mr. and Mrs. AHee L. Grillot
Henry M. Grix
Laurie Gross
Cyril Grum and Cathy Strachan
Doris and Harvey Gulhrie
Ms. Mary Haab
Dorothy S. Haake
Don P. Haefner and Cynthia J. Stewart
Mr. Amiya K. Hajra
Ms. Barbara J. Hall
Marc and Jill Halman
Mr. and Mrs. Kirk Hamilton
Frances Hamman
Mrs. Frederick G. Hammilt
Dora E. Hampel
David and Patricia Hanna
Ms. Joanne J. Hansen
Mrs. Olive Hansen
Ken Harbour
Mr. and Mrs. Glenn A. Harder
Stephen G. and Mary Anna Harper
Laurelynne and George Harris
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Harris
Ms. Dorothy J. Hart
M. Jean Harter
Mr. William G. Harter
John and Anita Hartmus
David and Pat Haskell
Elizabeth C. Hassinen
William F. Hoyden
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Heinrich
Dr. and Mrs. Albert E. Heins
James and Esther HeiHer
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey J. Helmick
Margaret and Walter Helmreich
Norma and Richard Henderson
Karl P. Henk
Ewa and Michael Hepner
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Herbert
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Hermalin
Mr. and Mrs. Ramon R. Hernandez
Ms. Mallory Hiatt
Ms. Sandra L. Higgins
Lorna and Mark Hildebrandt
Ceilon Hill
David and Barbara Hill
John and Florence Hinman
Peter Hinman and Elizabeth Young
Drs. John E. Billi and Sheryl Hirsch
Lynn L. Hobbs
Jane and Dick Hoerner
Mr. Timothy Hofer
Carol and Dieter Hohnke
David and Joan Hollinger
John F. and Mary Helen Holt
Jeanette Holtman
Dr. Ronald and Ann Holz
Mr. and Mrs. Harry H. Hopkins
Jack and Davetta Horner
Mr. and Mrs. Zoltan L. Horvath
Dr. Nancy Houk
James S. House and Wendy Fisher House
Sally Howe
Mr. Shixin Hu
Raymon and Sylvia Hunt
Eileen and Saul Hymans
Ms. Juko Imai
Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Imredy
Robert B. Ingling
Mr. Hiroshi Kan Itoh
Mr. and Mrs. Jeff Jackson
Mrs. Nancy Bird Jacobson
Ms. Jerri M. James
Mr. and Mrs. Z. J. Jania
Marilyn and J. Dale Jeffs
Ms. Shwujing Jeng
Russell E. Jenter
Mr. Kurtjeppesen
James S. Johnson
Wilma Johnson
Mr. James Johnston
Elizabeth M. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest A. Jones
Ms. Susan Jordan
Dominic M. Justewicz
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Kao
Julian M. Kaplin
Alex and Phyllis Kato
Ms. Elizabeth Kaufman
Dr. J. Kaufman
Mr. Hiroki Kawata
Mr. Richard Keep
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Kelsch
Mary L. Kemme
Mr. Tim Killackey
Jeanne M. Kin
Ms. John R. Alexander and Ms.
