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Inaugural Message of Governor Blair

Inaugural Message of Governor Blair image Inaugural Message of Governor Blair image
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After a periud of two years, during which the Legislatiru body has not assonv bied, we meet, cbargod witli the duty of re-exainining iho laws and ustitutions of the títa:e ; to oorreot, so far as We may, the érrora of the past in the liglit of exporieijce, and (o proridfl wisely, if we eail, for the exigeneies of the future. No higher trust thau ibis eau be reposed na citïzeu. As Representativas of the people, diligence and patriotiKm will beuoiue us. An earnest regard tur their rights, ínterests and liberties, is a soleina obligatiou upun us. I have the highept satisfaction, in beiug abie to congratúlate yuu upon the general guod Order and prospurity of the State. Thé patt ycar bus bten one uf great frttitfulnegs. Bouutiful harvcsts iiave pat familie and distress far away fruiii our üuurs Nu peslilence has alüicted the pöoule ot tlie Stjte; but general good lieaitii prevailid aniong thein. Tlie laws have been cheeri'uliy obeyed by Ihe maas uf the people, and tlieir ïnfractioii, by the cniiiiual, bas been protnptij pumahed by a wise and patriotio Judiciary. The Stite has adva'uceci rapidiy m wealth and population. The eensus oí Í800, under the laws uf' the United States shows the population of the Mate to be, in round ïiuuibers, seveu huudred and tii'ty thousand. Our soils are r!ch, and of great variety. producing in abui. dance all the crops which belung to tiiis latitude. Tlie State posseïses immense l'oiests of valuable tunber, which are already a nouroe of great and increasing wealth. In miuerals, M.chigaii is without a rival Her mines of copper and iron are of the E nest qUality ; and, thus far, seem to be ujenurelesa in exteiit. Goal, also ofgo.d 'quality, is now proved to be abundaut. W luie the expioratiims fov saline waters in tin; valleys of the Saginaw and Grand Kivers, liave been entitx-fy btteCessful Possesaing a great aren of territory, surrounded on three sides by the greatest ehaiu of l;ikes on the continent, fun.isliing a clieap and easy outlet to the oeeiiu, and the markets of the fforid, Michigan has all the elementa ol au empiie withiu herself. We have reasou to be thaukful to that " good providence" which is rapnily guiding us in the eourse oí' a great, free, and happy couinionwealtl). The people of tlie State have adoptcd, Wl'tb great unauiluity, the aiuendment to the Constitutiuii proposed by the last Legislature, in respect to the sesious of your body. By that anicndment, the limitation to the iength of your sessiou is substantially swept away. Experiecee, which is the true test of all institutions bas proved that biennial sessions of forty days are not ahvays, ïf ever, sufiieieut to enable the Legislature to aeeouiplielp its work properly. Under that system, a soinewhat UareteSi liaste took the place of that ealm deliberation which is absolutely essential to the enaotnient of wise laws. The only liniitation which remanís, is the prohibition to introduce any " new bill into either House, after the tirst fil'ty daya of thesession sluill have expiied" And though this might be easily evaded, I have no doubt you will observe it in good faith, as a binding obligatioi' upon you. You will also remeuiber that the original limitation to forty days was en aeted in aecordance with the al most universal demand of the people ut the time, and to correct what was deeined a great abuse. No future occasion I trust, will occur to renew, annmg the people, a. desire to restore limitution. It beeoiues your duty, under section 4, artiele 4, of the tCensttution, ' to re arrange tlie Senate Uistncts, and apportion aiicw the Küpresentatives among ttie eouuties and district, according to the nuniber of white iuhabitants, and civilized persons of [ndiati deacent not members of any tribe " It will also be your duty to divide the State into six Cohgressioual districts. purBuant to a ratio ot population lixed by the act ol' Ooiigivss on that subject. In the coiistruction of these districts, it will be obviously just and wise to consider the tact, that the newer regious of the State will inerease in population much moie rapidiy thau the older ; and the great inequalities likely to oceur in the future, bet'ore another división ia made. may be suiuewiiat niodiücd by the constructioii of districts with reference to tbeiT future inerease. The districts ought to be, in thfir several parts, terntorialiy convenient, as far as may be, and of bariiionious interests The Senatorial districts are limited in uuuiber, by the Coustiiution to thirty-two, n,d the liouse of Representatives musí consist of not leas thau sixty-four, nor more than one hundred members." '' The Act furtber to preserve the purity of elections, and guard against abuses of the eiective franonise, vy a registration of elector," passed by the last Legislature bas been subjected to the test of experience, and found very conducive to the object in view. The elections Utider it have beeu peaceful and orderly in a very uiiusuhI degree. Illegal voting is reudered well nigh impubsible ; and the confidence of the peopie in the fairness uf electiüiis, lias been greatly iiicreaseii. Tlie iiiconvenieiices of registratiou whieh wero much feared at. the time of the passage of the law, hav been found nlmwt wholly imaginary, and I the act may now be reganiL'd a a pertuaüeiit regulation uf the State. In une or two particular, perhaps, the law might be rendered more convenient by aiuendment There S'.ems no vtry good reasou why the elector should be rmiuin-d to register his " christian or baptisnial nuuie;' iu full Some inistakes have occurred in this respect by which elector have been rejected at the polls, and I reeouiniend yuu to consider whether the emis of the l;w might not be as well attained by allowing the elector to register his name as be usually wr.tes it 1 also reconiniend you to cOiisider whether, in purs..anee of the purpose lurther to preserve the purity of elections, It would not be well lo enact a law for the suppression of the baleful practiee of bettmg upou eiectiuns. It seems to me that the highest right and du;y of a freeman is not i proper subject, tur gambliug The financial coudition of the State will necessarily occupy your earnest