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UMS Concert Program, April 15, 2018 - Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo

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MonteverdiÕs LÕOrfeo Claudio Monteverdi / Composer Alessandro Striggio / Librettist RenŽ Schiffer / Composer, Reconstruction of the lost Bacchanale ending, 1607 ApolloÕs Fire: The Cleveland Baroque Orchestra Jeannette Sorrell / Artistic Director and Conductor Karim Sulayman / Orfeo Erica Schuller / La Musica, Euridice Amanda Powell / Messagiera, Proserpina, Bacchante I Amanda Crider / Speranza, Pastore III, Bacchante II
Molly Netter / Ninfa I Madeline Apple Healey / Ninfa II Owen McIntosh / Pastore I, Spirit I
Jacob Perry / Pastore II, Spirit II
Mischa Bouvier / Plutone Jonathan Woody / Caronte Carlos Fittante / Principal Dancer
Elena Mullins / Dancer in Baccante Scene
Jeannette Sorrell / Conductor and Harpsichord Sophie Daneman / Stage Director Sunday Afternoon, April 15, 2018 at 4:00 Hill Auditorium Ann Arbor 87th Performance of the 139th Annual Season
139th Annual Choral Union Series Media partnership provided by WGTE 91.3 FM. Special thanks to Jenna Bacolor, Joseph Gascho, Seema Jolly, Matthew Ozawa, and Ann Arbor Public Schools Community Education and Recreation (Rec & Ed) for their participation in events surrounding this afternoonÕs performance. Special thanks to Tom Thompson of Tom Thompson Flowers, Ann Arbor, for his generous contribution of lobby floral art for this afternoonÕs performance. ApolloÕs Fire and Jeannette Sorrell appear by arrangement with Columbia Artists Management, LLC. ApolloÕs Fire CD recordings, including a new Orpheus album, are for sale in the lobby at intermission and after the concert. The artists will sign CDs following the performance. This production is made possible by major grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the 
Paul M. Angell Family Foundation. In consideration of the artists and the audience, please refrain from the use of electronic devices during the performance. The photography, sound recording, or videotaping of this performance is prohibited. PROGRAM Claudio Monteverdi LÕOrfeo | Orpheus in the Underworld Favola in Musica, 1607 (A Fable in Music) Prologue Act I: The fields of Thrace. Act II: A continuation of the previous scene. Intermission Act III: The bands of the River Styx, gateway to Hades. Act IV: The court of Pluto in Hades. Act V: The fields of Thrace. This afternoon's performance will be performed in Italian with English supertitles. SYNOPSIS Prologue. The personification of Music addresses the noble audience (i.e. the court of Mantua) and introduces the subject of Orfeo, the famous singer of antiquity. Act I. The fields of Thrace. Nymphs and shepherds are gathered to celebrate the wedding of Orfeo and Euridice. A shepherd invites the party to sing to Hymen, the goddess of marriage, for her blessings. Following a dance, a shepherd asks Orfeo to delight them with a song. Orfeo sings a hymn of thanks to his father Apollo and his image, the sun, and then expresses his love to Euridice, who had formerly scorned him. She sings of her own love for him, and the dance resumes. A shepherd calls them to give thanks at the temple, and the nymphs and shepherds present prayerful meditations on the transitory nature of sorrow and joy. Act II. A continuation of the previous scene. A shepherd invites Orfeo to rest under the trees, and they sing in praise of the stream, the meadows and the woods, where Pan, the god of shepherds, wanders. The merry company is interrupted by the sudden arrival of the messenger, Sylvia, who brings the devastating news that Euridice has died, having been bitten by a snake. Orfeo vows to descend into Hades and bring Euridice back to earth. With bitter lamentations, the nymphs and shepherds leave to pay their final homage to the dead Euridice. Act III. The bands of the River Styx, gateway to Hades. Orfeo has found his way guided by Hope (Speranza), but she must abandon him there. Orfeo cries out at her departure, and startles Caronte, the oarsman. He demands that Orfeo turn back. In a magical aria, Orfeo draws on all his musical powers in an attempt to win over Caronte; but to no avail. Finally, OrfeoÕs music puts him to sleep. He steals the oarsmanÕs boat and crosses the river. Act IV. The court of Pluto in Hades. Proserpina, PlutoÕs wife, has heard OrfeoÕs song and is moved to plead with her husband on OrfeoÕs behalf. Pluto cannot resist Proserpina, and orders that Orfeo may have Euridice back, provided he does not look back as she