Carolyn King John S. King V. King
Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Klose Dr. and Mrs. William L. Knapp, M.D. Glenn and Shirley Knudsvig Seymour Koenigsberg Fumio Komatsu LaiCheng Kong Mr. and Mrs. Dirk F. Kooiman Sylvan and Elizabeth Humes Kornblum Linda and Mefvyn Korobkin Mr. Chris Korow Alan and Sandra Kortesoja William and Michele Kotowicz Ms. Patricia Kowalski Jean and Dick Kraft Lillian M. Krezel George and Danielle Kuper Ms. Sale Kuusik Dr. and Mrs. Bert La Du, Jr. James and Karen Lahey Mrs. Jane F. Laird Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lane Myroslav Lapchak Guy and Taffy Larcom Joan and Charles Larson Richard and Neva Larson Carl F. and Ann L. LaRue Edward W. Lauer Ted and Wendy Lawrence Robert and Leslie Lazzerin
Mrs. Kent W. Leach
Ms. Kafhy Lee
Paul and Ruth Lehman
Ms. Sue Leong
Bobbie and Myron Levine
Dr. David J. Lieberman
Mr. John H. lillie
Mr. Clifford P. Lillya
Dr. and Mrs. Frederick S. Urn
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Lineback
Mr. Mikhail Livshits
Dr. and Mrs. F. A. Locke
Stephen and Kay D. Loflus
Naomi E. Lohr
Jane Lombard
C. Longacre and M. Wilens
Art and Pearl Longmote
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Lord
Mr. Jack Losee
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lovelace
Jonathan and Beth Denenberg Lowe
Paul and Donna Lowry
Dr. and Mrs. B. Lucchesi
Lynn Bennett Luckenbach
Fran Lyman
William and Judith Lynn
Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Maasab
Dr. and Mrs. James C. MacBoin
Donald and Barbara MacCallum
Reverend and Mrs. Philip Rodgers
Magee Sally Maggio Gertrude Maglott Ronald Maiewski and Mary Wolf Dr. Karl Malcolm Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Malloure Kathleen Beck and Frank Maly Ms. Patricia Mansfield Nancy and Philip Margolis Mr. and Mrs. Greg Marks Robert and Marjorie Marshall Ms. Mary Martel Ms. Anna Martens Robert S. and Margaret R. Martin Cmdr. and Mrs. Timothy H. Marvin H.L. Mason Yasuko Malsudo Mary and Chandler Matthews Larry and Rowena Matthews Mr. and Mrs. Earl M. Mayer Susan C. Guszynski and Gregory F.
Josephine C. Mazzolini Margaret E. McCarthy Ernest and Adele McCarus David G. McConnell Norman E. and Mary Mclver Steve McKenny
Mr. and Mrs. Edw. G. McKinley Daniel and Madelyn McMurtrie Donald and Elizabeth McNair Edward Mehler Rev. Harold L. Merchant, D.D. Charles and Helen Metzner Mr. and Mrs. Herbert M. Meyers Mr. Victor L. Meyers William and Joan Mikkelsen
Dr. and Mrs. Josef M. Miller
Mr. and Mrs. Murray H. Miller
Kristine MillerPinli
Ms. Tonia Millslein
William G. and Edith Moller
Ms. Eileen Moloney
Van C. Momon, Jr. M.D.
Susan and Stanley Monroe
Ms. Mary K. Monteith
Mr. and Mrs. Milton E. Moore
Rosalie E. Moore
Kiltie Berger Morelock
Beatrice G. Morgan
Ms. Nancy Morrison
Mary K. Moss
Trevor Mudge and Janet Van
Valkenburg Mrs. Erwin Muehlig John W. and Ruth A. Munger Tom Murtha and Stefanie Lenway Lora G. Myers Ms. Linda Nadeau Yoshiko Nagamatsu Ruth Nagler Mr. M. P. Narayanan Carolyn E. Navarre Mrs. Elizabeth R. Neidhardt Mr. and Mrs. Cecil Nesbitt Mr. and Mrs. James K. Newton Ms. Lisa Nielsen Dr. and Mrs. John C. Nixon Bonnie and Andrew Nolan James A. Kelly and Mariam C. Noland Ms. Judith A. Nowack Mr. Frank Okoh Nels and Mary Olson Lillian G. Ostrand William and Janet Paige John Palmer
