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Governor's Annual Message

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Fetfoiö Citizcns of the Senate, and House of Representativos. A review of ihe year which has elapsed since the ussembling of the last legislature at the Capítol cannot fail to awaken a sense of profound gratitude to Almighty God. His care has been the protection of the republic. His sleeplesa eye has ivatched our progress and His all powerful arm has guarded and direcled us. lndustry, economy and virtue have been rewarded by the enjoymet.t of happiness and prosperity. Civil, religious and political liberty has continued without interruption. Progress in the arts of peacr, in the comforts and humanities of life, in the pursuits of science and the useful arts, and in the developement of the natura) resources of the State, was nevermore remarkable than during the past year. Invoking the continued kindness and protection of Providence, over our beloved commonwealth, I greet you, Fellow Citizens, on your assernbling as a co-ordinale branch of ihe government, commissioned to consult upon the public weal. Reprefenting the wishes and interests of the different portions of the state, under the authority of recent elections by the people, I look to you for aic and counsel iuendeavoring to administer the government with a view to the public interest. If. nolwilhstanding the effbrt and solicilude of the Executive, any failure bas occurred in securingthe full enjoyment of the rights of the people or the true interests of the body politie, I solicit your strictest scrutiny into the causes,anc your co-operation in endeavors to apply the proper remedy. In performing the dutyimposed upon me by the Constitution, at the opening of a legislative session, I take pleasure in communicating to you the conaition o the State, and in recommending such mat ters as may seem to me to require your at tention. The amount received into the treasury, during the fiscnl year, to the credit of the general fund, including a balance previously unexpended, is $227,097 36 The paymenfs from this fund have been as follows : Legislativo expenses, 62,132 L7 Execuiive depanment, 11,665 9) ludiciary, J 1,239 70 Geological.Survry, 519 87 [tevised Stal utes of 1346 4.449 53 State Pnson, 12,033 03 Jaid counties, expenses of tax sales, &c. 4 1,047 79 tfiscellaneuus, 19,032 51 Total $165,125 60 Leaving in the trensury, $62.571 .76 Dednc:ing a portion of this amount which was ransferreJ from other unavailable funds, the ivailable balance is found to be $:51.519 60 The total indebtedness of this fund, including eneral fund stock, warrants, amount due to ichool fund. and to counties, on taxes, is 311,909 75 The resources óf the fund, 8 stnted bv the uditor General, amuont to $383:275 01 Al'hough a portion of these resources are no: mmedintely available, still with the ordinary in:omc from uxes, they are abundantly sufiicieni o meetevery demnnd upon the fund. The receipts of the Internal Iinprovcment 'und. during the fiscal year, including paymenls an the sale of rail roade, are $l775,007 05 Total expenditures, including state indebtedness cancclled, $1. 549,328 67 The following statement exhibits thecondition sf the Internal Improvement debt, togeTher wiih the payments made upon it, during the fiscal year, with addition of interest to January 1. Id47 : Five million loan bonds paid in full, due Jan. 1863, $l,367,C00 00 Less received on sale of Central railroad, 914.000 00 Balance full paid bonds outstanding, $473,000 00 "Interest bonds" ssned on 1,370,000 ot above, 333,324 03 Less received on sile of Cen:ral railroad, 27?t360 40 Balance interest bonda outstanding, 90.963 60 Bonds issuable on the $14,000 of above, 3,712 80 Less coupons received on sale of Central railroad as per act of No 73 of 1843, 1 ,3?6 00 Balance amount of interest bonds issu .ble 2:33ö 80 Amount of principal received up to July ]841,onthe3r8J3,000 bonds delivered to the U. S. Bnnk, 1,208,615 22 Less received on sale of Central railroad. 6,337 33 1,202.257 c9 [n'st on abovc to Jan. 1 '47 431,621 64 Less coupons rec'd and inter'6tall'd on ale oi Central railroad 2,354 S 479,267 08 1681,524 97 Rec'd from Morris canal assets on account ofnbove $3,813,000 bonds,6inceJuly, '41 23,835 50 In te reit on above fro n re'pt to Jan 1, 1847, 4.770 32 ■ 23,605 82 Palmyra nd Jacksonburgh railroad si ocUj 2ÖrO0O 00 Less rceived on sale of Central railroad, 10.000 00 IMUnw, 10,000 00n't on abuve stock t Jan. I, 13-17, 7,845 83 Lesa coupons rec'd nnd in't all'd n snlo ofCcnt'l rail road, 3.SC7 61 3.978 ?-2 1 3,973 32 O utstanding internnl iinir.e:nent wairnnisand interest 4"ü,99' '■ Outstanding land warrnnts, 14.701 C5 Oursintid ng Treasiiry notes nnd interest, 9.4Í7 00 Due l'niversity fund ior warrams rcc-ived, C6.I30 00 Duc state building i'und for warrant reccivud 1O.9fl 4P $.842 i 5 D'J Making the balance due on dcbi uuitnndtng on tlie lïOih S'.iv. l.'ilö, including iren-st to Jan. lst. 1S47, $2,8.2 í)."0 9J The balance duc on the snle of the Centr;d nnd Soiiihcrn liaü $.". 