follows him out of Hades. Orfeo leads Euridice joyfully from Hades, but cannot obey this condition. Euridice is taken back to the dead forever, and Orfeo is expelled from Hades. Act V. The fields of Thrace. Orfeo, on the edge of madness, wanders in hopeless despair, asking the mountains and valleys to weep with him. He hears his echo and begins to converse with it. In bitterness, he rejects all womankind, since none are as perfect as Euridice. (From this point on, MonteverdiÕs music is lost but the original 1607 libretto continues as follows.) Orfeo is overheard by a band of wild Bacchant women, worshippers of Bacchus. He hides himself. The women, enraged by his rejection of all womankind, burst on stage in pursuit. While hunting Orfeo, they sing praises to Bacchus and celebrate his gift of wine. At the end of their song, Orfeo is discovered. A stylized battle dance ensues, in which Orfeo meets his demise. GREEK TRAGEDY, REBORN AS BAROQUE OPERA The ancient Greeks knew the power of music. It is not surprising that one of their greatest myths centers on a musician. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in classical mythology Ñ portrayed in art, poetry, music, and painting. He was the son of Apollo (god of music and healing), who sang and played the lyre to charm wild beasts. His ultimate challenge was to charm Caronte, the oarsman of the River Styx, who served as the gatekeeper to Hades. In the myth of Orpheus, the power of Music takes on the forces of Death. Two thousand years later, the lost wisdom of the ancient Greeks became the focus of Italian intellectuals and artists at the end of the Renaissance. The first years of the 17th century in Italy became one of the most innovative moments in Western history, as musicians tried to recreate the lost musical style Ñ and the lost emotional power Ñ of the ancient Greek dramas. In Firenze (Florence), a group of musicians, poets, and intellectuals known as the Florentine Camerata believed that Renaissance music had become corrupt. They sought a way to return to the lost forms and style of the ancient Greeks, which they believed would lead not only to greater music, but also an improved society. The Camerata members were intrigued by ancient descriptions of the emotional and moral effect of Greek drama. Though the music of the Greeks was lost, clues to its nature could be found in the writing of the Greek thinker Aristoxenus, who had proposed that speech should set the pattern for song. The Camerata believed the Greeks had used a style in-between speech and song Ñ and that Greek drama was predominantly sung rather than spoken. (Most scholars today still agree that Greek drama was at least partly sung or chanted.) The Camerata composers were especially fascinated with the story of Orpheus, since Orpheus was the great singer and musician of Greek antiquity. As the Camerata set out to recreate ancient Greek music-drama, their experiments led to the development of monody and recitativo Ñ quasi-spoken melodic text in which the notes are in service of the words, and the words are in service of dramatic expression. The job of the composer, and certainly the performer, was to communicate the affetto (the ÒaffectionÓ or emotional mood). To allow the singer as much dramatic freedom as possible, the instrumental accompaniment was light and spare: a couple of violas da gamba, a couple of lutes, and harpsichord or organ. This became known as basso continuo accompaniment Ñ an essential feature of Baroque opera. Camerata composer Jacopo Peri first set the story of Orpheus and Euridice to music in 1600. His rival Caccini published his own version of the story a few months later. The great Claudio Monteverdi was a few years younger than Peri and Caccini. Though living in Mantua, he was deeply immersed in the concepts of the Florentine Camerata. Working with the prominent poet Alessandro Striggio as librettist, Monteverdi brought the fledging invention of opera to fulfilment as a musical art form evoking ancient Greek drama. Thus, MonteverdiÕs LÕOrfeo follows the conventions of classical Greek tragedy: a prologue (from pro and logos, Òpreliminary speechÓ) features a character who introduces the drama and explains the background of the ensuing story. In the case of LÕOrfeo, the prologue is delivered by the personification of Music. Then follows the parodos (entry of the characters/group) Ñ here we meet the shepherds and nymphs who are gathered for the wedding of Orpheus and Euridice. After this, the story unfolds through episodes, interspersed by stasima Ñ choral interludes commenting on the evolving situation. The tragedy ends with the exodus, concluding the story. Monteverdi far surpassed Peri and Caccini in his evocation of the ancient Greek Chorus Ñ the group of 12.