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Southwest Climates

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The iollowing' noioí oí a lccture, delivcred by Hon. J. S. Garfield, delégate in Cougn-ss from Washington Territory, on " Tliij Climatology of tho groat Northwest," will bu road with deep attention at tkU timo : NO ICEBEKGd IX TIIE 1'ACIFIC. Porhaps no other portion of tho Pacific coast is influencod to the sanio extent iu its olimatic condition by the Jupau curn-ut. u the distriots. bordering the waters of Poget Sound. This interior body of water, extending noarly two hundred miles inlaad, having sixtoen hundred miles of sliore lino, covoring at loast two thousand square miles of suiíace, of great depth and rauiiiied by bays, ehannols and inlots in overy direction, has an average tidal riso and fu.H of nbout twelve feet, the extremes being eight and tweutytour. Caleulating tho the área of the sound, it will be found that tífty thouaawd uiillion eubie yards of water are poured into and out of it by tho tide every day. In the midsummer, when tho other conditicns would produce a temperatura of 9U , thia vast body of watur at 52 is poured in daily, and, beiug '3H ooldor Uian tho surrounding atmosphere, at ouoe absorba a portion of tho surplus heat, and thus aids the cool northwest broezos in keeping the average down to 61 . In wintur the samo volume of water at i'J parta with its surplus calorie whenovor fu; atmoapheriü tömperaturuinbelow that figure, and ttius aids the warm southurly winds in keeping the wiutor avorago up to 39 . Heneo, it will bo pereeivod that Puget Sound acts as an immonso heater to moder.:to the rigora of winter, and as a íeírigerutor to cool tho air duriug tho heatod toriu. Tliis body of water is ehangod at oach bb aad ïlow of tho tidu. The Lu-shore eurrent, whiuh swoops past the mouth of tho Straits of Fuca, carrios tho outflow oLf to the northward, and oach flood-tido brings into tha sound a í'rosh supply of water of uniform temporature with the Japan cumiut. Procoodiug inland from the coast regions of the Pacific the climate rapidly becomes modiñod. Hany isolated localitios havo climates pecuiiaj to thomselves, so that it is impossiblo to statu many general faotü of equal applicability to thu wholo country. As a rule it niay bo stated that tho extremM of hoat and cold increase inland, but iu no regular ratio, nor upon givon linos of latitudo. Two great disturbing causes jrodueo these irrogularities - tho [ofty niountaiu chains which travorso tho country, with tlicir spure and auglos, and the diil'eronee of altitudo of the interior plateaus. TUE El'FECT OF T1IESIERKA XEVADAS. A hundred miles inland from the coast, nul parallel with it, stands a lofty chain of mountains known as the Sierra Xeviula in California, and as the Cascade range through üregon, Washington, and British Colombia. Tha southwest winds of winter, striking tliis range at an obtuso ingle, an: bout in their course, and ultiniatoly deflected to tho west or north, giving thena on land tho direction of southeast winds. The upper stratum only of this eurront oscapos over the suinmit ol the range to modify the climate ot' the interior. Tho Kocky Mountain rango - t'uo vertebral column of the continent- has a general course east of south nnd west of north. It is "broken iuto more than a hundred ridges, which, with the subordínate ranges, lie in overy possible position, and at all points of the compasa. These givo direetion to tho prevailing winds and modii'y tho local teiuperature. Tho interior of the continent, west of the longitude of Oinaha, isa vaat incliuod piano, dechningto the north. The elovatiou at tho northern end, in the: latitude of tho river Saskatchewan, is not much over 1,000 fcot abovo the soa. Soutlnvard the surfacc Bteadily risos - the Balt L.iko región and 1,100 miles ot' the Union and Central Paoiflo Baiiroada büing nearly 5,000 fect high - 2,000 feet higuor than tho topa of tho Allegliany Mountains, whilethe twosumuit levéis on that route are over 7,000 and 000 feet raspeotively. Farther south ie tabla lauda inerease in height until, pon the plaiña of Mexico, tho ultitude ís bout 8,000 feet. It is well known that cinperutuiv diminiahca about throe dejreos for oach 1,000 feet vertical. It will ïus be percoived that frooa this cause lonc the región of tbc Saskatchewan, in ritish America, is 12 degives wanner lan it would be had it tho clovation of ne Union Pacific Eailroad, and '2 1 de rees wiirmer than if it had the altitudo f tho plateaus of Mexico. Tho Northrn Paciiie Riihoad luis ah. average' elë.ition of 3,000 feet less tliau tho Union 'aciiic, whilo its summit levéis respecively are 3,000 and 4,000 feet lower. 