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From New Mexico

From New Mexico image
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Corrcspondence of Tui Couriir. Pusdlo Cinco, N. M.. J"ly i, iSSo. The ruina of' that prc-Spanish civilization, wliich sproad itself ovor this territory and parts of' Arizona and Colorado, umi which aic now found in the most unho.spitable and isolatcd place", many leagues removed f'rom tho abodes of me of the present day, open up an intresting field of study to the studont of ethnology, as well as Ui those who delight in tho ancient and primitiva oi man'sworks to understand the remóte punt. These mina culi op a past to reinóte onc doubts, in looking at the nesnsw oomparativcly of the bcginning of civilizcd Cauoaasian liie on thi.s continent, that a people witli red skins, low forebeads and spleudid phygiqno, ever oould have boen tho animating spirts of' an activo and intelligent i xistencc, suoh as the prambling and bruken implcuients here ivo cvidcncc. _ The ruina of Qrau Quwm, in Lmooln county, and at Pueblo Cbioo, mutely proolaim that eities of 5,009 to 10,080 people oooupied these pUoea. llore are found rude implomonts fur tilling the soil, eopper veSBeü that wen' used in kBieltíng the ores, found even to tlii day nliundantly in ¦,li ¦ lurroundiog lililí, the rode embaokmenta of tho aoeqaiaa by whioh the water was eonveyed frotu tho moontains, twonty uiilea distant, into and through tlie streitn of' the city, stoiie and molal murtare used for doniesüe, and other applianees of a crudo but vigorous lifo. Their temples of' worship oootaining atone images - temples that were built many, many centuries ago- are seen in distinet outlino by tho visitor of today. The Álteos may not have liad a grand civilizíition; thcy cortainly liad u proressivc one for those times, and the traveler turna in memory, while digxing among tho ruios to an ago of civihzud exintenoo that waa old, perhapa "when Peter the Bermit rousud thu knightly men of the middle n'cs to arms for the first erusade ; was old when (Jhrist and his disciples walked tho carth, and when the lipa of Mennon were vocal and men bought and nold in the streeta of' aucient Thebes." The Aztec lifo may havo been eontemporaneous with that of' the cliiT-dwollors and mound buildcrs ; vet the Aztee civilization was far aliead of tho intelligonce of those races ; the formerof which made their dwellinR places on almost inaccessible oliffs and uuapproachablc canons, and who were more beasts than men. Tiio Álteos havo passcd away, but indirectly their civilization is to day apparont ii the Pueblo Indinn8,who live in towns, as the Aztecs did, and from which l'uct they take the name Pueblo - meaning a town- who ave at ] o cc with thcmselves and their oeighbors, cultivating tho fields, loving their families and observing tlie laws. 'Ihe Pueblos are einpliatieally good indiana,' howevur great tlio anomaly may seeui in m!ikinir nf tho red-man. Tho Pueblos speaking oí tno reu-umu. -i"u i ucunw namber aboot 5,000 wmla in thia torritory. Their towns are a novel Mght, The conoiike hutu, nestling closely together with l wliitencd exterior Beeno like a meadow wliiii tin) carcful farmer has njread tho eanvass over the mounds of hay. Exccedatnen oí' person and drets, together ili ,-i MTimulnuH olcanlinesg of the_interior cl' the welling oharactcnaes tbis peoplc. In eultivatiug tho ostheties ot hle ihey employ their leisure in making potfcöry, which in design and uolor, deooration and quality, compares favorably witli much of the clay brío a brae that adonis tho inantleH and oosy nonks ol' tho homes of relineinent and eulture. The Pueblos dress in skins and woolcns, and evinoo a decidcd tor modest and attractive apparcl. They are devoted to tlieir religión, nearly all bcing memben of the Catholio ehurch. The eniraiico to the dwalling is through the roof, wliich i.s attaincd by uieans of a ladder. Througb an aperturo, Sftaen or eiRhtcen inehes in diameter, and whioh is the ouly inetbod of ingress and egresa, the hut only oontaining a few eye-hoM8 hore and there, a pers in of attenuated phyBKJue ;an pass to the inniOHt reoo.ssca ot' tho home. Thu domestio affairaof the family, so far as the DOoklDK and bakinp are concerned, ar relegated i a aectionofthe roof,whe a smal! platform s oonatrooted fir the purpose. Thu inner walls of the dweiling are profusely adorned with articlcs ui' bandiwurk, wilh pottery tatitci'ully arranged on nhflvci and braekets, andeheap print illustrations of the Virgin Mary and the saints of the churoh. Altogether the l'ueblo Indian is the best exponent of the decent tendencies of' lite to be found among the various Indian tribes of tho torritory. The Navajoes occupying a resoryation in tho northwestorn part of tho territOTV are generally well disposcd towardsthi wliilcn, and industrious. They enltivate the soil, keep uiany eittlo and i-lieop, and if not greatly exasperated by the whites, reserve a o,uiet oontentment and look sharply aftor their own atlairs. The passing of prospeotors and minors into the .:in Joan country, a portion of whioh lies in their reservation, bas greatly cxeited them, and it is quite poanble they inay drop tbc arts of puaoo and sound tbo tocsin of war, at any moment. Tho NavajoCH aro jiretty fair Indiana in most thiog, but it would be wiso to talk with them tbrougli a teliphone if they liavc any matters of disagreomont with you. ThlB üILo . ponPCtnll no littlc ingonuity and practical talent in the manufacture of oloth. A blanket, that is handwovon, abounding in durable colors and iuipervious to air and water, and whioh will wear a oentury, if ncoesaary, is the ninst notable feature of their manufaeturing skill. There in a tribe of' Iwilians. however, roaming over the Southern counties of New Mexico and eautern Arizooa, thongh they liavc a reservation in Lincoln county, that for pure, nnqoalified, promtwootu moanFor the most innuman and barbarous treatnient of vietims and prisOBer whom they may eapture, and who are fiends inearnate, bas not an equal on the western bemisphere. We will cali them bad Indiana, though teohniOally they are known aa the Mese.ilero Apaches. They are smi worshipors, dirt-eaters, Bghter, expert honeman, nnt on!y in the gaddle, hut as vM in stealini' horsee from th'' nativos, biilliintsliots nnd fleol offoot Victoria, tho prewnt Bgbting oWef of tbc Apache warriors, ix one of the ableM and unir-I Btrategk) Indian leaders of thin or aoy other time. "The nobility of the red-man" is nut to any wonderful exteni developed in Iii nature. lle is lieree, tanio- a heroio soul, develish in aotion. With an agrégate fihting foroe of 500 to 70U warriors, he has outgeneraled the regular arniy with doublé the nuuiber of men. He lias eommkted the iiumt ditbolieal crimes against the porson and property of tho sottlor, prospector and miner. H is hdro to-day and thore toinorrow, killing, stealing and huruing ranchea, uttorly unmindful of the negro soldiery the government scuds aftor him. The Apaohc is an expert thiof, and will steal the freoklea t'roin before your ovt-s, tind th''ii he will tlunk ho luis only half done hi work, in not taking one's eyolashes, too - tuotaphorically seaking. Símil a truthful and complete account bo written of tho doingi of tho Apaehos in this territory during tho past eighteen inonths, it will teil of the bfeaohing bonos of pioneer, miner, prospector and sottlcr that lio all over this land, Imrncd bomes, ravished womon, nnd children carried into eaptivity. All of whiuh mutely appeals to high heaven in vengeanee aud tho total exteruiination of tho Mescalcrs Apachos. Hut inough of thi". Tho Apachos are tilled with mysticisme and Buporstition. Wonder ncver coaso with them. They worship the sun, which is thcir Great Spirit. A cloud drifting uoross lus face they run in terror to their incautious and religious ritos. They must appcasc the unieer of tho Groat Spirit who has hiddeu his face bocauso of their illdoeds. In darkness they are timid and dospondeut, and cagcrly await tho morn when the sun ooines forth again in his majesty aod power. One who undcrstamls the niy.sterious influence of the sun apon thosc Indians will always find it oxtrciuoly convenieut to travol through the country the ApachcB infest either on a cloudy day or by night, othorwiso tho chances are ho wil! not got to tho end of bis journoy. In this eonneolion it should be faid that the Indian question in New Mexico is a matter of paramount ini]ortanco to all. Hcre is a sparaely BCttled territory, aboundiug in untold quaniities of gold, silver, copper and other minorals, and which can bo mincd at a minimum of cost, thua makiog it in fact the Kldoruilo of the country, providing only that capital and labor shall bc adequately protectcd from the deprodations of the Indiana. So far the greatost misnianagoment has charaotcrized the doalings of tho govornment with tho bad Indians. and as n roHult, thcre is a terribly bitter and rovongeful foeling in the heart of tho Moscalero Apaches agninst overy whito man and nativc in tho territory. These Indians will not desist in their infamous work until they conquer or are conquored. It is impossiblc, as it bas already boen demonstrated, for tho regular army horc, with its present forco, to check tho ravages of the Apaches, or