510 2i Wliich dcdtictcd fmm the ntove mentiuned indt-hicdupss. Ieavia total of Intornal Iniprovement debt, $I.9S7,14 7T Tlie resources nppücablc to this fund, as esiiuiated by the Auditor General, amount to $422.123 00 The Clinton nnd Kalamazio Cana! may also properly be considered as mcans applicable to ifiis purpose. The total amount of Interna! Improvemen debt. discharged by payinents on the s'ile oi the Central Railroad. ís 1.634,483 7c The sale of this road to the Central llail Uoa Company. was perfected, ngreeably to the act au:liorizing tlie same, in September last. In compüanee with the provisions of the net of incorporation, the said coinpany piy into the treas ury in coupuns and money for interest due in Jnnuary and July, (846, the cum of $105,000 00 And upon ron contracta outstanding, and money to liquidóte ihe sime, the siim of $135,673 42 Tlie Southern Rail Road Company has also completer] the purchose of the Southern road, under its act of incorpora tion, and has paid nto the treasury, the sum of 850,000. Of this sum $40,000 has been reccivedsince the close of the fiscal ear, and is therefore not includtc in theabove statement of payments. The remaining üabilities of the State usually denominaled the contingent debt consist of a loan of 6100,000 in siate bonds, to the Detroit and Pontiac Rail Road Company ; the same amount lo the Universily of Michigan ; and the deposites in the treasury, of the surplus revenue of the United Stales. In the payment of the loan fírst mentioned, the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad is pledged to the state, and proceedings for the collection of the amount due are now pending in chancery. The ampie resources of the University fund are sufficient to meet the annual interest, and uhimite'y, the principal of the University loan, and, a demandby the general government for the re-payment of the deposite?, isa remote contingency. The balance in the treasury at the close of the fiscal year, was 878,561 00. In tho above statement of the Internal Improvement debt, it will be perceived that the bonds, amounting to $3,813,000, which were delivered to the United States Bank, on special contract, and paid in part ouly, are stated at the amount actually received by the state upon tbem. - By an act of the Legislature, npproved March 8, 1843, it was proposed, upon a a surrender of all the bonds of this class, to issue new bonds for the amount actually received, after deducting a specified sum for damnges, witli a pledge for the punctual payment of interest. These bonds, it is understood, have herelofore been in deposite in Europe, under terms which have precluded their control by individuals for this purpose. A recent distribution of them among the individua creditors of the United Slates Bank, to whom they were pledged ns securlty, has now obviated all dífíículties of this na ture. No occasion, under existing laws on this subject, has been presented since my induction into the E.xecutive office to require an examination into the mer its of any question as to the actual anioun to be paid on this class of indebtedness. - VVhatever the principies of justice shal require, the holders will not fail to re ceive, and it is for the interest of all par ties, that a final adjustment should be made, wilh os little delay as possible. A modificaron of the law on this subject, extending the benefit of its provisions to the holders of any port ion of the bonds in question, and reducing the amount to be deducted for damages, would seem to be required. Alihough no surrender hns been made under the act last mentioned, there hae been received into the treasury, from ihe Central Rail Road Complhy, at the rates specified in their act of incorporation, bonds of this class amounting lo $21,000. I cannot too sirenuously urge upon your consideration the duty of the state to provide lor the speedy adjustment and ultímate payment of the internal improvement debt. This indebiednêss has for years embarrassed the treasury, retarded immigration, and discouraged the enterpriseof Michigan. The material redtiction in the amount effected under the legislative enactments of the last session, inspires new confidence in the power of the state to discharge all its outstanding obligations. It is not to be expected that thiscan be done without zealous eíForts,_or vithout a contribution from the means of ur citizens. Tlie sacrifice required to namtain (he reputation and honor of the state, will, I am confiden', be cheorfully nade, and judicious lpgislation, havirig br ts object the discharge of the public iebt, will meet with a