Mr. and Mrs. George Pally Janet Parkes
Mr. Michael S. Parmacek David and Linda Parr Evans and Charlene Parrot! Mary Parsons
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Palon, Jr. John Paulson Mr. William R. Paulson Dr. and Mrs. M. Joseph Pearson Ms. Katie PelzDavis and Mr. Glenn
Mr. Solti Peng
Nancy and Bradford Perkins Doris I. Persyn Mr. Ellsworth M. Peterson Mr. and Mrs. Albert F. Pelrosky Mr. and Mrs. Leo Petrosky David and Marilyn Pettigrove Roy and Winnifred Pierce Jaine and Barry Pitt Dr. and Mrs. Bertram Pitt Mrs. Patricia Pitts Thomas and Sandra Plunkelt Martin A. Podolsky Mr. Albert M. Pollmar Norman and Anna Mary Postma Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Powrozek
Jacob M. Price
John and Nancy Prince
Julian and Evelyn Prince
Mr. and Ms. Bradley and Susan Pritts
David and Stephanie Pyne
Dr. Ellen Quart
Marijean Quigley
Steve and Ellen Ramsburgh
Rhoda Rankin
Alfred and Jacqueline Raphelson
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Rapp
Ethel Rathbun
David William Rau
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Rawitscher
Dr. and Mrs. Mark Rayport
Russell and Nancy Reed
Anthony L Reffells
Caroline Rehberg
Walter A. Reichart
Dave and Joan Robinson
Jonathan and Anala Rodgers
Tom and Junko Roehl
Mary K. Roeser
John H. Romani
Harry A. Rommel
Ms. Jane A. RoncaWashburn
Dr. and Mrs. Raymond Rose
Bernard and Barbara Rosen
Elva Rosenzweig
Ms. Karin Hunt Roth and Mr. Richard
Mr. Christopher H. Rothko Dr. and Mrs. David W. Roush Dianne Rubin
George and Matilda Rubin Mr. Robert Roger Rudd Mabel E. Rugen Mr. and Mrs. Edward Rupke John Paul Rutherford James and Ellen Saalberg Mr. Kiyonori Sokakibara Dr. Don and Marlene Salberg Sandra and Doyle Samons Ina and Terry Sandalow Howard and Lili Sandier Marjorie and William Sandy Ms. Elizabeth M. Savage Dr. and Mrs. George Sayre Jochen and Helga Schacht Mr. and Mrs. Alan Schall Courtland and Inga Schmidt Ms. Elizabeth Schmitt Drs. Robert J. and Franziska I.
Gerald and Sharon Schreiber Mr. Michael Schrock Sue Schroeder Mary L. Schuette Albert and Susan Schultz Dr. and Mrs. John Segall Leonard and Sylvia Segel Mr. Richard Seid Edward Senninger Robert L. Shdffer Matthew D. Shapiro and Susan L.
David and Elvera Shappirio Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Sheppard
Joan L. Shillis
Hollis and Martha Showaller
Ray and Marylin Shuster
John and Arlene Shy
Dr. Bruce M. Siegan
Ron and Sheila Silver
Dorit and Terry Silver
Sandy and Dick Simon
Frances and Scott Simonds
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Sims
Nora G. Singer
Donald and Susan Sinta
Irma J. Sklenar and Robert John Sklenar
Mr. Juergen Skoppek
Ms. Mary E. Slantz
Mrs. Beverly N. Slater
Thomas and Cora Slavens
Dr. and Mrs. Gregory Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Paul I. Smith
Stephanie Smith
Ms. Virginia Smith
Mr. Derek Snyder
Mr. Garnet B. Sparks
Dr. and Mrs. Robert E. Speer
Ms. Barbara Spencer
Jeff Spindler
Mrs. Alfred F. Staeb
Mr. and Mrs. Gus Stager
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Stahman
Julie and Charles Steedman
Joanne Stein
Dr. Michael and Helene Steinberg
Mr. J. Robert Sterling
William and Georgine Steude
Harold M. and Nancy G. Stevenson
Ms. Lynette Stindt and Mr. Craig S. Ross