Ð50 singers who comment with a collective voice on the dramatic action. Just as in Greek drama, the Chorus in LÕOrfeo responds to events, conveying the emotions of the bystanders and the public. As in the plays of Sophocles and Euripides, the events that overwhelm the lives of the heroes are in no way explained or justified. Rather, the ancient myth is used as a metaphor for the deep problems of current society. Thus, LÕOrfeo, like its Greek predecessors, is a painful reflection on the human condition that still resonates today. One Opera, Two Endings The ending of LÕOrfeo has been the source of debate for years. The libretto was printed and distributed twice for the two premiere performances at the palace of Mantua in 1607. Both printings contain StriggioÕs verses for the classical Greek ending of the Orpheus story: Orpheus, having rejected all womankind, is attacked and torn to pieces by a band of wild Bacchantes (drunken female worshippers of Bacchus, the god of wine). This is how the tale ends in the myth as handed down to us by Virgil and Ovid. However, the manuscript score used at those 1607 performances is lost. What survives, aside from the printed libretto, is a slightly later version of the score, published in 1609. The 1609 score does not contain the Bacchanale ending as seen in the 1607 libretto. Instead, it includes a different, happy ending, set to poetry that may be by a different librettist. (The Monteverdi scholar Iain Fenlon suggests that this portion of the libretto is not sufficiently accomplished to be the work of Striggio, but rather an amateur poet.) In the 1609 published version, Orpheus rejects all womankind, but then is gently rebuked by Apollo, and taken up to Heaven by him in a golden chariot. The ÒhappinessÓ of this ending is a bit weakened by the fact that Euridice is still languishing in Hades. It also breaks with the Greek dramatic conventions, which Monteverdi and Striggio had otherwise followed so carefully. This happy or semi-happy Apollo ending is certainly more in sync with courtly Baroque convention, but it abandons the classical Greek myth that the Florentine Camerata and, presumably, Monteverdi, were so intent on recreating. It seems doubtful that this un-Greek ending was MonteverdiÕs and StriggioÕs original intention, for several reasons. The balance and symmetry in the lengths of the other acts appears to have been planned with the extensive Bacchanale in mind, not the much shorter Apollo scene. Each of the five acts ends with an extensive ensemble scene Ñ either a lengthy chorus or a substantial set of solo or duet verses interlaced with choral or instrumental refrains. The libretto of the Bacchanale ending follows this pattern, with an extensive series of solo and duet verses alternating with the Bacchante chorus. The Apollo ending, however, provides only the extremely short chorus ÒVanne Orfeo,Ó with no solo verses. Following on the heels of the very extensive recitative in Act V, the ensemble material feels insufficient and unsatisfactory. Another curious question surrounds the purpose of the Moresca dance that ends the opera. A moresca was traditionally a stylized battle dance, often involving grotesque characters. It originally evoked a combat between Moors and Christians. Such a dance was perhaps more likely intended as a battle between Orpheus and the attacking Bacchantes, rather than a celebration of OrpheusÕ apotheosis. The Apollo ending may have been ordered by the Duke of Mantua, intended for a third performance of the opera which was to take place a few months after the premiere, when it was anticipated that the Duke of Savoy would visit to seal negotiations for a royal marriage. By 17th-century standards, the original Bacchanale ending would have been completely inappropriate for the entertainment of prospective in-laws. Some scholars have suggested that Prince Francesco (the future groom) may not only have requested the happy ending, but may have written the Apollonian libretto himself. In any case, the Duke of SavoyÕs visit was canceled, and with it the intended third performance of LÕOrfeo. This performance is ApolloÕs FireÕs own reconstruction of the lost Bacchanale ending. Composer RenŽ Schiffer (ApolloÕs Fire principal cellist) is widely respected for his reconstructions of lost pieces in historical styles, including a reconstruction of the unfinished ÒLacrimosaÓ from MozartÕs Requiem, which can be heard on ApolloÕs FireÕs CD recording of the Requiem. Schiffer has set StriggioÕs verses of the Bacchanale scene to music in the style of Monteverdi. To a 21st-century audience, at great distance from Ancient Greece and even greater distance from the prehistoric era in which GreeceÕs myths were born, the celebratory nature of the Bacchanale seems bizarre. Are the women celebrating the drunken rites of Bacchus, or are they murdering Orpheus and preparing to sacrifice him? The answer is both. Even in historic Athens, the cult of Dionysus (Bacchus) still flourished, and once a year the respectable women of Athens would go off into the woods together, become intoxicated, and kill animals with their own hands, sacrificing them to Dionysus and eating the raw flesh. The combination of violence and ecstasy was unique to this particular feminine cult, and no doubt it provided tremendous emotional release for these women who were so oppressed and restricted 364 days of the year. StriggioÕs libretto for the Bacchanale clearly demonstrates this juxtaposition of celebration and rage against Orpheus. For a further exploration of the ancient GreeksÕ view of these themes, audience members may wish to read EuripidesÕ play The Bacchae, which examines the destructive violence that can occur when the human desire for Dionysian experience is denied or oppressed. Program notes by Jeannette Sorrell, ©2018. THE BIRTH PANGS OF AN OPERA The colorful history of opera is filled with disastrous debuts, cancellations by singers, and last-minute cast substitutions. Perhaps this legacy found its birth in the debut of MonteverdiÕs LÕOrfeo, which, though not quite the first opera, is generally considered the first great one. As the court composer of the Duke of Mantua, it was MonteverdiÕs task in 1607 to compose music for a project of the DukeÕs son Ñ the Prince Francesco. The prince was the leader of an Academy (a group of gentlemen amateurs) who wanted to present a new opera on the Orpheus story at the Mantuan palace for the Carnival season. The prince did not give Monteverdi much notice to compose what would become the groundbreaking opera of all time. On January 5, 1607 he wrote to his brother Ferdinando in Pisa that he had taken the initiative in organizing Òuna favola in musicaÓ for the approaching Mantuan Carnival in late February Ñ about seven weeks away. Ferdinando asked his brother for help in requesting the loan of a castrato singer in the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Ferdinando replied in a few days, recommending a castrato who had performed in comedies Òwith great success.Ó On January 17 Francesco sent a formal letter of request to the Grand Duke, asking that the singer should be sent to Mantua in early February. He also enclosed some music for the castrato to begin studying. By February 2, however, letters show Francesco already getting nervous. Francesco now needed this singer to learn the part of Proserpina as well as La Musica, which had originally been sent to him. On February 9, Francesco lamented in a near-hysterical letter that the singer, whose name was Magli, had still not arrived. Magli finally arrived one week before the performance, and Francesco was alarmed. ÒHe knows only the prologue, and seems to think that he will not have time to learn the other part before the Carnival.Ó He suggested that Magli might simply have to learn the words, and the music would be altered to suit him, especially since the music had Òtoo many notesÓ (troppo voci). It is interesting that there is no mention of Monteverdi in this; apparently the composerÕs compliance in rewriting the composition to suit the singer was assumed. The necessary miracle seems to have occurred Ñ as it usually does: Magli learned his part in time, and Francesco reported on February 23 that ÒNot only has he thoroughly learned his whole part, but he delivers it with much grace and a most pleasing effect; I am delighted with him.Ó
