To tte President and Board of Trustees of the Ann Arhur Public Schools : Gentlemen : In accordance with Sec. 3, Part I. of your Hules and Regulations, ! hereby submit to you my fourth annual report. The most important statistical informa;ion is as follows : , 3opulation of the district. 7,200 íumber oí childreii iu the district of school ase, 2,258 íumber of boys enrolled in the school, %ó íumber of pirls " " . " 805 fumber of children in private schools, 50 íumber of non-resident pupüs, 225 iuinber of men employed as teachers, 4 íumber ot womon " " " 30 Average salary paid men, $1120 Average salary paid women, $400 fuition received from non-re3idents, ?:ï,128 Tuition from residents, in languages, 5626 Tuition from pupils in painting and drawing, $106 Total tuition for the year, $3890 Total salaries ot teachers aud Superintendent, $17,731.62 Cost of schools, excepting salaries of teachers, $ü,125 School taxes, exclusive of building purposes and including two-mill tax, $19,372.50 Faxes for building purposes, $2,320 Sstimated value of school property, $140,000 }ash valuatión of the real and personal property of the school district, $.5,414,005 A summary of tbe monthly reporta of ;he various departmonts is givon in Table I. : '■ ■" ... i 4 -ipunnd [Modjoo jo aamp " 'Suopraadsm jo ■ÖN I Sm2"2" " I 3 -ïStpröfipi) i "3s"SgSfS I 5! o i grfdnd jo ■!& 8iiu.iaAv I I ■TÍIAHTD ITT I ZO t" C O O CO C I 1- [iioips i k I1 cc io ïc co io -i ssanïpjBt jo íaao id SS oí ao S S S SI S I ? fj r w M W co i w ssouip.rej .íijup sSiuoa y 332 2" 5 SujSuíi [gSSiSSSs 13 [:-o( sjhUkI jfi -o áu.i,)AV I" p31[o.ni, snlii,i jo'oji 35g!S3 !: i ! Tl I N55 I SJD):)i!aX fo isqninii Sis m a n M I ' w s,1uii!s .1" aoqianM lÜsÜS R ii ■gl'Sa'g" - . II lsggË__ This total inctudes special teachers in I'onnianaliip, Drawing, and Musie. The most important items of enrollment and attendance for the past seven years are brought together in Table II. . r uil;!', il. t i PTT i ■- . = II . 1 YEAK. Sjjj S =ë 4iillSi i ,5 Í4 'tu ft f1867-1868Í . . 199!) 92 ' ,19 1280 121 $1,960 1868-1859, . . 1869 93 : .77 1201 12 1,77 1869-187, . . 11864 94 ! L5 1182 135 2,025 1870-1871, . . 1749 91 :86 1182 148; 1,809 1871-1872, . . L840 93 $5 1206 16lij 2,774 1872-1873, . . ll788'9S}' 1. 1200 200i 3,336 1878-1874, . . 1770 95 1. 1254 225 3,890 These tables will be found instruotive, especially if compartd with those of preceding years. We find that while the non-resident attendance has regularly increased, the agregate enrollment has quite uniformly decreased. This diminution of resident enrollment is not due to an increased attendance upon private schools, nor yet to a largor proportion of children not in any school, but rather to the fact that the number of children in the district of chool age is steadily loweriug. We report this year 44 less than lnst year, and 244 less than two years ago. With a smaller aggregate enrollment, our daily attendance has measurably increased over the preceding year, owing, probably, to a uniformly healthy condition of the city during tho entire year. The per cent. of attendance is quite satisfactory, but that of tardiness is much too high ; and I urn convinced it is unnecessarily so. Our teachers will need to practice a more stringent execution of rules conoerning tardiness if they would save the schools from injury and dishonor and the pupils from damaging habits in respect to punctuality. Enforcing rules of attendance and extra instruction of absentees are a oonstant strain upon the teachers, and our patrons can, perhaps, aid the teachers in no way more effeotually than by seeing that their children arealways punctualin their attendanoe at school. Table III. is a detailed exhibit of the quantity of attendanoe, by montha, in the reBpeotive schools. TABLE III. 'C. i. L. ï. i. t. Si 'ö V 't) 'S 13 I rt ' .-. c i l s s Í IU ■ ■? i. fl fl „ i c c a a ecr2lr3T3t3o _,ltTíl.T o a ca e sifli b a cN HOOL. jsoooo_isa .L a a a a a a a e a o qj a u aj ï í S Z; m K m ffi .PS W K K High, 23 118 42; 17 27 2s!2225 16 28 1 17 (ranimar, 19 140 29 17 18!l212 19 13 8 17 FtratWard, 16 97 81 26 19 2414-21 21 24 6 Second Ward, I 4 1271 22 3 4 7 6 9 26 8 4 ïhird Ward, 3j 581 2V 11 18 9 10 1n 15 11 9 Fourth Ward, i 5 143 9 24 11 14 11 ! 15 13 22 14 KifthW'ard, ! 1 58 1.5 5j 9 6 6 S 3 6 4 CotalB, 70 741 189 104;i01 95 81 104 107 107 71 The roll of honor comprises those who have not been absent or tardy during the year, or more, and is as follows : High Sciiool.