henrty response from the people. In nddition to the punctual payment of the interest, provisión should be maljby setting apart the mems for that purpos-, for the gradual discharge if the principal. The ne't earnings of the Central Railroad, during the portion of theyear while it was owned by the state, amountcd to $föl,925 62 Of thissum, there was pnid on claims for iron, locomolives and cons'ruclion, $31,925 G2 Cash in hands of Commissioner and duo on mail conti acts 8,008 24 30,933 86 The balance being 65,000 00 was paid into the treasury. Independ ent of the expenditures from the earnings of ihe road, there was paid for contruction, in land warrants, under an ncWo appropriation, the sum of 831,008 09 and outstanding bonds for iron, to the amount of $113,500 16, were dischargec by means received from the sale of the road. The nett earnings of the Southern Rail rond, during the year, have been $32, 172 35. Of this sum $12,736 have been paid into the treasury. The expen ditures for construction, not dischargec from the earnings of the road, atnount to $5,521,68. Under appropriations of 1845 and 1846 there has been expended on the Clintoi and Kalamazoo canal, in land warrants the sum of $6,796 06. The portion o the canal between Mt. Clemens and Uti ca, have been in use since the first of No vember last. Il is estimated that an ex penditure of $2,500 will put it in gooc navigable order to Rocheter. There has also been expended during the j'ear, in improving the navigation of the St. Joseph river, the sum of $4,367,86. The sale of two principal works ol internal improvement, will produce an important change in state afiairs. lts effects is lo relieve the state government from the construct ion of railroads, and the management of a carrying business upon them. It renders the business of ine different departments less complicated, and prevenís a most fruitful sourceof expensive legislation. It precludes the employment and supervisión of numerous agents, artizans and workmen, and si.nplifies the whole operationsof government. Il discharges State indebtedness, to thearnount of two millions, five hundred thousand dollars, yields a large annual revenue, and,by heavy expenditures among our citizens, in prosecuting the work to completion, secures the benefit of a most important chain of communication. It is not my intention here to discuss thepropriety orexpediency of the legislation, by which these rcsults are producsd. Time must test the wisdom of the measure. No important change in public policy, has, however, been demanded with more urgency, or sanctioned with a more hearty approval by the people. The more we contémplate the genius and design of a republican government the more, I think, we shall be led to dep recate the policy, a few years since so rife, of bringing within its care and su pervision, subjects foreign to its reol de sign. The responsibilities, profits, anc hazards of private business, should be lef to individual enterprize. To avoid being governed to much, is one of the objects of a representative form of government and to secure the good of community in this regard, all authority in maiters no immediately connected with the public weal and indispensable to the welfare o the body politie, should be wiihheld. I is among the encouraging signs of ihe present time, that the public mind is de mandinga more definite limitation to the powers and duties of government, and a relinquishment of all unnecessary inter ference with the free action of the indi vidual citizen. In closing up the business pertaining to the works thus disposed of, and in maintaining charge of the canal, and oiher works of improvement, upon which appropriations have been made, it will be necessaryto retain the organization of a board of internal improvement. With the expiration of the term of the present acting Commissioner, in April next, it is beüeved that office may be abolished, and the duties be devolved, without expense, on someofthe state officers. The change contemplated by the sale of the railroads, by no means implies a relinquishment of the advantages of this tind of intercommunication throughout the state. The development of the resources of the commonwealth, its abundant product?, its mineral wealth, and the business relations of an industiïous and increasing populntion, will secure these advantages to the different portions of ourerritory. Under charters.properly guarded in their provisions, a profitable investnent of capiial wil' be found in the construclion of roads required by ihe business of the country. The total amount of money distributed among the several townships, during the year, lor the support of Primary Schools, is 827,925,72, being thirty-one cents to every child between the ages of four and eigliteen years, and cxceeding the amount of last year's distnbuüon, by the sum