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis J. Staffer
Mr. and Mrs. Willis Stoick
Joe Stroud and Kathleen Fojtik
Drs. Eugene Su and Christin CarterSu
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Super
Mr. and Mrs. Earl G. Swain
Waldo and Betty Sweet
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Taylor
Scott Bennett Terrill
Bev Teuscher
Carol and Jim Thiry
Catherine and Norman Thoburn
Jean Thornburg
Charles and Peggy Tieman
Mrs. Richard E. Townsend
James Toy
Kathleen Treciak and Timothy Hill
Sarah Trinkaus
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Trubshaw
Irving and Barbara Tukel
James and Julianne Turner
William H. and Gerilyn K. Turner
Andrew T. Turrisi III
Mr. Koichi Uchida
Michael Udow
Barbara and Joseph L. Ullman
Ms. Elaine Umholtz
Paul and Fredda Unongst
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert H. Upton
Joyce A. Urba and David J. Kinsella
Brian A. and Susan R. Urquhart
EmmanuelGeorge Vakalo
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Valenstein
The Van Appledorns
Rebecca W. Van Dyke
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Van Ess
Lia and Bram Van Leer
Barbara and Henry Vanderploeg
Mr. Gary W. Vartanian
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Vaughn
Edie and Paul Vegoda
Joseph and Alice Vining
Terre Voegeli
Carolyn and Jerry Voight
Judith R. Voisine
Mr. and Mrs. David C. Walker
Charles and Barbara Wallgren
Robert D. and Liina M. Wallin
Mr. Forrest Walpole
Patricia Walsh
Dr. and Mrs. J. Wardner
Ms. Grace Ann Warn
Ms. Margaret Warrick
Lorraine and Sidney Warschausky
Alice and Marty Warshaw
Dr. and Mrs. Alan Weamer
Edward C. Weber
Joan M. Weber
Mrs. Joan D. Weber
Kathleen and Willes H. Weber
Ju Lin Wei
Dr. Jerrold and Deanna Weinberg
Donna G. Weisman
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Weisman
Dr. Bernard Weiss
Jack and Mary Welch
Carol F. Westerman
Ken and Cherry Westerman
Michael N. Whilcombe
Cindy White
James Boyd and Mary F. White
Nicholas and Patricia White
Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Whiteside
Mr. Carl Widmann
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Wiener, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Peter H. Wilcox
Carroll and Dorothy Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph G. Williams
Raymond C. Williams
Mr. Dean Willmer
Dr. Magnus Wilson
Stephen B. and Danette Wineberg
Donna Winkelman and Thomas
Mr. and Mrs. E. Winter Mr. Jim Winter David and Lia Wiss Janet and Robert Wolfe Barbara H. Wooding Israel and Fay Woronoff Mr. and Mrs. David Wright Frances A. Wright Ernst Wuckert Ben and Fran Wylie Ms. Linda Youmans John G. and Elizabeth F. Young Mrs. Antonette Zadrozny Ms. Donna Benson Zajonc Ms. MaryJ. Zako
Robert and Charlene R. Zand Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Zeisler Dr. and Mrs. George Zissis
Sustaining Members
Mr. Akira Abe
Mr. and Mrs. Jerroil Adams
Ms. Mary Agnello
Charles and Sharon Akre
Dr. Roger Albin
Ms. Sarah K. Albright
Ms. Lois Lynne Alexander
Michael and Suzan Alexander
Ms. Kelly Allen
Ms. Anne Alwin
Mrs. Barbara Anderson
James David Anderson
Ms. Judith L. Anderson
Angela Andresen
Ms. Ann Andrew
Mary C. Arbour
Jill B. and Thomas J. Archambeau, M.D
Mrs. Barbara Armstrong
Dr. and Mrs. Wallace A. Arneson, Jr.