aud careful consideration. The credit and honor ol the State must be preserved ; and this can bt done only by prompt payinent of its debts, and full performance of all its obligations. Prudence and economy are the first duty of evcry governmeiit, as rasLly ineumDg debt is the sure road to bankrnptoy. We sboald ones sdopt a permanent policy, looking to the steady reduction and ffniJ payment ot the rntire State debt, The Constitution, very wise ly as I think, adoptcd such a policy, and requircd the Legislatura to earry ït iuto effuct as early as 1852 13y artiele 14, section 1, the specific State taxes (except those from the mining oouipauies of ihe Upper Península,) are api'lieil tu the payment of the interest upon tbe Primary School, University and other cdueatiomil fundí, and the interest and principal oi' the S ate debt othur than the amuunts cl (ie the educatioual funds, andafter that, such ■ speeific taxes are added to and coustitute ! h part of' the Primary School interest ' fund. Tbe Legislatura were alsö requir ed " to proviae tb au animal tux, suffi oieut wit! the other resources, to paj the estiuiatcd expenses of the State goveru! ment, the interest of the State debt, und sacb deöcieney as may oocur ín the resources." rteetion 2 of the same artille, I required the Lcgislature to proride by Uw, a ainkins fuud of. at least twen ty thoiisaud dollars a ywir. and un auuual iuere.use of at least five per cent., to be apj plied solely to the extingiiishiuent of the : principal of the State debt, otlier than the aiiiouuts due to educational funds. Uiifortunately for tliu best interests of' the State, the Legislature iimnediately following the doptioa of the Couititution,disregarded these plain requirenieuts of the instrument they had sworn to support, and subsequent Legislaturas have followed that bad precedent, 'l'he sinking fund has novcr beeu ureated, and the anuual tax bas rarely if ever beeu sufficieui The State debt, funded and fundable, not due Iec. 1, 149, was $2,071,962 90. This'Jebt, Nov. 30, 1SÖ4. was 2,031,545 70. The funded and fundable debt is now S2.28S.842 79. But tLis id not liy auy meaus, the entire debt of the Stati-. We have been rapidly uiukiug aiiutlier. hkely soou to rival this in aïnouiit, uniese our policy is chauged. The debt tu the educatioual fuud was, in the year 1849, Do. lst, $276,442 44. In 1854, Nov. 30, $68,J9ü 73. The debt to the educational funda is uow as fullows : Primary choul $880,1136 73 University 258,:07 47 Normal ichool 44,340 78 Total 81 lè3,5s9 98 The yearly interest upon thu lunded and fut. dable debt is $141,000 Upoii the debt to the educational fuuds 83, 580 73. 1 debt to the ediicational iunds in ciiinulates yearly tu UU uiuouiit ucjliul m ;ii wlmlc miiouut i'f piiyuiunt of pl'iueip;il inoueya ior lliu purcluise of hiiiiln which are llii foiindatiou of tinlunils. In other vvords, the Ötu e borruw the moiib h lust as reoeivad, iiixl stand debtor to the funds on iu boüks, ibr the iiinoiint. I think it is tune ihut thia practioe shouid ceuse, and therefnre rocuuiiii'iid to you the pnttMige ol Bli act requiiin the reinvetit;enl ui the principíil oí ttie eduuutionul funds, whenever any considera blu uriioiuit of such principa: moneys shiill be in the Treasury. Such inve-tinent Ptitffht very well be made in the bond of the Öiate, or it they could uot conveniently be purchnsed, sotne olher .ai'e seuuriües inight be found. In order to be prepared fur this veduction üf the innual resources, it will be necessary to fix a future day for ics coiiiniencfinent. l also recommei.d you to provide for the stnking fund, iu uccordittics with ihe requirements of the Constilution, to commence as bood a practicable, tíchedule "f," in the Report of the Auditor General, contains a calculation upon the basis of furty thousand dollars a year, with five percent, annual inci'ease Inch vvould at 5 per cent , uornpóuiid interest, pay tha entire debí in tuenty years. It is not material ihat the yearly arnount should be large, as thai the tand shouid be in process of steady increase. inaking it certain that ibe entilo dubt wil ceriainly be paid at rio vcry disiant day. Pérhfipa tbe umount tixed by the CouHÜuitiun, ($20,0ü0) with in ubuual increase of tive per cent., would be wufficierrt. 1 racoinmend also. 'that vuil provide for a perminent annual tax ■ f sutticietit amoutit to pay the ntire expendes of the blate Government, ove'1 tnd above the resources, and to créate the sinking f'ind, without any lesorl to borrowing, either from the educacional funils or #om any othei quarier. The ultiniatr resources of me State will be abiindiintly sufficiöut tu pay all its necessary expenses, and meel all its obllgations proinptly without buiT'wiiig, and without being at all bunlensoine lo the people Vou will observe in thu report of the Auditor General, estímales oí' the expenses and revenues (or the ensUlng year, by whih it appars that the revenios are likely to tab considerablv short of tho expenses Tliis deficit seeins to have occurred from a variety nf causas, bu ehitífly from ttie extraordinanly large appropriations made by the last Legilalure. in aid of the Awylums and oiher State Instilutions. To ro.ieVü ihe finalices trom this iiiibarrassinent, trm Aud tor-General lec.Miiinends tbo issue of stocks to neet the interest on our oqutunding indnhledflet, fullifrg due in July, 1861, rmd Jatujttry, Ib62, and souie oihcr liaiebleduess, HIDouniillg UI all to aliout om; huiidrrfit and tif y thoilïiilid doiturs, paya blo at thu pleamau pi the Stale any urne alter twu ytars, and to luvy a iSlalt: tax to meet the sc.rne. If nu otlier resource can be found tho probably this must be done, it th Legislalure bas power to do H; hut I , leel ex:m:iliugly aversa lo uddlng anylliinji more to llio debt of the Suite. 