of 85,812,72. The number of scholars in the state, betunen the nges last mentioned, is reported at 99,658. The whole number of children that have altended the common schools during the year is 77,807. This number is greater by 7,037 than during tho preceding year. - The number of volumes in the township librarles in the siate, are, according to the returns, 36,998. The laws on the subject of common schools, it is believcd, are such, when fuithfully executed, as generally to secure, in a manner highly sntisfactory, the great interests of education. The chief obstados to the realizati on of all the benefits of our noble school system, are found in the want of punctual nttendance on the part of scholars, and deiiciency in the qualifications of teachers. To correct the former, rests principally with parents and guardians. The latter is an rvil, deplorable in its consequences, and difiicult of correction. - Volunta ry associalions of teachers, for mutual instruction, have given an earnesl ofmuch improvement in thisrespects. In several of the Slates Normal schools, having for their object the qualification of instructors, have been fostered in private munifieenceand legislativo aid, and have been atlended with the most beneficia results. Teaching, ilself an art, is proper ly made a subject of instruction. The mis sion of the teacher demands hih qualifications. As the object of his profession is of the greatest importance, so his employment should be considered most honorable, and his efibrts beseconded by every friend of the rising generation. It is difiicult losay what metliod, f any,of a public character, should be adopted to raise the standard of excellence in this important departmenf, but I cannot refrain from recommending it to your consideration as a subject in vhich the interests of the public are deeply involved. The number of students in the University of Michigan, is seventy. The faculiy consists of seven professors. By the assiduous labors of all connected vvith the several departments of instruction, the advantages pertaining to education in the higher departments of literature, the arts and the 6ciences, have been enjoyed to a degree highly creditable to the s'.ate, and useful to the communitv. - The rare example of the principie of free schools applied to an institulion of the highest order, is here presented. Without charge for tuition, every citizen of the state is entitled to the benefits of a liberal education. Thenett proceeds of the University fund, applicable to the support of the in stitution, have been, during the year, $7, 993,02. During the year ending on the last da) of October, forty convie's were receivec into the States Prison, thirty were ds charged, three escoped, and one died. - The number remaining at the date las mentioned, was one hundred and twenty two. The fullowing sunis were receivec by the agent of the prison during the year : From the state treasury for support of convicts, $6,500 00 From earnings of convicts on contráete. 6,523 65 From other sources, 762 13 Balance on hand last year, 215 80 Total, 14,001 58 The expenditureshave been as foilows For the support of convict department, $9,612 53 Expenditures on buildings and in repairs, 4,385 86 Total, 613,998 39 In addition to the above mentioned sum of $6,500, there has been drawn from the state tr asury $5,006 for the salarie of the officers of the prison, making the total amount of payments from that source 811,506. Although np return is made to the treasury for this heavy draft, yet the improvements made by the increase of buildings ond machinery, may justly bo considered as a credtt to the amount of their value. The expenditures on the buildings have amounted to $4,385 68 Estimated value of convict labor on same, 3,560 13 Earnings of convicts on contracts, not yet received, 932 85 Balance in hands of agent, 3 19 Total, $8,882 03 which deducted from the nmount drawn from the treasury, leaves a balance of expenditures above all credits, of $2,623 97. The quantity of land sold at :he state land office, during the fiscal year, is reported as foilows : 7,682 13-100 acres primary school lands, $39,077 70 1,335 21-100 acressity land, 16,254 52 296 83-100 acres state building lands, 2,778 76 41,010 10-100 acres internal improveinent lands (including 6,000 acres granted for Grand River bridge,) in warrants, 43,762 76 Asset lands, 4,642 62 Total, $106,516 36 The total amount received on sales of the last and previous years for nll classes of lands, is 116,456 25. Agreeably to the direction of t'ie legislature, as expressed in a "joint resolution relative to the selection of public land," approved in March Jast, I made selection lor the state of 5,920 43-100 acres of land in the Upper Península. - The choice was made with the best knowledge I could obtain as to the value of particular locations