David and Susan Asplin
Ronald E. and Anna Marie Austin
Henry and Grace Bachofer
Ms. Maureen A. Balke
Mr. and Mrs. David Barera
Maria K. Barna
Ms. Toni Lee Owen Barstis
Joan W. Bar
John W. H. Bartholomew
Mr. and Mrs. Percy Bates
Ms. Patricia Lynn Bauer
Margarele Baum
Ms. Evelyn R. Beals
Ms. Carol A. Beardmore
Mary T. Beckerman
Mr. Ralph Beebe
David and Mary Anne Beltzman
Mr. John W. Bennett Jr.
Dr. Rosemary R. Berardi
Ruth Berean
Mr. Eric Berg
Dr. and Mrs. Eli V. Berger
Ms. Sara Berkovitch
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence S. Berlin
Andrew H. Berry, D.O.
Ms. Anne Birchfield
Dr. Stacy G. Birmingham
Art and Betty J. Blair
Mr. Bruce P. Block
Mr. Heinrich Bloemeke
Mr. Joseph Blotner
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Blumenberg
Martha M. Bohn
Mrs. Wallace J. Bonk
Ken and Mary Bowman
Paul and Anna Bradley
Mr. Duane Branch
Debra and Gregory Brandell
Richard B. Brandt
Mr. and Mrs. Harold L. Braue
Mr. Joel Bregman and Ms. Elaine
Pomeranz Ruth M. Brend Ms. Lynn Bridges
Jim and Elizabeth Brien
Mr. and Mrs. Steven Brouwer
Mr. Charles C. Brown
Katherine Brown
Martha L Brown
Mr. Robert W. Brown
Mrs. Ruth A. Brown
Donald R. and Ann D. Brundage
Mr. and Mrs. Donald K. Brundage
Ms. Ann Burke
Mr. Joseph Burke
William and Rosalie Burns
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Michele Bushaw
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Ann Chapman
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Mr. Donald L. Christopherson
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Phil Cole
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Jeff Cooper and Peggy Daub
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David and Myrtle Cox
Marjorie Craven
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Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Culver
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Dr. Jamie Dananberg
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Elizabeth Delaney
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Mr. and Mrs. William Dergis
Don and Pam Devine
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Helen M. Dobson
Ms. Nesrin Dogan
Mr. Michael Dolan
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Mr. Leonard Drake
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Donald and Joanne Drow
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Bruce Duffy
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Elsie J. Dyke
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Herbert and Hildegard Ebell
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Mr. and Mrs. Harry Elkins
Beulah Elving
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Ellen Wagner and Richard Epstein
Tom and Denise A. Erhort
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Ms. Laurie Erickson
The Rev. and Mrs. Douglas Evett
Mr. Aren Fairchild
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Linda J. Firnhaber
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Lydia Fischer
Susan R. Fisher and John W. Waidle)
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Robert Leuthner
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Chyiing Lin
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Mr. Matthew Ludwig
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Ruth MacRae
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General Automotive Corporation Michigan Trenching Service Oyster Bar & Spaghetti Machine and
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Our thanks to:
Ann Arbor News
Milli Baranowski
Ralph Beobo
Bill Boggs and the Ypsilanti High School Chamber Singers
Paul Bruno
Margot Campos
Ron Cypert
Kathryn Foster Elliott
Norma Gentile
Robert Grijalva
Jim Haven
Calvin Hazelbaker
Sandie Hehr
Jo Hulce
IATSE local 395
Deb Katz
Jeffrey Kuras
Barry laRue
John McKeighan and White Pine Printers
Amanda Mengden
Lois Nelson
Agnes Reading
Margaret Reid
Chris Rothko
Harold Schaller
Helen Siedel
Sue Sinto
David Smith
Lori Sullivan
LaVerne Weber
Ken Westerman and Hie Pioneer High Schoool Choirs
liz Yhouse
appreciation to the 199192 Philips Preconcert Presentation Speakers: Leslie Basset! Bill Bolcom David Crawford Judith Iciikm Elkm Paul Kate Jim Leonard Richard LeSueur Nancy Malirz Bill Malm Gail Rector Glenn Watkins

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