ÑJeannette Sorrell UMS ARCHIVES This eveningÕs concert marks the fifth performance by ApolloÕs Fire and Jeannette Sorrell under UMS auspices. The ensemble and Ms. Sorrell made their UMS debuts in November 2011 at Hill Auditorium in a program with countertenor Philippe Jaroussky, and most recently appeared under UMS auspices in March 2016 at St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church in a performance of BachÕs St. JohnÕs Passion. Karim Sulayman and Jonathan Woody make their second appearances under UMS auspices this evening following their UMS debuts in November 2014 at St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church with ApolloÕs Fire and Jeannette Sorrell in a performance of MonteverdiÕs Vespers of 1610. Owen McIntosh makes his second appearance under UMS auspices this evening following his UMS debut in March 2016 at St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church with ApolloÕs Fire and Jeannette Sorrell. ARTISTS Named for the classical god of music and the sun, ApolloÕs Fire was founded in 1992 by the award-winning young harpsichordist and conductor Jeannette Sorrell. Ms. Sorrell envisioned an ensemble dedicated to the Baroque ideal that music should evoke the various Affekts or passions in the listeners. ApolloÕs Fire is a collection of creative artists who share Ms. SorrellÕs passion for drama and rhetoric. Hailed as Òone of the pre-eminent period-instrument ensemblesÓ (The Independent, London), ApolloÕs Fire made its London debut in 2010 in a sold-out concert at Wigmore Hall, with a BBC broadcast. Subsequent European tours took place in 2011, 2014, and 2015. European performances include sold-out concerts at the BBC Proms in London, the Aldeburgh Festival (UK), MadridÕs Royal Theatre, BordeauxÕs Grand ThŽˆtre de lÕOpŽra, and major venues in Lisbon, Metz (France), and Bregenz (Austria), as well as concerts on the Birmingham International Series (UK) and the Tuscan Landscapes Festival (Italy). North American tour engagements include sold-out concerts at Carnegie Hall, the Tanglewood Festival (2015 and 2017), the Ravinia Festival, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (2013, 2014, and 2015), the Boston Early Music Festival series, and the Library of Congress, as well as concerts at the Aspen Music Festival, and major venues in Toronto, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. At home in Cleveland, ApolloÕs Fire enjoys sold-out performances at its subscription series, which has drawn national attention for creative programming. ApolloÕs Fire has released 26 commercial CDs and currently records for the British label AVIE. Seven of these have become top-10 best-sellers on the classical Billboard chart: the Monteverdi Vespers, BachÕs Brandenburg Concertos and Harpsichord Concertos, a disc of Handel arias with soprano Amanda Forsythe titled The Power of Love, and Jeannette SorrellÕs four crossover programs: Come to the River Ñ An Early American Gathering, Sacrum Mysterium Ñ A Celtic Christmas Vespers, Sugarloaf Mountain Ñ An Appalachian Gathering, and Sephardic Journey Ñ Wanderings of the Spanish Jews. Jeannette Sorrell (conductor, harpsichord) is recognized internationally as one of todayÕs most creative early-music conductors. She has been credited by the UKÕs BBC Music Magazine for forging Òa vibrant, life-affirming approach to the re-making of early musicÉa seductive vision of musical authenticity.Ó Hailed as Òone of the worldÕs finest Baroque specialistsÓ (St. Louis Post-Dispatch), Ms. Sorrell was one of the youngest students ever accepted to the prestigious conducting courses of the Aspen and the Tanglewood music festivals. She studied conducting under Robert Spano, Roger Norrington, and Leonard Bernstein, and harpsichord with Gustav Leonhardt in Amsterdam. She won both first prize and the Audience Choice Award in the 1991 Spivey International Harpsichord Competition. Ms. Sorrell founded ApolloÕs Fire in 1992 and has led the ensemble (often as harpsichord soloist) at such venues as Carnegie Hall, the BBC Proms, the Royal Theatre of Madrid, LondonÕs Wigmore Hall, and the Tanglewood, Ravinia, and Aspen festivals. 
As a guest conductor, Ms. Sorrell has worked with many of the leading American symphony orchestras. Recent engagements include the National Symphony at the Kennedy Center (HandelÕs Messiah). Her 2013 debut with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra as conductor and soloist in the complete Brandenburg Concertos was met with standing ovations every night, and hailed as Òan especially joyous occasionÓ (Pittsburgh Tribune-Review). She has also appeared as conductor or conductor/soloist with the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, New World Symphony, the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, the Seattle Symphony, Utah Symphony, the Opera Theatre of St. Louis with the St. Louis Symphony, Handel & Haydn Society (Boston), and the Grand Teton Music Festival. The proud daughter of an immigrant, Ms. Sorrell holds an artist diploma from Oberlin Conservatory and honorary doctorate from Case Western University. She has also received two special awards from the National