for mineral wealth, anc notification of the selcctions was, during the same month, furwarded to the Cornmüsioner of the General Land Office, at Washington. Similar selections of internal improvement lands have heretofore received the confirmation of the Secrelary of the Trcasury of the United Slates. In this instance, such confirmation has not vet been announced. The unfmishec state of thesurveys in the Northern Península, the unsetiled policy of the government in reference to the mineral lands and a change in the office of Commissioner, have probably been the occasion of delay in this natter. The quetion whether such confirmation be necessary to perfect ihe title of the state to land selected according to the grant of Con gress and the laws of this state, I do no deern it proper here to discuss, as I canno doubt that the speody action of the prope department will soo:i give the usual sane tion to the selections. Deducting the quantity of the above mentioned selection from the unlocated portion of the 500,000 nere grant for internal improvement pur poses, there remain to be located only 1.575 16-100 acres. In the present state of legislation, the salt spring lands cannot be sold wit hou authority given by act of Congress. A proper application for that purpose wouk probably secure the consent of that body In my last annual messnge, I called the attention of the legislature to the charac ter of the leases executed by the Secretar) of War, of the mineral lands in this state and to the injustice of the leasing system The opinión then expressed, that the lea ses were made without authority, ha since been sanctioned by the highest func tionaries of the General Government. I is of the utmost impor'.ance to avoid in time the evils which must necessarily at tend this unusual disposition of the public domain. Anticipating the wrong whicl would thereby be entailed upon the state without profit to tlie treasury, and the em barrassments of conflicting interests which would necessarily arise betwee the staie and the United Slates govern ment, if the citizens of the former are te be the tenants of the latter, the protest o Michigan against the system has airead; been made by the lcgislature. In th disposal of this portion of the publi lands, it is believed that the true interest of the general government and of th state are identical. Sales in fee, at moe erate prices, and to actual settlers, wi best subserve the general welfare. ] will invite a population of freeholder unfold the resources of the country, en large the field of enterprise and profi and sirengthen the arm of the Govern ment. A statute was passed at the last sessio of the Legislature, providir.g for the or ganization of four counties in the minera región, and establishing therein, as a Ju dicial district, a temporary authority fo certain purposes. This law is found m perfect in its provisions, and requires re visión. The organization of township within the territory seems indispensable and the advantages of judicial tribunal and civil officers, should be extended t that portion of the state. By the presen law, the island known as Isle Royale, i is not comprised within the limits of an of the counties, neither are the contigi ous wa!ers of Lake Superior, which ar within the bounds of the State, embrace within their jurisdictional limtts. There are remaining, during the pres ent winter, in the mineral country, accor ding to information entitled to confidence at least one thousand men. engaged prin cipally in mining. The operations o this character during the year, have oon firmed the general confidence in the belie that the región in question is one of the richest in the world in valuable ores ; an it cannot be doubted that it will at no distant day become the theatre of extensive mining operations, the source o much wealth, nnd the residence of a numerous population. These new interests, now rapidly increasing in a portion of tbe state, but recently deemed remóte and unimportant, commend themselves to the guardián care of the legislature. The attention of the legislature has frequently been called to the importance of a communication around the FpIIs of the Ste. Marie, between the lower lakes and Lake Superior. Expenditures in surveys and labor upon a canal for that)urpose, were so me years since, made by lis state, but furiher prosecution of the nterprise was provented by nuthority oí United States officers. Notwithstanc'ing he national character of the work, Congress has hitherto neglectcd to approprite money for its conatruction. The increased and ncreasing business on Lake Superior now renders this communication almost indispensable, and I respectfully ugges'. the propriety, unless the speed action of Congress should render it unnecessary, of commitiing its construction to an incorporated company, wiih proper