'Ihe contingent loan it. verv hkuly sumí lo bocouio the pe,riuai)enL debt. Tlie Siale is d?o lartrely n üebt to the u unlies, and iminediate provisión liould bu mude lor its pny inent, - These aiiioun..s are pruicipaüy due to tlie uew coalities, and the natural and necesary liardolups aud einbarrass nienls atteuding nuw settleincuts, are large ly increased by their inabilily to realizo the ultiounta due thuin from the State, it wi'l be a shalue to us f we allow this to continue. In view of the pre-ent condition of the fiuauces, I ealliestly recomniend you to enoouragü na new Bohetnef, ia uu lurtake uu uonsiderablo additions lo lliu publiu instituiions of the Statu, and to eonbne your appropriations to the actual necessities ot the public service. II is exceeciingly manifest that for sorae years past the State has been incurnng burdens inconve'iiently heavy. We have been building too müoh and I too fast for tbe revenues provided. It ' haa also been h sourca of great russment heretofore, that áppropriátions have boen made out of thu genera l fnvd, to be drawu immediately, wbile I the tases levied to mout them could not ! be clleoted in less than a yeur. The Ircasuiy is called upop to advanee the money i long period beforo t cm bi' rJiinbursed. This is evidently i biid pracliee, and sh'uJd be avoided in future. at least until the treasury ia suttioientlv replönished to muot such a cali. A very larga part of the bondod debt of the Sinle will fall due in j ury, 186J. You will see the oeceatrity i of providing for the reisaua ol th se bonds. Fortunately, the Credit of tho Stütt! is extremely good, and deservedly so. The resources are very Ia''gü, j and yeariy increitsiDg, while the dubt is inoderatH ia urrtouot. St.ite taxation has been very liglit and there wi'l l)e mi ooca.-i.m to mttkdit at all oppressive for future. I have nut been ablt to see the report. of the late Stilte Truasurer, if, indeed, that otficer has mado any report. He itanUH chai god in the report of tha B.-ard of State Audilors, vvhose duty it. was annually to settle with hun, and finally adiust uil claims betwueu him :i:id thu State, with groas violations of luw, and uialadminiitratioi] of his office. Thero 8 reason to beüeve that the Tröflburer isa dafauUer tó tho State in a considerable ainount. For all the faots attending the defalcation I tnust refer you to the message of iny predecesor. I earneatlj reoominend you to make a thorough and -jearching uvestigation into the oondition and pre vitrtis conduct of the Treasury depart men!", and if any further legislation is necessary for the seourty of tha public tnoneys, to supply the sanie ; to direct the Attoruey-General immediately to piosei-ütu the official bonds of the 1 ite Treasurer, to which tha S'atu looka pr inanly lor its sutuirity, and to use all legal ine:ins within the power of the .State t' recover the moneys wh. h have been ülegaliy wi hheld froni .he Treasu ry There ought to be no temporizinu; witb a defa ilting public ofKcer, but the utmost rigor ol ttie law ought to be applied tohi.n. Üffiears in high places ol trust who wil'f'uily inisuouduct them selves, to tiio inj.iry if the people, are cri'iiinals of the highest grade. They destroy ptiliüc confidence, weaken the f : i h of men in the govarnioent and in each other, and undunnuie the very foundations of the public virtue. I recommend to yo'ur oonsideration the suggBSiions if the Auditor-General, lor ihe improvemont of. the laws providing lor the assessnient ar.d coilection oí taxe. Saction eighty-nino and oae hiiii.ired au I ae ui the act number thiry-two of the laws of 1858, have been tound useless and victoui, and 1 -hink ought to be repealed. A portion of them has alreadv baen held by the Supieme Court to be without const'ttutional authoriiy. Allowing u inore liberal time lor redemption, &, very heavy interest, would DO doubt have a tnuch greater tendaney to induce payment üf taxes - which is the prime object - than the 'law ab it noustands. Some lurther legislation seams neoesstiry to enable the officera of the State to collect the specific taxea agairmt corporations I rofer j'ou to the recommendation of the Auditor General on ihis subject, in which I lully concur The atnendment of the Constitution, propused by the last Legislature, concerning banking Corporation, bas ;een adopted by ihe people and is líow a part ui the fundamental law. It is as foilows : "The officers and stockholders of every corporatiou for banking purposes, issijing bank noto- or paper ciedits, to circuíate as rnouey, shall be iiidividaalty hable lor all iebts codtra-ted during the term of their being officers, or ëtockholdors of sijch corpora'iou ur assuciation, cqually and ratably to the extent of th ir respective burea oí' stock in auy sucli Corporation or association.."- This aineiidinenl has removed ihe only insurmouii'.able objecton to the act of 1857 to autliorize the business of bai.king. It is believed that there is nothing now to prevent the making of a ale ai,d benetícial law on this -iubject. liank paper has becoine so important a curiency of this country, tha' commercial transactions can, with difliculty, be purformad without it. It BeeulH much betier to supply ourie!vus with this currency, by laws of' our own, ihan to borrow fioin abroad that which is not only entiiely beyond our control, but of wluch we have necessarily a vo:y imperfect knowledge. The gieat prob lem seems tu be to make the bill alvvays convertibkj into actual cash at the will of the holdöl', with the least possible delay. For this purpose there can be no subsiitute lor the payment of specie by the bank, pil delfland. Il any delay is allowoü, th bilí possesses none nf the qualiiy of iiiouey. For tnu purposeo! seciinng the üill holder agtinst any del'ault 1 the bank, the gystem of deposks of State Stocks seem evory way the safest and the best. I reuouitnerid the whole Act in queution, to vuur most uarbfui and delibérale review. The previo uí law has not tlad the contídnue ol the capitalista, uud has been substantially a dead Ifctter. The Asyluin tul the dea f, dumb and blind, aitiie city uf KI int, sueuis to be lully realizing lle benovoluiit obje ts had ui view in its establishment. The wlule number of pupila dunng the pas. year, hus bee i one huudied and Uveiity-tiii'ee; through only mnety have l)een instriHstwd at any one lime. A pon ion of the buildings are süll incomplete and the Board of Trastees urgu ujinii the Legishaure, au eariy tipprapiiatinu of a sum hutiicient, not oii.y inr the brdioary and educational wants of the pupils, but also to complete and lurnish all the building now in progruus uf eruclioi;. Wuat, amountwill be stlfficiont tf all these objects, the Board have not inlurmed us. 1 regret osceedinglv tliat the State fiuaiices are in such a conditiou that 1 oarltiot repo:umend you to make auy appropriatico at pret.ent, foi' building and fuinishiug ' purpOMN; but only sütficieut tor tho ordiuary expenso ol carrying on the Iustitutions for the coming iwp years. Tue