Endowment for the Arts for her work on early American music and an award from the American Musicological Society. Lebanese-American tenor Karim SulaymanÊ(tenor/Orfeo) has garnered international attention as a sophisticated and versatile artist of his generation. A native of Chicago, Mr. Sulayman spent years as a boy alto in the Chicago ChildrenÕs Choir and was hand-selected by Sir Georg Solti and Leonard Slatkin as a soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and St. Louis Symphony. He graduated from the Eastman School of Music and earned a masterÕs degree from Rice University. He later moved to Paris where he studied with renowned tenor/haute-contre, Howard Crook. He also studied improvisation at the Second City Training Center in Chicago. In 2018, he makes his debut at StockholmÕs Drottningholm Slottsteater as Claudio Monteverdi in the world premiere ofÊSyskonen I Mantua, and in 2017 he created the role of Albert in the world premiere of Laura KaminskyÕs Some Light Emerges for Houston Grand Opera. He has also appeared with Boston Lyric Opera, Chicago Opera Theater, and New York City Opera. Mr. SulaymanÕs credits in the Italian Baroque include his 2017 Australian debut as Testo in MonteverdiÕs Il Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda with the Australian Brandenburg Orchestra; the leading role of Eurillo in ScarlattiÕs Gli Equivoci nel Sembiante; Arnalta and Lucano (LÕincoronazione di Poppea); Eumete, Anfinomo, and Eurimaco (Il ritorno dÕUlisse in Patria); Delfa (Giasone); and the tenor solos in MonteverdiÕs Vespro della Beata Virgine (1610). A dedicated chamber musician, Mr. Sulayman was a frequent participant at the Marlboro Music Festival in collaboration with pianists Mitsuko Uchida and Richard Goode. Other highlights include appearances at Lincoln Center, the Kennedy Center, Carnegie Hall, the Casals Festival, Aspen Music Festival, the International Bach Festival, and the Aldeburgh Festival, and collaborations with conductors Harry Bicket, Jane Glover, Helmuth Rilling, Yves Abel, and Robert Spano. His discography includes the title role in HandelÕs Acis and Galatea, two releases for Naxos in works of GrŽtry and Philidor, ApolloÕs FireÕs Sephardic Journey on Avie, and an album of 21st-century chamber works, Piercing are the Darts, on Furious Artisans. He is featured in the ARTE documentary Leonard Bernstein Ñ The Composer, to be aired throughout Europe in the summer of 2018. He created a social experiment/performance art piece called I Trust You, designed to build bridges in a divided political climate. A video version of this experiment went viral, receiving millions of views on the internet, and was honored as a prize-winner in the My Hero Film Festival. Mischa Bouvier (baritone/Pluto) has been praised by the New York TimesÊfor his Òrich timbreÓ and Òfine sense of line,Ó and by the Boston Musical Intelligencer for his Òrich baritone voiceÉand his refined artistry.Ó A winner of the 2010 Concert Artist Guild Victor Elmaleh Competition, his recent engagements include his Carnegie Hall debut with Orchestra of St. LukeÕs and Musica Sacra in BachÕsÊSt. Matthew Passion; his Alice Tully Hall debut with Musica Sacra and conductor Kent Tritle, singing the New York premiere of Jocelyn HaganÕs amass; and a debut at Puerto RicoÕs Casals Festival, singing the role of Jesus in St. Matthew Passion under the baton of Helmuth Rilling with the ensemble TENET, with which he sings regularly. Recent recital engagements with pianist Yegor Shevtsov include Clemson University, Chamber Music Society of Little Rock, Macon Concert Series, and Trinity ChurchÕs Concerts at One. Mr. Bouvier received his BM from Boston University and his MM from the University and Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Amanda Crider (mezzo-soprano/Speranza, Baccante 2) has quickly won national attention for her Ògleaming vocalismÓ (Boston Globe). She recently created the role of Alma in the world premiere ofÊPersonaÊwith Beth Morrison Projects, with the Wall Street Journal declaring, Òthe eloquent Ms. Crider carried the evening,Ó while the New York Times praised her Òwinsome, vulnerable, and deeply expressiveÓ performance. Other opera engagements include Boston Lyric Opera, Glimmerglass Opera, Dallas Opera, and the Florentine Opera. She has appeared as concert soloist at Carnegie Hall in HandelÕs Messiah, and in varied repertoire with the New World Symphony in Miami and the ensemble Seraphic Fire. She has toured nationally in Jeannette SorrellÕs early American program Come to the River. Sophie Daneman (stage director) is an English soprano and stage director particularly noted for her work in period performances. She studied at the Guildhall School of Music with Johanna Peters and has established an international reputation in a wide-ranging repertoire. An accomplished recitalist, Ms. Daneman has appeared at many of the worldÕs major recital venues, including the Wigmore Hall and the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, the Musikverein in Vienna, and Carnegie Hall. Following her successful staging of the 2013 tour for Les Art FlorissantsÕ Le Jardin des Voix program in Paris, Versaille, New York, Helsinki, Madrid, and Barcelona, Ms. Daneman directed a double-bill of RameauÕs La naissance dÕOsiris and Daphnis et ƒglŽ for ThŽatre de Caen with Les Arts Florissants and William Christie, with performances in Caen, Luxembourg, Dijon, London, and Paris. Subsequent engagements included staging the 2015 tour for Les Jardin des Voix, a Schumann recital at the Holywell Music Room, Oxford, and a recording project of 17th-century music entitled Masque of Moments with Theatre of the Ayre for Linn Records. Next season she will assist Stephen Langridge on his production of Theodora for ThŽ‰tre des Champs ƒlysŽes. Carlos Fittante (choreographer and dancer) specializes in Baroque and Balinese dance and is the artistic director of BALAM Dance Theatre, a contemporary fusion dance company inspired by Balinese theater. A graduate of the School of American Ballet with a BA in dance from Empire State College, Mr. Fittante was a principle male dancer with the New York Baroque Dance Company. He studied and performed extensively in Bali with the Sanggar Semara Ratih of Ubud, and performs with Danzas Espa–olas, combining his knowledge of period dance with early Spanish folk forms. His career highlights include performing with the New York City Opera, Metropolitan Opera, and New York Theatre Ballet. His Baroque choreography has been presented by ApolloÕs Fire, Boston Early Music Festival, Sinfonia New York, and the Kingsbury Ensemble. He has performed at First Night New York, Lincoln Center Out-of-Doors, JacobÕs Pillow Dance Festival, Central Park, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and The Juilliard School. Owen McIntosh (tenor/first shepherd) has been praised by the New York Times for his Òlovely, tender high tenor.Ó He has enjoyed a diverse career of chamber music and solo performance ranging from bluegrass to reggae, heavy metal to art song, and opera to oratorio. Mr. McIntosh has shared the stage with the countryÕs finest ensembles including Blue Heron, Boston Baroque, Carmel Bach Festival, Les Canards Chantants, New Vintage Baroque, Staunton Music Festival, TENET, Trident Ensemble, True Concord, San Diego Bach Collegium, and the Grammy-nominated Choir of Trinity Wall Street. Recent solo engagements include MozartÕs Die Zauberflšte with Boston Baroque, HaydnÕs chamber opera LÕisola Disabitata with the American Classical Orchestra, BachÕs St. Matthew Passion with Grand Rapids Symphony, Il Ritorno dÕUlisse in Patria with Opera Omnia and Boston Baroque, and the role of the evangelist in BachÕs St. John Passion with Tucson Chamber Artists. Jacob Perry (tenor/second shepherd) is a cantor and chorister at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, as well as a core tenor of the soloist-ensemble Les Canards Chantants and the chamber choir The Thirteen. He can also be heard as an ensemble singer and featured soloist with The Clarion Choir, ACRONYM, Piffaro, Mountainside Baroque, and The City Choir of Washington. Having cultivated a passion for a wide variety of music ranging from medieval folk song to vocal jazz, he sings contemporary chamber works with Third Practice Ensemble, hexaCollective, and Great Noise Ensemble. In April 2017 he gave a series of recitals with artists of Tempesta di Mare in Philadelphia to celebrate the 450th anniversary of Claudio Monteverdi. He earned his BA in vocal performance from the University of Maryland. Amanda Powell (soprano/Messagiera, Proserpina, Baccante 1), is praised for her Òinspirational and expressive singingÓ (Classical Candor) and Òabundant vocal techniqueÓ ( She enjoys a diverse performing career including classical, folk, jazz, and global music. She holds a degree in vocal performance from Shenandoah Conservatory and a certificate in jazz improvisation from the Jazz in July Institute (University of Massachusetts). Ms. Powell is a favorite on the ApolloÕs Fire stage, appearing in the Praetorius Christmas Vespers, MozartÕs The Magic Flute, and as lead female vocalist