restrictions in its charter, and a reservation of the right, on equitable terms, to purchase the work for the public benefit. The reports from the several departments of the government, wil!, in due time, be laid before you, by the proper officers, and to the statements and suggestions therein contained, I respectfully solicit your attention. The reports of the Adjutant General and Quarlermaster General are herewith transmitted. The whole number of cnrolled militia in the state isreported to be 61,045. The neglect of the township officers, upon whom is devolved by law, the duly of returning the namss of persons liable to do military duty, has occasioned much embarrassment. A strict atlention on their part to this duty is indispensable under the present militia organization. - In pursuance of ihe provisión of the law of Congress, authorizing an annual distribution of arms, this state has received her quota for the last year, amountiiig, in value, to the sum of $6,500. A communication from the war Department of the United States,dated May I9th, 1846, was received by me, requiring the enrollment of a voluntecr regiment, to be held in readiness for the service of the country, whenever demanded by the President. A cali for this organization of volunteers, received a ready response from our patriotic fellow citizens, who, to a number greater than required, tendered themsel ves for this duty. No order has been received for mustering this regiment into service, but the alacrity with which our citizen soldiery have presented themselves as volunteers, gives full assurance of their readiness, in case of emergency, to bear their part in suslaining the rights and honor of the county in the ranks of the national army. Noeventcould be the subject of more general regret, than the present hostile collision with the government of Mexico. Long years of peace have blessed our nation. The love of domestic quiet anc of peaceful pursuits, and a settled aversión to the policy of war, pervade almost every class in community. From its earliest, our national government has cuhivated amity with every nation, and a constant eflbrt to avoid a resort to arms in the seltlement of matters of diiTerence, is apparent in the history ol our foreign relations. Remonstrance has succeeded remonstrace, negotiation lias foïlowed negotiation, and a spirit ol concession and forbearance has ever been liberally exercised to avoid threatened hostilities. It is creditable to the spirit of the age, that the same just anc humane sentiment, characterising olher civilized nations of ihe earlh, have enabled us, almost uniformly, to maintain an honorable peace. With Mexico, a sister republic on the same continent, a friendly alliance is especially desirable. In reviewing the causes of the present war between the two nations, the same forbearance under provocations and indignities, and the same unremitted efibrts to cultívate friendly relations'and to avoid hostilities, which have becoine the settled policy of our government, are apparent on our part. - Hiiherto, in the contest, the most brillian success has rested on the American arm" and valor has been rewarded with victory W hile we rejoice over our national tri umphs, shall we not devoutly hope tha the renewed offers of peace magnani mously tendered by our government, may secure an honorable ndjustment of differ enees, and again unite the two república in the bonds of amity. At the commencement of the last sessionofthe Legislature, five banks only were in operation in the state. Since that time two of these, the Oakland County Bank and the River Raisin, have ceased to do business. Proceedings are now pending in chancery, having for their object tho forfeiture of their chartcred privileges, and the distribution of their effects among creditors. The failure of these two monied corporations, at a time of general business prosperity, has renewthe recollection of the disasters incident to the banking system. The state of Michigan has now fewer banks than at any former period, and it maysafely be asserted that the legitímate business of the community has never been transacted on principies more safe and economtcal, and with such uniform and certain profits, or with such well requited reliance upon skill, industry, and economy, to the exclusión of hazardous speculation, as during the past season. In some of the states, an eflbrt is being made to abolish the old system of banks, and to adopt another with different checks and securities. That some of its evil may horeby bo avoided, ia beyond a doubt. -Fn any event, however, it is believed thtfi :he people of the state, prospered in theif ausiness transactions, and warncd by thé lessons of the post, desire no legislation :alculated to increase the hazards of moneyed coperations. A law passed at the last aession outhor ized the Government