'hi.i differenco of altitude aloue ooiupeul! t'jr the difforence of latitude. But there aro other cansos which opca!e to ronder tho winters in tho vicinity nd to i'nv. aoi'thward of tho 48th parallel less rigorous, in proportiou to their latitude, than those in the districts furthor south, one of which may be startecl ïi'n-. Tho two principal chains oï mountains bcforo reforred to attain their greatest ele vation between the 32d aud 44th parallels of latitude. Furthér north thcy ai less elevated, and present many low and broad passos. In their loftier soctions these mountains opérate to shut oif the warm southwest winter winds from the interior, and to dellect them to the real ;ilong tho coast. As they swoop on ;o the northward, tho mountuin ridgH jooomint; lownr and tho gaps widur, thoy escape over tho suramits and through tho 8868, and thus distributo a portion of iheir heat over the more northcrly inferior distriota. TJIK C.UKAT llIVEIt 01' WARM A!'.:. The constant üovv to tho eastward, during tbe winter season, of a great " rivor" ot' warm air thrcmgh the moro northerly passes of tho ltocky Mountains, was ob'n Vl(l and discussnd several ycars BÍnC0. Lient. Mullan, ot' thc United States Army wlio apent gome timo in this country deteoted Lte exiflten'oe, notad Ite width in somo places, and sOQght to account for it. Be attributed the elevated temperature of this ourrent to the nuinber of warm Bpringa near the souroes of the Missouri, Vi lUiwstone and Columbia Rivers. This explauation, of oourse, was wholly unSiit.isí'tictory. As woll DÚght we KSpect to liuil a similar current of warm air to the enstward of tho city of New York as the result of the heat escaping l'rom thoehininey topa of that city. This atmospheric " (iulf Streaiu' Í3 evidently a portion of the great southwestorly ourrent wliich sweeps around the world in tho temporal c zone - as asurfacc wind whorovor un.i.-tird, bul principally as an upper oum nt whorever obstructod by mountain chaina and continental masses. These cúrrente, defleoted ujiward by mountain rangos, often return to the surfaco and produce very marked effeets. Uijon the great platean of the Columbia, during periods of severo frost, the sonthwesl wind, which has escaped over the summit I of the Cascade rungi, somotiiuns dips to the surfaee. At once the snow melts, the frost diaappears, and the temperature bec .in s mild and genial. As soon ■■ m ut asconds, tho frost returns and winter resumes its swüv. These oceaaional ourrente are ksom as " Chinook win ds," and havo boon tho subject of much spcculation. The warm southwesterly winter wintls, eecapmg over the lowor portions of tho Kocky llouii taina, "drawing" through thcir northerly passes, and spreading, like a fan over Easteru Montana, Dakota and the extensivo rogions of tho 8askatcb.ew.ftn and Assinibone, togother with tho lower elevation of the more northerly distriets, givo them u niildiics óf climate, both incomprehensible and ineredible to tbose who havo given the subject no particular attention. But theory and observation bjth unito iu attosting the fnctthat, from the Paoiiie ooaat eastward to tho Misiissippi, tho winters incroasu in soverity upon uny given parallel whoro distmbiug causos, like mouutain chaina oí' guneral surt'ice elovatiün, do not iutorveno. Ttius, St. Paul ia tho coldest point of equal ölevation botwoen thu UiMÏssippi aud l'uget Sound on that parallel, ludeod, Diior Lodgo Pass, the highost guuimit ou thu line of tho Northera Pacific ltuihoad, aiïords uo lower tUevuiometric rango than St. Paul. To comparo tiio uut'iimia ir with the familiar, and thus convoy a botter practical idea ot' the temperatura of the uorthern belt aeróos the eoatinent, it mi v 1 ■ statocl tliat the ninritimo district of Washington Turrit-, ry aud UragOU h;vu tku oi' N'orfolU, Virginia, and tUo sutnmers of Nova Seoiia. Eastom Wusliiugton, Northoastoru ürogon and ïioi-tliern Idaho about thu suminor an.l winter temperatuiHs of Central aud Northern Penusylvania. Montan uud Wustcrn Bultota assiiuilatu iu average temperatura tu Nuw Yoik aud Connootic:ut ; but thu v.illóys of üoutiiua have vory littlo auow, and cattlo there roquiro uuilher v.'iutur t'uading nor bhulter. THE GliEAT CEREAL PBODUCING BELT. It will bo poroeivod from tho foregoing statements tuut tho bult of country iroiu tho Miajissippi to tho Pacific Oeoau haviiig tlio bost climatu, aud conaequeutly gruatestfertility, lú' butwooa tu fortyfourtU and lifty-fourlU paiallwU ui lati-, tudo. Without being tüo cuki to dcvolop the highost activitiod, it is geuuroualy suppliod witli inoisturo thau any portion of tho country south of it. This is the greateat coroal proUuoing bost of tho Wost, aud expariouoo has loug siuoo doiuonstrutod that hunxau boing.s gathor in groatost nuuibors whoro food is most abundaut and cheapost. The future must, tlioroforo, witnons tho vapid suttlouont of tho rogiou iu quoition, aud its arly occupancy by uiauy millions of our acu. .-te-M


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