in Jeannette SorrellÕs crossover programs Come to the River (national tour) and Sugarloaf Mountain, which became a Billboard best-selling CD in 2015. In 2015 she also released her solo debut album Beyond Boundaries. Ms. Powell was a 2014 Creative Workforce Fellow of ClevelandÕs Community Partnership for Arts and Culture (CPAC). She serves on the voice faculties of Kent State University and Cleveland State University. Erica Schuller (soprano/Musica, Euridice) is a versatile performer who has been praised for her Òabundant charm and luscious vocalismÓ by the Chicago Tribune. Her debut with Ars Lyrica Houston in MozartÕs Exsultate, Jubilate was noted for its Òvivid dynamic palette and assured, glittering coloratura,Ó by American Organist Magazine. Other noteworthy performances include Mozart and Handel with New Trinity Baroque Orchestra, WhitbourneÕs Annelies with the Lincoln Trio, and a reprisal of the role of Livietta in PergolesiÕs Livietta e Tracollo with the Boston Early Music Festival. Past roles with The Haymarket Opera Company in Chicago include Oriana in HandelÕs Amadigi di Gaula, Vespetta in TelemannÕs Pimpinone, and Lisetta in ScarlattiÕs Gli equivoci nel sembiante. As a concert soloist, she has performed with Great Lakes Baroque, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, San Francisco Bach Choir, and the San Francisco Chamber Orchestra. Ms. Schuller currently lives and teaches in Chicago. Jonathan Woody (bass-baritone/Caronte) has been called ÒcharismaticÓ and ÒrivetingÓ by the New York Times. A sought-after performer of early and new music across North America, he has been featured with such groups as Portland Baroque Orchestra, Tafelmusik Baroque Orchestra, Musica Angelica, Boston Early Music Festival, San Francisco Symphony, PROTOTYPE Festival, Beth Morrison Projects, and LA Opera. In March 2018, he traveled to Aldeburgh in the United Kingdom to participate in the Britten/Pears Young Artist Programme, performing HandelÕs Theodora. A committed chamber and ensemble artist, Mr. Woody is a member of the Grammy-nominated Choir of Trinity Wall Street, is artistic director of the innovative menÕs group Trident Ensemble, and has appeared in recent seasons with the Rose Ensemble, the Handel & Haydn Society, the Clarion Choir, Bach Collegium San Diego, and TENET. He holds degrees from the University of Maryland, College Park (BM) and McGill University (MM) and resides in Brooklyn, New York. APOLLOÕS FIRE | BAROQUE ORCHESTRA & CHORUS Jeannette Sorrell / Artistic Director & Conductor ApolloÕs Fire String Band Olivier Brault / Concertmaster Adriane Post / Violin Carrie Krause / Violin
Emi Tanabe / Violin ChloŽ Fedor / Violin Karina Schmitz / Viola Rebecca Landell Reed / Viola da gamba RenŽ Schiffer / Cello
Sue Yelanjian / Violone Wind Band Kathie Stewart / Recorder Steve Marquardt / Clarino Trumpet Kiri Tollaksen / Cornetto & Trumpet Alexandra Opsahl / Cornetto & Recorder
Erik Schmalz / Sackbut & Slide Trumpet Mack Ramsey / Sackbut & Slide Trumpet Liza Malamut / Sackbut & Slide Trumpet Garrett Lahr / Sackbut Becca Burrington / Sackbut         Continuo Band John Lenti / Theorbo & Guitar William Simms / Theorbo & Guitar Maxine Eilander / Baroque Triple Harp Thomas Forrest Kelly / Organ & Regale Jeannette Sorrell / Harpsichord & Organ ApolloÕs Singers Soprano I & II
Amanda Powell / Soloist
Madeline Apple Healey / Soloist
Molly Netter / Soloist
Melanie Emig Ashley Lingenhoel
Rebecca Myers Hoke
Fiona Gillespie Jackson
Elena Mullins Alto Amanda Crider / Soloist
Mindy Chu Timothy Parsons Tenor I & II Owen McIntosh / Soloist
Jacob Perry / Soloist
Corey Shotwell
Andrew Fuchs
Jeff Barnett
Nathan Dougherty
Michael Jones Bass I & II
Mischa Bouvier / Soloist Jonathan Woody / Soloist
Rob Eisentrout Daniel Fridley Aaron Keeney Production Team Sophie Daneman / Stage Director    
Carlos Fittante / Choreographer Camilla Tassi / Assistant Director, Projection Designer, and Diction Coach Cassie Goldbach / Lighting Designer Tom Frattare / Production Manager Martins Daukss / Associate Production Manager MAY WE ALSO RECOMMEND... 4/19Ð21    Cold Blood 4/22    Emanuel Ax Tickets available at ON THE EDUCATION HORIZON... 4/19    UMS 101, Dance/Theater: Cold Blood     (Power Center Green Room, 5:30 pm)     Paid registration required; please visit to register. 4/19    Post-Performance Q&A: Cold Blood     (Power Center, 121 Fletcher Street)     Must have a ticket to that eveningÕs performance to attend. Educational events are free and open to the public unless otherwise noted.

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