ainount of appro'priationa to tuis Asylum gince löói have buen $19J, 000. Under the existing statutes, tho pupils of this In.ttitution are supported ; entirely by the Statu, except in the i matter oí clotbmg. I ara unablo to ' , discover atiy reason wby the papila in this Asyluin and their relativa and guaidians, the city, town nr (KwUïty, that woukl ba li ibis for their support whon out ui it, ïhould not be li uble lor the muiüteiiaiiL-o oí such pupils when n the Asylum, in the same inanner as is providöd in the case of insana persons, in section 33, of act 164, of the lavvs of 1859. I therefore reeommend the passage oi u :roilar act, in rtlation to the pupil in this Asylurn. The Asylurn for the Inéane at Kalamazoo is no fully organized, and has oomfortable accottimodations for ore huudred and eleven paüents. Jt is the dut)', as it will no don bi bo the pleasure óf the Leg'slature, to further as fast aa practicable the benevolent purposes of this institutlon. But, even the claims of benevóleiice must be reg ulated by sound pohcy, and the abiiity oi ihe State to pay. lt s idle to talie of apjjroprUitÍBg tlio nioney which we do not possess, This Iustitution was eommanced npon a very extensivo, and I huve no doubt a vers' good plan. its Was esthnatud at S-'JO.ÜOI). Thö Trustees howevcr, have since consider ably extended the plan, and noiv estiinate the enlire ;os; at $75,01)0. - They now asK a further appropriation of one hundi'tíd thorsand dollars. As in the case of' othar public institutions, iny cluty requires me to say, no siich appropfiation eau reasona-bly be made. Nuithor do I thiuk that any very serious evils will flow, from allowing the Asylum to wait for the oomplatioo of the building, until the State can be extrícate trom its present einbarrassinonts. The State has been, and will continue to be liberal towards it. Tfia appropriations made by law to the Iusane Asylum since 1853, huve buun $237,00Ó. The State Reform School is in Very successful oporation. Au atfditional wiag has been erected duriug the past year, al a oot ai a lutU over eighteen thousand dulLi Ttie pr sent Öuperintendent, liev. D. li. Niuhotu, has in troduced into the Schooi thu now and milder systom of discipline, with the happiest resuits. The Suparint ndent and Board of Control roeommend that the Luv in ruhuion to th- School be so amended is to prevent the senil. ng of femuie offenderu there, in whicti I fully co our. There are uo proper accommodationi for them, and osuinot b; without additinn il building. . The iioard have incurred a small drbt of 81,494 28, by making repairs, in con sequence of injuries to the workshop by tire, wl.ich 1 recoinmend to you to próvido for the payment of. There wcre CDiitined in the School, on the 16. h ol November last, one huudred and thirty-seven persons. The ordinary expenses ot the ochool for the past year have been $16,445 60; and the whole amuunt appropriated by law for building, t-ince andincludiug 1S53 when the tirst ajpropria(ion was mado, is $52,000. The Agricultural College has been sou.ce of great anxiety to the Slate govermnent, and aserious burden to the Treasury, ever siDce the coinmencamDt of its construction, in 1857. The Salt Spring Lands, or tbuir prooeeds, h 'd been previousiy devoted to its establishment, and in '.nat year au appropriution was n.ade from the general fund, of 8i0,000; aud in 1859, a further appropriation was made of S37.50O. iü all $77,000. lt was founded, as declared by the law, to '■furnish instruction in agricultura, and tiie natural science connected," :.nd was put uadar the control of ihe Board ot Educa tion. It ha never seeuiod to be enürely free from embarrassincnt!, in one wayor auother. Ferhaps wu oughc not to bü surprised at this. It ia au experiment, to a great oxtent. and safo precedents for its conductare wanting. It ought to be confiued striolly t.) the object of its org.uiiz.-itiou, and must not be a rival to the State Utiivernity in uny respect ; but it should teach lar more ihoroughly and extt-usively the scionces that relate to agricultura than any ordinary College. Men ivuo have given their hves to these sciencen ought to be en ployed in it. In aceordanee with tho opinión of thu Board of Education, I recoinmend yuu to commit the tuture caro of this College to a State Board oí AgHoulture, ot five in number, to bö appointed as may seein to your judgment best. The ex, ense.s for the year 1860 have been $13,135 1 The Board ask an appropriation-of L25,000- $15,000 to pay salaries for two ycars, anti the roumiiider for build inga, tools, and the like. Most of it seems indispensable, if the institulion is to go on, and 1 therelore reconimcnd that the appropriation be made, or so mneh of itasyou think essential. I refer you to tho reports of the Board of Jnspeotors and Agent tor particulars concern'ing tho condition and finances of the State Prisön, at Jacksoq. It will givu yod pinastro lo learn that, for th past year, iKaX iustiiinion has showt) abiiity to support itself; and thero seems no reason to doubt that it will continu to do so in the future. Tl;o txpeuses for the past yoar have been $7,684 50; the earuings for the t f ma $51,68 "26 - siiowing a balance of earniugï over expanses of $-j,8ó4 70. '1 ho nuinbor of couvicts duw in the Prisión ls6-J, being an iucreat-e over kat year ot öö. üow long this ratio of incroase will continuo u is impossible to d.iy_, but il is groaüy to ba hojmd that we have rcached oear.y tne culminanug poiut. Ttie rapid ïncease in the number of convicls smee lbóo, has compclled the State to be constaut.y iucreasing the capacity of tho Prisión, to Qixituio and work ihem. Tlie Iuspectors slate th.t the present capacity oi tho prison will give them but about sixty-two vacant. cells, as a provisión for tuture increatü oí conviots, and thero is a lack of shoprooin Timy isk in cousuq jence, an eppropriation of $32 000, for the purpose ol building an ''L,'' and two liors of calis, and for the expense of iriovng liase wall and thu building of workfthopi The moving of the JS,it wall, aud tha building ot workuhop.i, id no doubt iniispeiisablo, but I tiave great hopes that tlio Imilding of the ';L" and two tiers of culis may be safely lefl for soino other oucasion. I think a building ooiniijissioner is no Jonger needad, and the oLlice had batter ba abolished. I cali your attoiitlou to .he 6ls sub-. ' división of soction 24 of the Act to re viso the Unaitur oi the city ot Detroit being Act No. 55, of the law of 1857' by which it ;s provided,'ihat any Court . of competent jjurisdiotion ol the State , of M'chígan, ma?, in iis dcretun, ciiinmit iiny m:ile ander sixteeti, or female undoi fourteen yra of uge, tó anv wovkhouue or house of oorrectfofl in that cily, instead of Suite Frisen, who nli;il] bo convioted ol uuv crime, I now or hereufter, pnntshablö byimpnsoumeiit in the fcilute Prison." Il is also provided, ttiai. n 1 1 expensen aiteodiag tbe confinement ol sucn convicts, -huil be paid by tbe Siate Trgasurer qtmrter yearly, on the cirtificate of the City Controller thnl suoh expenses havo been uotuully inuurred. You will observe th;u tho iáuito, expenses, has no yoioe vrbutuver in duterinining what ihey shall be Pertütj'S this tatutti migbt bo idvuntiigeously amendt'd, 80 u to allow pernorií ol uny age, convicted i;i úit; couuty of Wuyne, and sentöoced lor short tenni, to be confined m the worküousa ol the City of DtiUni, ttpoa soum fair „rrangenióiits au to expenses, to be made with th üoard of Inspeetora of the State Pria on. And suoh an arrangement would have the etieel to relieve, to some ex tent, ihe titule iJi isoii forin ita constant exeoss o(' nuinbers; and us u'ell, tne Ue lorin School. Í recoinmeud tina subject to your consideraron , The report of the Superintendent o! Public ln.-t iicüou wiil give you lull accurate infoi'iliutlou of the oondition and progresa of the public schools. Ihis is by lar the most important interest ui the ckate, both as it rcgaids the expundituro of uioney, and it in fluetice upon the bappí liaan, piosperity and progresa of the peoplo. Tne schools are the greut nurseries of inteiligeueo, palriotism and vmue. Your duties,as tlie guardians of tb ia greut and successfui system, in wliiuh the people tiaveajust pride, are tdways important. To elovt-to tbeir churucter a:;d inci'ease their usefulness, is our steady purposa. To thin end, the öupennrendeiit reccoinineuds ths ceatiou ot the office of (Jounly or District SupürinttMiUeut, to tukt the place, in a gi'Kat ineusure, oí the present aysleui ot Town.-inip Inspectora. It this .-ysteui shütlld be adopted, and i hopo It muy, ttie couulies would seem tofurmsn tbo beat id most conveuieni local d.visious lor thut purpose. Tne iiuperinteudeiH Hliio reeoin metida ' tha ttie law lor UuioQ or graded Bchoolt; chould b o ainei.ded as to penuit dirtricls haviug one hundred uhildrttii oí legal nchoul ugo to o.g.aiiüe under it. I ee fíO fulid objecLlon to tins, and therelure recoinniöiid the timendme t l'hesti are the Higli Schools ol the State. They umv QUuibnr ninelyfólïr, and it is believed thev are gen erally exceedingly useful nnd succe.-slul. 'l'nrougli them tna oportnuity for a liberal educaUon, almost enlirely freo of cost, is put vvithin tlie reach ot neaiiy all the ehildren in the Staie The uvo nnll iax, provided for by luw of the last Legilature, vvas inteu ded to take tlie place of the one dollar for eaoh sctiolar, lo be Vuted by the distiicts, but by si)iiie inistako ihis las was not ropealcd. Probably the intern of tho Legislatura had betier now be carried uno effect. I very mucb doubt tho wisdom of making uuy changa, at presem, in the mode of distributmg tho proceeds of the school tüxes. In ejjduavoring to avoid present inoquulitios, we shail incur the huzurtl oí prodücing graater, in u ditiereut directi(üi. - ' henever districta üud the incon.e of tho t:ixes iiiHiifficient to support the schools, it neeius bast for lliein to resorl to the Kate Bill uutil ;he inciease of populution anu wt-alth w.irks h rouiedy. The iucouie of tliu PrLruarj rcliool j Fmid lust year was 115,91i 3U. There are over lour thuusaud distnets, contaiaitig tvvo iiundrod uud forty-six thousiind six üuiidred and eighty-four ohddren. of legal school ages Thora were engaged in teaclnug suven thuusaud niue hundred and forty-oiio teachers, at a cost for wa gus of $167,28ü 50. There is iuvested in school uouses aud otker school property $1,505,610 34. I refer you to the Report of tho Board of EducaUon for all needful information in regard to tbe State Normal School. - The uuiubor m attoadaucse upon ad its dcpartmeuts is three huudred and lorty-two. The auiount of its expenditures during the paat yeaf, exclusive of buildings, has been something more thau sixteen thousand dollars. I njcouiiuend you to consider whether the expenses of this institutiou cannot be materially reduced. The Uuiversit_y ol' Michigan is under the care and control of a JBoard of Ragents, electod by tlie people. For de tails of tlioir aetion tho past year, I refer you to their report, acoonipanyiiig the report of the Sipsriutcndcut of Public Instruction. The Institution has now in full and suceessful operation its tliree departnients of l;iv, Medicine, Science, Liteniture and tlie Arts. The whole nuinber ot studeuts istaughttbore the last yearlive hundred and nineteen. The Ui'iversity merits, and I have no doubt will continue to reueive the liberal patronage and cure of the Legislatura. Under its present inteligentguidance, it has risen to a very high rank amojig the best institutions of learuing in the country. The people uaturally aud propirly look to it, to oceupy tho most important place in the eduoational systeui of tha State. I recomïoend to your favorable cmibidoration, the suggestion of the Board of Regenta, in rela+ion to measures to bc adopted for the the purpose of materially increasing the penii;ment fuud of the University. Tne last Legislature enacted a law l'to encourage the manufacture of salt in tho State of Michigan," and by its provisions exempted from taxation, for any purpose, all proporty, real and personal, used for the parpóse of boring tbr, aud nianufaoturing that artiele; and at tlie saine time provided for the payment froin the Treasury of the State of' a bouuty ot' ten conts per busliel for ul aalt manufactured.- The act, no doubt, stiniulated explorations consiilerably, and witli the best results. It is no longen doubtful tlmt we have esciollent facilities, aud abund.tnt saline waters for this nianufaatura. Appropriate encouragaiuent is wise, but the bounty is cvidently inucli too largo, being in tact, it is said, fully cqual to theeutire oost of manufacturing the salt ! rcoommend you oithor greatly to reduce, or ontirely abolish, this bount}', as you tliiuk most eondueive to tho public iutorsl. In pursuanoe of tlie act of Congress i 2-rantiug thoSwamp Lumls to tho State. ; the last Legislature pruvided for the ' drainage and reclamation of thos.e hüids by ineans of State roads aud cjitolios. - This act settled, and I tbink bouoficially ] for tbe State, tho quostion af tbo I üin of the lands wbich bad Ion" sjritated the public miad. The act providod for tlic laying out and es ablishmeut, by Commissioners, of ten roads, and required the appointinent cf three Commissioners upon euch of thora. Th'S act went directly iuto e'Lct, and the Commissioners wcre appointed by my predce83or, and have been acting It is thuujrht that there may be dauger, tliat amoug so large a nutnber of Coinmissiouers, the futid may be uunecessarily encrouched upon by j ses of the Commissioners. I recommend ! to you to consider whether the work ' miglit not be moru eeonomically, aud i still quite as well done, eitlier by a single Commi&sioner for each road, or by one or two coinmissioua to have charge of all tho road. The sxperisuoa of ihe State, in tho disposition and substantial wasling of the five hundred thousand acres of Iiiternal Iiuprovement Lands heretofore, ought to teach us great care and caution. If judiciously njanaged, the proceeds of the swamp lauds wiü be of immense udvantage to th regiyns in whicb tliey He. The act, approved February 14, 1859, "to próvido a military fund, ia aid of the volunteer uniform miHtia," and ippropriating for that obj -jet, the suin of three tbousaud dollars each year, Las producod a most beuoQcial eiïect Thus stimulated by the c o unten anee and aid of the .-tate, a considerable numbor of voluntper compauies has been fonned and well equipped, and the organization of t hu militia, which was aluiost abandoned, has boen revived aud placed upon a good footing. I recommend that the yeurly appropriation for this object, be materially increased in amount. The United States supports but a very smaü standing army, and the great relianee of the goverument to defend itself againdt toreign énemio3, and put down doiuestia insurruction, is upon the miiitia of the States. - It i.s neitüer safe nor wise, to allow tho organization aud discipline of tha mili tin to tall into discredit or disuse. Tiie military spirit of the peop!e ought to be kept up, and their contideuce in their abihty to bear arms aud defend themselves, shouid be fostered. In point of expe;.se also, it is mach less burdeusume to tha people to pay a reasonablu auiount to support voiuatuer couipanies, tlian to cali out the whale body Hable to bear anus iis Was the old method. JJeuidiis, thu vol unteer organizutiou is inuch more etiectïvt:, and forma a pucleua fur a larger farce, iilways to be relied upon. (raitUuiin uf thi two Il'jms-: While we are the citizeus of the State of Michigan, and as such deeply devoted to har intereóls aud honor, we have a still prouder titlu. We are also citizons of the United States of America. By this title, we are kuowii amo ,gthe uatious of the earth. - Ln remóte qaarters of the globe, where the Dames of tho States are uuknown, the tlag of the great llepublic, the bauuer of the stars aud stripes, honors and protects the citizen. In whatever conoetBS the honor, the prospcrity and the perpatuitj of tiiis great goverumeiit, we are deeply interested. Thepeoplo of Michigan are loyal to that government - faithful to its Couotitution and its lawfc Under it they have had peace aud prosperity; and under it they mean to abide to the end. Feeling a just pride ia the glorious history of the past, they wïïl not reuouucd the equally glorious hopes of the future. tiut whether in peace or war, they will rally around the standard of the nation and defend its integrity and its constitu,tion, with fideliij. The existence of the goverument is threatened, uot by enemies from witliout, bul. by traitors from wiüiiu. The Sïate of S 'U,h ü iroiiua, possasaing a free white populatiou of leas thau three hundred tbuasand, ofall ages and sexea, bas assu'.urfd te dissolve nttonal government. By a convention callad ander otate air.hority, and without consaltmg any other State or people, aud without the least discussion, whieh seems to hars boen hittrdieted, she passed au ordinance annulling the laws aud Constituí jon oftb.2 Uuited "States. n her own chorished phrase. she has seccihd from thu Union. - [f it coulc bu properly dom', I presume the country, generalij, would be willing to let that ïvstless, heady little nation retira froin the Cmfeder.icy forjvor.- But thai cannot be, without adinitting t!ie right of socession to exit iu all the Stat 8. 'l'his done, aud no govcrument remains to us; but only a voluutary association of States, dissolvable at the pleasure of any of them. If outh Carolina may of rig t secede, then may also is'ew York aud Louisiana, thus curtinje off the free right of way, of theuntire Northwest to the ocean, in botli directions. The doctrine cauuot ki aduiltted. Sjlf-preservation, if no other reason, would coinpel us to resist it. Bat the doctrine bas no foundation in fact or reis m It is said, that a Siate haviug entored voluutarily into the Union, may also voluutarily, and of right, withdraw wliaaever auoh State may t hink its rights are no Langer protected, or its interest wecued, by tiij connection. Aml Uic State is itself, tho solo judge in this respect. The argument is altogethcr fullacious- at war with evei-y just idea of compact, If it were adinitted that the u tion and governmeut of tha United States is a mora voluntary compact of SOVereigD States, still it would not iollow that the compact might be at any timo dissolved by any one of the co itractmg partita. That would neoesaanly depend on the terms, af the compact iï3jli'. - i If the compact by its terina, or by manifest i tupi i caüon. was intended to i be perpetual, then it could uot be ' solved witliout the couüeat of all tho cont actlug purtiiS. The Constitutiou of the United States, if a compact al all is one of governraent in tho term of its continuauce, witli.iut limit aud in its po wars sj.ereigi. It is als.) by its tonus "tiie suprgujz law of the laia!, and the juüges iu every State are bouud, th,eruby, anythmg in tha cmstitution or laws of any State to tho coutrarv uotwitlistaiidiug. If the State of South Carolina regard thú Constitution as a contract or agreemeut b.t.voii States, theo she ia bouud iu L'ood faitn to keep it aceording to it.s . líitions. She is bound to submit her . . griavances, if she has any, to tin: Congrega BstabiisJied bj the Cunstitution, iu whieh ( íhc has an equal voiua with tha Othef ( Status; and to abide hy tho devi-:i..'.is vid i , uts of that body, so long as t.'usy cóü'an ; , to the fuudiimenUil law, " and are within ; itá grautod power. If the Congress ] ïhall usurp powers uut grantod, then the , injured parlies must r it :■ tho ( br redress. But the ConsLitution of the ! , L'niteJ States of Ainorica is nH iu any : ( icnse a compact or league between ] lendent sovereigu State On the ( rary, it isa fuundation of government j íítabiiíhod by the psoplc of tho Unit-ed vrere avaüed of tor the purpose of ratifica tion; but it was only as a convcuiout method to sscertain the wishes of tliu peopl.i By resol utkrü of Congrcss on the 28tli d;vy of September, 1787, it was direoted, that the cepart of the Canventio:i for tlie United States, shouM bo 'tranamittod to the several Legisla ture, iu order to be submitted to a Convention of delegates chosen in each State by tlte peoph thereof. The Constitution of the Federal Government, aud the laws of Congress enacted under its authority, therefore operata upon individualB, and nut upou States, in the samo manner and with the like effect, as if thcre no States The Constit ut ion of the United States was fnrmed by the people of the who'e country, iu the same manner, and with the sainu cftect as the Statu governments were formed in their respective jurisJietion. Tha States are independent of other in all respeots, and they are independent of the National Goverument iu sll the powera not granted by the peopla to that Guvernraeut, and as to those tlfry are entirely subject. Thora is, then, no right of s'jces ion iu a State, but the State haj the exclusive sovereignty over its douw?tio institutions and laws, and in respect to these the 1'ederal Government has no authority whatever. It resulta, that the purely loeal and domeatie institution of shivery, wherever it exists in the States of this confederacy is wholly bsyoud tho interference or control of tha nUÍQaal goverunisnt. In respect tl tho ommM territar-ies, however, t!ie case is eutirsly different. C.iustitutiou of the United States deaia c.jly with t'ie psople of the Stat33, aii ha mi'.la no p.o.isioj for the gorernmerrt of t'is territorios, uu - less the seetion authorizing Congrega "to ranke all needíul rules and regulations respecti g tbe territory or other praperty, belongisg to the United Sutes," should ba lield to be su-:h a provisión The power to acquire and hold territory, carriea with it tho power to goyern. From whatever souvee derived, therefore, ths sovereignty over the territorios resides wholly in the General Government, nnd this is als'j in accordanco with uniform practiee. Slavery may bo exeluded from the Territorios by law of Congress, and iro State ca.i lawfully coinplaiu of such, actiou with any more show of reasan tJiSH ia case of Cougressionul actiou upon any .pther subject. Nor is tliere any power iu tha Nutiomil Governmeiit to dismember itsclf. No power, but that of the people in their ultímate sovereignry, can do that, We are onn nation, and our people 'mdU visible, with a Couuúon governuient, aud üoimuon iiitercsts, rtouth Carolina i still a State of the Union in spite of her ordiuance, aud her people oannot be absolvud from tlieir obii.uion tu obey te Couítitutiou and 1;its of our coouüou country. If Üiere is no riglt of scecssion, ati.U it is said, the ra is a right to ruvolution against uubearable opprcBslon. Grant it - this is uot the country in whichto deny that, bat it ought to ba a revolutiou agains', and not in favor of oppressiou. - It must be justified by such clear ftnd. undeuiable acts of usurpatioo as will ü- tify rebeUion befbre the civilized world. Of what acts do the slaveholding Statoa compiaini' In what have havo they beeii appresaed? Wh:it right hss been dcnitl to them? We have had abuiidance of eloaueut spoeoh from tlioni, aud, endle general co( of aggressloo upo.i thoaa and their rightg. iiut the charge still lacka specitication. I deny tho who!e indietment. There have beeu no suaii aggresaions. No right oí' their h-vs been deiiied or refased to theni by u.- üur Personal Liberty laws furnlsD an eiainple of no such deniul. Thoy wure euaeted for the protection and safety of froe uiLizend of tim State iyaiust kidnappera, and with uo view to deteutiug the rcclauiat.j:i of act i il f ugitiVH slaves, underthu law óf Congrega That law is so entiroly wautiug in the usual Bsfeguards agaiust abuae of its provisious, that t'iere ia coi:staut daüger of its. being usod, a s, corqi. for the niját nefarious practico. Michigao is a sovereigu and indypendont Stato, and her first and liighest duty is to gurd the rigius aud liberties of her paople.- Ta.s sba has SJttght to do by tho Iaw3 ia vjuesti'ju. It is altjgether her own affair, a:id witii all dua respect to tho States of ihü rfoutïi, siie d.ies not hold horsjlf uuder any obligation to justif; her cunduct iu thiá regard to them. ít' tln'y think these laws aro uneoustitutioual, then tho cuurts of the United States aro opon to them, to havo them so declartdj iiud thoy may bs uwured, that neither ïW'jti violenco nor any otbcr power will be res rted to, to prjvoüt the full moasure of redrefli tu which they may be outitled. A9 a laT abidiiii people, we invite judicial surutiny iijtQ tbe tegilatioii of thj Stiij and, wii are ready to abide its re.u!ts. We ask nothiiig w'neii we are not willing to graut to o.hers. Tho State oiilysseks to maiutaiu her riglits under tho Constitatioa and Uvi of Oungrwa, Lean tlun that she caarwt do, Thcre teems, heweve;', no iutention in the Southern States, to renort to thi peaoeful method of trial, provided by tho Cor.stitutiou aud the laws ; but wn .vi tld, we munt immodintely repcal ÜiQjp laws, or tho govermnelit will bo broken up, and the Coustitution destroyed. I c.muot adisj you to listen to this appeal to your fears. 1 am not willing that tha ■St.ite thouid bo humiliated by compliauce with ih s licmatid, aCcoinpanad hy of viüiei.cj aud war. For myselt', I will wait óntd tho Uotton States repeal thoir unjust a;d uuco:istituuoual lawi, wIuqU ooiwigü to imjirtsoameut citiw of th F ree States, vi. iung tiieir pjrts 0:1 baaiueM, aud guilty at' nq ermv', and bj whioh suoh uitizans are sold iuto hopaless sl-iverv I wi!l iVLiit uutil tlipy oease to murder aid miltreat citizou from tbe North, without even the for. 113 of a trial ; ctntil the freedom of speech aud; of the pross, guiranteed to us by the Constitutiou of the country, is rostored in tlia Southern half of the (Jniou, and until tha rfllgh of terror aud mob violones is over. Whon the mudn;ss which rules th,a ' hour is pust, aud trwasoQ Ims been rebukod ' adorus!icd; wheii thfl 8ou,h.err States, now tlireatcning roböilioö, kliafl ha Vü retur.ied to their loyalty to the uational ouustitution aud govcriimcnt, and to obociieuou to theï lawii, then no doubt tho State will 1Q witling to do tovvards them, not o.ilyall tiiat is just, bat alsj all that is gencrous. I know very wel!, it s saiil by eminent men in tha fraa ÍStates, tha; vfè must ropeal tb éso liws, n t because the South threatf.ns us, nor bccauso wa ítísIi to appease tli :'.:■ wrath, but beans9 llie laws thciQ-Viives aro wrong. Vet it imst lii' :)(lmittod,that ovon if we were !■■. ' Wlifaas the wrong, which, on the Statca, as a wholo, perpetual in its elinritcior, and possessirg all the elomenta of Hovereigti power and imtiouality. - This s plain froni t lio instrument iuolf, íitiíl ia ful' y stated bv t lio preamblc, m folloKS ' Wc, tho f ecple of ike Unitcil ! Siate3, in order to forui a mure perfect unión, establilb juptico, insure domestin trauquility, providu for tbe common defense prouiotu the general welfare, and aecuro the bloMÍpgl of liberty to ourselve and our positrity, do ordain and establifli tilia Constitutiou, for tlie United Statpa of America." It is trae, tliat tlio State organizution CoHoludcd from 1 tt paje. Wedeny, nar eonsciwitii nsfi to havo Deen quk-taucd .: a rcry pei iir scasmi WIi.iílv-.t v. o maj c'aiin a ! bout it, if ;!io I 'tMisoii:: i Li'iHTlv l.nvs ar ïnnv ropealed, tho judgment ui' the country will it is dono under the smartug of tho Soutlurn Urtli, and thatjudg i,?it wil! bo correct. lustend oí such a cour se teudicg to rettre peaco in Mie ooantry, i:s effect will be exactly the c ■ I trary. Il i lci o:'e.s.-ioii tliut is neodod höw"; it ;■: patrioúc finntK-sá atid;Jeciáitn. All Uifi p i'sout erils eilL:r arise Front, or aio giOctli' aggravated, bj t!;.; v.vak and cpmproniisiuá poliey ot' tiiutd men, in the así, Trflasmi Ims boon abclted lid on eouraged t ► y humiliattng cxpctlieits, u ■ the Ul:lkp,.ttUti of rae piT'dOi.t, t'-jti SOOU in the temper:.'. . t-pree ' ■'.- üf t!ie past. Let us Iïar s;i ei.d of coinj.roiajses', sfiid appeul only for cona'.itutiona! righs. HenJw t is not clAunorl or even praienddd (i af tha Parj;ial Liberty law'3 Uave io fact L;id t!.c effect to provvnt ti.e esceution of the Fugi se Slarc law iu :i s Dglí ÍBtncí). Tiiuy ii.jvo otiiod as a nipre proles', o.: thj st.Uuto baok And wh'jut'ver an appeal bas boon arado to.tüe oüurt to tafbreo tbat Uw, it Uaa been uHÜbrmlv done in good faitb, tliough ,so;i)t; ot ita p70vi.-;.)as aiv o.arouuly QistMtcful lo tbo pcnrlo. It ia not at tlio Porüonal Liberty lans tho sooossiorjisU aira. 'Lms opi scout nt ihe titijn tlint their iopeat will Mtixfy theui. Tüetr war is upon tliö Conetitution of the United Statci. That iuinerui:ei)i doei not ar.swor their pirpo8e8, and tliey démand its ameudmedt or its overtlirow. Iih gre&t doctrine ofgoVeVuuteut bjp majoritica Btnuds in the wiy of the cstablislmia it ot' thü gre t si:. vu ow.tito wbioh tbey linvo sit thomsolvus tu cre-Jt, w:ih the iufamous Africau slaro trade for ono of its pillara, and o:ie wJ oranotbot' it mist bc deatroyed. Ooyjrnor Fettua, of Misaissipui, m h s late mesyage to tho Leislaturo of ihat, Stati?. B'jms up his ï'Ciiüons for Rcceasion with this pregnant question : " Cau the livcs, liberty and pruperty of the pooplH of Missisaippi bu saféis entru.-tcd to tho keoping ui' that uottonal majority whioh must hereafter aduuiiistjr t!iü federal govortimsut V' That is the real quèstibn, and the ouly ono. Bbull tiie goverment continuo as oar fa thora made it ? Shall it ba admiuistered hj majorities or shall a dow one be oonstrueted to be ruled by minoritios. TUo peopla have, iuacoustiutional aud lal üMuuer, clvrnn nú oühnent oitiz'ju of tbo .-tato of Illinois, PreSidentoi tha UaiteJ States, aad tho .Suuth duiaud that wo shaü repuat of it. That act hi;8 been accompliehed by lawiul majority, und it i deinanded that we givu up ih g;vt priucipla of freo governroeijt - tna rulo oí the cnajority. We can do oeithar the onu nor thu Other. We :re Bati.stied witfi 'the Coiistitiitioi) uf our country, mui wiil o bey the laws eniicted undur it, and we must demand that the peoiild of idl tlie othor States do the samu. Salety lies in tliiw path alone. The Uuiou mut. be preserved and he laws must be eoforced trj II parta of it ai wbatever cost. The President is bound to this by lus oaU, and no power can disebarge hirti li'om i!. fc'tt!-ia1s revolution, und rövolution, in the ovort act, i traaaun. and must be treated .ag snet). The fedtTul goveriinient has the 'power to defund itsli ard I do jnot doubt that that power will be eercised to the utmost. It is a (jnestioo of war that the seceding Sta;ea liave to look in the lace. They who think that tliis poworful govei iHiienl can be disrupted poacefuilv, have read history to no purpose. Thu sous of the men who oarried arme in the soven yearo war writh the most powerful uation in thu world, to estublisli this government, ill not hesitute to ranke equal satiifices to rnaintai . it. Must deeply must we deploro the (innatural cootest. Oo the heada oi thu trui tors who provcke it must. rest the reüponsibüky. In euch u contest the üod of buttles has no attribute tbat can take iides with ihe revoluiiouii'ts of the slave ritaie. I ïecouünend you at at; early day to make maoifout to the gentleioeu who represent tbia Statu in tho two tlouses of Congres, and to the country, that, Michigan is loyal to tho Union, the Coniitution und the lawn, and wiil delend tUcm to the ultermost; and to proilcr to the President of thé Uni ed States, tho whole military power ot i (ie Stato for that purposo. Oh, iur the firm,steady haud of u Wathiugion, or a Jacktton, to guide tho öhip of Stute in tliis peiilous stoiii). Let us hope that we hall find h:tn on the 4th ui March Meantime, let us abide iu the faith of our Ittthers - "Liberty und Union, one aud inseparable, nww atid forever." AUSTIN BLAIIt. Htccut ive Office, Lansing Januury 2, 1861


Michigan Argus
Old News