oven fo anDoy them to any considerable extent. The trritory has called for assistance and oven voluntcored men of her own, who would in a short time send every Apache to Hados were thoyallowod the ojiportunity of fighting them, Tho conoiliatory policy of the niusical Teutón is not adapted to tho condition of afiairs hcro. Tho Indians must bo treated the same as anybody olse, and if thoy lircnk tho laws suffer tho penalty theroof. Let tho care of the Indiana bc transfer red to tho war departmtnt, then the soldiera ean find moans without hinderanoc to have cvory portion of tho torritory as free from depredatiou and bloodshed as the most ooufirmcd neacomakers desirc. By thua putting tho Indian undor tho oontrol of tbc war department the most fruitful oaose of Tndian hostilitios will bo removed. The placing of holy mon, presumably, in responsiblo positions, as agents, post traden, atn., ia pornioinus systcin and has resoltcd in great loss to the governincnt, as weil as brought alout tlic perplexity of affairs oonnectod with Indian management or rather ini;iuanagoiHetit. Uno thing ought to bc done in tho prosent crisis, ithrr shoot the agents or enter upnn a war of extennination of tbi Apachos. Tho poople of New Mc xieo will chcerfully accept either horn of' the dilemma. TUK I'KNlTENTrS. A larcc Dumbei of tho Mcxican population beiong to thn order of the l'ooitanti.s, whicli íh a hranch of thc üatholio chnroh, thoufih they are exoommunieated and are not recognized by tho (Jatholic pricsts yet thcy cling to tho borders of' the churoh and claiin to be truc Christía&S, and the roally only truc onos. Tho roligious obÜKations of the Ponitontia are moro apparont during passion week than at any other timo. At tliis tima they aro very cruel, whipping nnd cutting themselvcs and ono another till tlie blood strearus from thom. Midway between Las Vegas and tho Hot Springs, the travoler will notice high upon the mountuin side a rude cross standing out íxildly agninst the sky. Tothis point niembers of tho orders of' Penilentis crawl over the rough and Btony road from Las Vegas setilcment, tortuing themsolves and orying aloud in grief and lamontation. This cross is planted where a devoteo of tlio order laid down and expirad under tho burden of the cross, whicli he had borne to this placo from Las Vegas, crawling along on hands and knees in tho plcntitudo of a supposed picty, but in faot a terrible dolusion. One aíso MM a little way down the mountain sidn a small adobe houso, witli a low door in front, and no windows, which tho Penlentis oceupy once year as a place of secret oouncil. Tho Pontentis are believed to be an off shoot from the Franoisian order of inonks, whose technieal name is, "The third order of tlio Seraphio Fathcr Saint Fraouia Assíhíuih," though tho line of connection cannot le traced and the cliuruli ültuwna Uiuui. A STUDY IN NATURAL HIBT0RY. Tn the stndy ot natural history in New Mexico one's attention is callcd to a most interesting subjoot yitalized and dun-cnlnrcd, wliioh is attraotivn to the travolcr, not alono for its penuliarities, luit as well for the exceodinor tntiqnity which is apparent in its cniintenanoe and onsflrable. A history of the Moxican people of to day can nevor l)e truthfully writton if difasnociated from the burro, tho Mesican donkny. ITn is not larppr than a Now Fovindland doe; np'ithor is ho nleijant in form, nor does ho dnpend on xterior adornment for the consideration of mankind. Yot he is patiënt, donilo and apparently filiad with the profoundpst moditations. With moderately taperinii ears that are loneer than his legs, and a faoinl and cranial developomcnj sug pestive of a wine cask, which is allied at the other extremity with a oaudal anpenil;iir" similar in desien to a cactus stalk, hn stands before yoi. Nevertheless hn is horoic in duty, and selfsacrificing in all the efforts of hard and laborious life his masters imposn on him. And so accustomed is Jie to the barron facts of labor and living, he frcquently gees without water frora onf to two weeks, and, in the meantime, livos luxiiriantly on paper, Hbavings, gunny-bags and bacon rimta He is the natural companion of thn M!xi;nn. and so intimato nre they that by association it is somwhat currently beliovod horo that when a Mexioan dios the prooess of transmigration rcstilts in the burro. Tt may be so, for tho Mcxicans arn affeetionate, and it h no uncommon thing to sec four sturdy Mexioan youths astrii; of a hurro, riding into town - an cxamplc of filial tendernos, under the transmigration hypothesis, tonchinir to bchold. nnd ipiitc oclipsing in originality thodelightful story of Aeneas and Anchiscs.