to nppoint sonte competent person to collate and arranee the materia Is and memoranda in the office of the late geologist of the state and appropriated $1,700 for coutinuing the surveys, ond preparing and publishing a final geological report. F rom an oxamintion of aflairs at the office, I was satisfied that the task of preparing a final report would be one of much labor and expense, and I did not feel wil) ing to commence again the geological e.xploraions, unfortunately terminated by the death of the late geologijt, until some dcfiniteplan shnll be adopted, and the limit of the expenditures ascertained. Instead, therefore, of proceeding under the law above referred to, I have procured eslimates to be made by a person connec.ed1 with the geological department, of the probable expense of preparing and publishing a final report from the materials now in the office, which 1 herewith transmit for your consideration. It will be seen thereby, that twoyears labor of a competent person, already familiar with that department, will be required. For the preparing and publishing of two thousand volumeSjthe total expense to the treosury is estimated at $3,560, not including the printing and binding. The expenses ofthese lasf, it is presumed, can,'y agree. ment with the publisher, be met out of the first sales of the work. The importance of this publicüion cannot be doubted, but the embarrnssed state of the treasury induces me, before commencing unlimited expenditures, to lay the estímate of the whole work before you, for consideration. The npprouching expiration of the official term of one of the Senators from this state in Congress, will require the eiection of his successor, at the present session. The twelfth article of the constituí ion also provides that the seat of government shall, at the present session, be permanently locuted by the legislature. In many instances where nj constiiutional provisión renders it necessary, the laws have conferred on the Governor, the appointment of officers whose duties are local, and not immediately connected with the administration of state nfTairs. - The want of personal knowledge on the part of the Executive usually compels that officer to rely on the recommendation of others, in regard to the qualification of pplicants. Experience of the óifficulty in making judicious selecticns for these offices, and confidence in the wisdom of the people, induce me to believe that an eiection by the voters, among whom the official duties are to be performer!, would be preferabie to the present mode of ap pointment. While it would relieve the Executive from the exercise of a power, by no means to be covetéd, it would secure the services of men equally honest and capable,and would give better satisfaction to all. The appointment of all military officers, is, under the present law, alsoentrusted to the Governor. It would seem both just and politie, that in the selection of company officers, the recommendation of the company should be received, and in offices of a higher grade in the line the selection shoule be committed to the commissioned officers associated in the same command. Much of the time of the legislature of ihe last session, was employed in revising the general statutes of the state. The revisión then adopted, has been published, but does not take efiect as a law, until the first of March next. In a work of this character, perfection is not to be expected, nor can any human wisdom avoid the necessity of occasional modifications, and eorrections. In some portions of this revisión, especially in the provisions relative to the judiciary. important changes have been introduced. An examination of these provisions may suggestdifficulties in their practical operation, which a due regard to public welfare may require to be anticipated by further legislation. - To secure the speedy and correct decisión of causes, without overtaxing the laborsofthecourts, to bring the expenses of the administration of justice within proper limits, and to maintain an able and independent judiciary, are objects of the highest importance. It is lor the legislature to determine, whether or not further legislation on the sebject, at the present time, is necessary or expendient. Where no manifest objections to the provisions of the revisión are apparent, good policy would secm to require that it should be submitted to the test of ex. perience. Evils exhibited in its practical operation, can be remediedby future legislation. Excessive legislation, and frequent changes in the statutes, have heretofore been the subject of repeated and just complaints. Laws permanent in their character, and general in their application, afford the best guaranty to the rights of individunis, and the welfare of the state. - The numerous applications for special legislation, inteoded to suhserve local: