A friend of Senator Douglas has handod us for publication a eopy of the lbllowing letler irom him en the state of the country : " Chicago, May 10, 18G1. " M Dear Sir - Being deprivect of the use of' my arms tor the present by a severo nttaek of rheumatism, I am compolled to avail myselí oí the services of au ainanuensis in reply to your two letters. " It seems that some of my friendtare unable to comprehend the difTerenco bi-tween argumenta used in favor of an equitable cempromise, with the hope of averting the horror ol war, and those firgod in support of ib government and Hag ol' our country, when a war is being waged against the United States wilh the avowcd purpose ol producinga permanent di.sruption of tlie Union and :i total destruction of its government. " Al) hope of compromise with tlie cotton States was abandoned whon the assumed posilion that the separution of the Union was complete and final, and that they vvould Bever consent to a reconm-uction in any contingeney, rot even if we would furnish thetn with a blank sheet of paper and permit them to inscribe theirown terms " Slill the hope was cherished that reasonable ,nd satisfactory terms of adjustment could be agreed upon with Tennessee, North Carolina and the border States, and whatever terrns would prove satisfactory to these loyal States would créate a Union party in the cotton States whieh would be powerlul enough at the ballot-box to destroy the rovolutionary government, nnd bringthose States back into the Union ty tlie vote of their ovvn puople. This hope was cherished by the Union men North and South, and was never abandoned until actual war was levied al Charleston, and the authoiitative ,L.nnouncement made by the revolutionary government at Montgomery, that the secession flttg should be planted upon the ivalls of the Oapito] at Washington, and a proc'amation issued mviling the iirates of the world to prey upon the commerce of the United States. "These startling facts taken in connection with the boastful announcement that the ravages of war and carnage should be quickly transferred from the cotton ticlds oi' the South to the wheat litílds and corn fiekls of the North, furnish conclusive evidence that it was the tixed purposeof the secessionists uttcTly to destroy the government of' our fathers and oblitérate the United States from the map of the world. "In view of this state of facts there was b'it one path of duty left to pa triotio men. It was not a party question, noi a questido Jnvolving partisan po}icy; it was a question of'govornment or no government, coijntry or no country; and henee it becafne the imperative duty of every Union man, every frieud of conslitutional liberty, to rally to the support of our comtnon country, its governmeat and tlag, as the only means of checking the p-ogress of the revolution and of preserving the Union oí the Sta' es. "I am unable to answer your questions in respect to the policy of Mr. Lincoln and his Oabinet. I am not in their confideccp, as you and the whole country otight be awar-. I am neither the supporter of the p;irtisan policy n r the anologist for the errors of the adminstration. My provious relations to thein remaní unchanged ; but I trust the time will never couo when I shall not be willing to niake any n eed tul saerifice of personal feeling and party policy for the honor and integrity of my country. 'I know of no mode by which a loyal eiti.en may so vvell demónstrate his devotion to his country as by sustain ing the flag, the constitution and the Union, under ill circumstances, and nnder every administraron (regardlew of party politics), against all as.-ailants at home andt abroccT The course of Clay and Webster toward the adrninistration of General Jackson, in the days of nullitication, presenta a noble and vvorthy example for all true patriots. - At tho very moment when that fearful crisis wií precipitated npon the country, partisan strife betweon whig and demócrata was quite as bitter and relentless as now between democrats and republicano. The gulf which separatecl party leaders n thosedays wasijuitu as broad anti deep ns that which now soparates tho democraey Irofn tbe repubïicans. Uut the moment, an t'ncniV rose in our midst, plotting the dismcmberment ot the DmoQ and tho destruction of the govornment, the VOÍce of partisan strife was huslicd in patriotic siIcnce. üne of tho brightest chapter.s in the h story of our country will record tho fact thaf, during this eventful period, the groat leaders of the opposition, sinking the partisan in ihe patriot, nished to the support of the government, aivl beeame it ftblest and bravcst dcföudefs against all assuiiantH, until the conspiracy was crushed and abandoned, when they resumed their iorrner posilions as party leaders upon politici! issuea. " Ttesa acts of palri(rt'c devotion have never been deemod ev'dences oí inbdelity or polit cal treachery, on the part ol Clay and Webster, to the principies and oraranizution of tho whole whig party. Nor have I any apprehension that the fii m and nnanimous support which the democratie leaders aud masses aro now giving to tho constitution and the Union will ever be deemed evidences of intidelity to democratie principies, oí a want of loyalty to lbo organi.ation and creed of tho de'iocratic party. Il' we liope to rogain and perpetúate the ascendency of oui" party, we should nevtr forget that u man eannot be a true democrat un)ess ha is a loyal patriot. " With tbe sincero hope that these, my conscientions convictions,may coincj je with thoso of my friends, ' 1 aui truly jroun, STKr'HKN' A. DOICI.AS. " To VlROl IlKü't. q., (;h.iTm.Ti Stale l mncratic CrauUttM.