- Mattie Tenny, Alta Brotherton, T. B. Bronson, J. B. Clayberg, E. G. DePuy, F. D. Ernsberger, Frank Allmendingi-r. For tiro years - Cora Schoff. Grammab School.- Albert Hallock, Louis Hallock, Albert Mann, Geo. B. Eemick, Joseph Wiliiams, Charles Parshall, Minniu Thatcher, Jennie Bird, Ida Cook, Lulu Gott. For two years Maggie Morton, Katie Blackman, Alice Lovejy- First Ward.- Anua Farrell, Anna Deitz, Adello Wheeler, Alice Wheeler, Carrie Wheeler, Boyd Campbell, Frank Ulark, Charles Mann, Eddio Pitkin, Jas. Ottley. Second Ward.- Theodore Keyer, Nellie Holmes, Katy Lucas, Mary Eitlebuss THIRD Ward.- Kosa Schroeter, Carrie Frazer, Carrie Long. Fourth Ward. - Flora Carrington Carrie Benham, Florence Benham. FlFTir WAED.-Emma Albor. Total 42, against 25 the preceding year - a commendable improvement. Besides those nained above, we have he following sutnmary of perfect attendanoe for shorter periods : Not absent or :ardy for two teruis, 8fi ; for ono term, 204 ; during enrolluient, 79. Below we give a tabular list of the number of pupila in the various schools, of eacli year's age f rom 5 to 21 : I's-1 i L IJ5_ a3g jo 8jjtaX"ir, 'Í. 5 ■rf JO BJTOÍ Qg g" _ Mili! [n s.l !!.). Cl L; _ o I -98 JO 9JB0.Í T K' " _IJc ' :i [ " = JJ -38E JO SJU0.Í IX i SSS2S00 I S y -9 jo mtoí 1 1 i s s as s s 1 2 g j -8j 2 pean josiraÁ8 SS83S S I ! "-1 ..,:i; jo sjBaX j !??LL ! ■,.1! JO SiTOA 9 j SgSSSS - i íKgi i 8 lililí H If it Bhould prove, as roports from some of the ward schools indícate, that ;ke emollment of children under six reara of age has fallón off, in accordance with an opinión expressed in my report aet year, I un confident that it will inure inally to the higher scholarship of tha schools, as also to the physical and intelectual well-being of the children thus 'avored. The average age oí' pupils iu the High School ia about ÍS years ; that of nonresidents being souiewhat higher than resideuts. The high average age of pupils in the Sigh School I regard with satistaction, Doth as añ'ects the individual pupils and ;he intereats of education. The branches taught in all the schools, and the number of pupils in each respectively are givon in the following table : TARLF, V. BRANCH. Boya GirlsTot'l Beading and Spelling, 761 682 1433 Penmauship, i 426 389 815 Object Lessons, 382 351 733 Oral Language, 146 118 264 Primary Botany, I 197 154 351 Siuging, 750 689 1439 Drawing, 315 259 674 Intellectual Arithmetic, 280 234 614 Written Aritñmetic, 643, 554 1197 Geography, 417 413 890 Elementary Physics. 11 16 21 Elementary Chemistry, ! 34 62 86 United States History, 45 47 02 English Graramar, ' i 203 179 382 Punctuation, ■, 58 13 71 Book-keeping, 99 28 91 Commercial Law, 17 6 23 Constitution of United States, 34 50 84 General History, 8S 62 147 Algebra, 190 132 322 Geometry, : 73 44 117 Zoology, 12 17 29 Geology, 23 16 39 Physiology, 6 18 24 Physical Geographv, 27 36 63 Botany, 34 39 73 Chemistry, 4 9 13 Natural Philosopby, 24 27 51 Astronomy, 3 8 11 Geometrical Drawing, 18 11 29 Rhetoric, 21 17 38 English Literature, 2 7 9 Intellectual Philosophy, i 8 10 French, ! 50 23 73 Germán, ÍS 29 44 Latin, 142 ó.i 197 Greek, 63 10 63 Ancient Geography, 43 24 67 At the last general examination, in June, 361 pupils wero advanced to higher grades. Of these, 232 were in the Ward Schools ; 7ó froui the Ward Schools to the Grammar School ; and 41 from the Grammar to the High School. The questions for these exarninations are made with all posaible care, to test actual knowledge rather than tho memory of pupils. High per cents are regarded of less value than thinking power. This requires more skillful teaching - something more than simply hearing lessons with text-book in hand- and teachers are more likely to suffer from a compariion of merits. Both in promoting pupils and estimating the quality of instruction, not only readiness in recitation but facility in applying knowledge, are carefully weighed an credited. Only in this or some similar way can any graded school escape the evil consequences of mechanical memorizing - an enemy that is ever creeping into and infesting all its work. Besides these regular promotions, occurring but once a year, pupils of unusual aptness to learn and of rapidly developing ininds, are advanced whenever it is doemed safe by the teachers. Whatever improvements have been made upon the course of instruction in the Ward Schools during the year havo consisted mainly in systematizing and defining more acourately the object of ora-1 teaching. More attention has been given to the study of animáis, and with fair results. . We mean to make Natural Science a prominent feature in the work of the Ward Schools. The means at present employed are Hooker's Child's Book of Nature, used as a reading book ; Youman's Primary Botany, two months in the year ; lessons on animáis, with Prang's Chromos, half the year, and incidental instruction in the Geography lessons. Drawing in the Ward Schools has been with us a subject of special attention and study. Eduoators, everywhere, seeing how largely many of our industries require the aid of this art, conclude that it ought to form an integral part of the education of our youth. Our experiment with Krusi's systein accomplished something : it gavo us a start and showed us some of our wants. But it became evident here, as in Music, that our teachers had not tho special preparation to conduot the instruction successfully, and place it in the way of probable improvement. To meet this difficulty the teacher of Drawing in the Grammar School was instructed by the Board to givo one loBson per week in thp 2d and 3d grades, whioh should be reviewed and suppleraented by the teacher in charge, as ia done with Music and Writing. The plan aeems to be accomplishing all tb at was expected of it, and I trust it will be continued in the first and second grades. Our Music has progresged with much satifaotion. Especially good work has been done in the way of reading and writing in the various keys, and we hope soon to show some excellent results in singing. It may be fairly doubted whether special teachers should be regarded a natural and permanent part of the equipment of a public school. The necessity for thetn with us now exists. But it seems to tne that teachers in the Ward Schools ought to be competent to teach Drawing, Mnsic and Writing ; and where thoy aro not, at present, they should seek to become so as speedily as possible. OHAMMAR DEPARTMENT. In view ot the proposed addition of a year to the High School course, some corresponding changes will need to be made in the Grammar School. It is designed to remove all the Algebra and Latin to the High School, to make Bookkeeping a part of the regular course in the third year, and to increase thequantity of spelling and deflning. Such a chango will make the department still more praotical and complete within itself : oonditions whioh we have hitherto been endeavoring to realize. The elementary science primers in Chemistry and Physics have worked admirably. Their usefulness and adaptability to the needs of this grade have removed them beyond tho sphere of experiment. The addition of a sixth teacher to this department bas reduced the average numbor of pupils to each teacher from 47 to 35, so that no inconvenience has been feil from large classes and crowded rooms. A class of 59 were exainined for admission to the High School on Saturday, June 13th. Fifty-one were passed, of whom sii were conditioned. The average age of the class was 14 1-2 years ; average standing, 84 per cent. The six highest per oents attainedwero Minnie Thatcher, 97 ; Clara Gregory and Moss Perkins, each 96 ; Anna Ockford, Nellie Colman and Allie Goodrich, eaoh 9ö. HIGH SCHOOL. The prosperity of the High School continúes unabated. The attendance during the year was unexpectedly larger than the preceding year. The tuition was $558 in excess of any former year. In three years the receipts have con3iderably more than doubled. Tbis unexampled growth, mostly in the preparatory dapartment, is rapidly changihg the character of the High School from a department proper of our public schools to a school of preparation for college. In order to maintain this doublé character, several co-ordinate courses of study must be kept up ; for what is considered best for those who finish their studies with the High School, in no way prepares them for University work. These additional courses are not maintained at additional cost. They are so adj usted and operated that classes are usually quite aa large as can be easily and profitably handled. Thus the cost of tuition in this department, the past year, was reduced to $22.00 per scholar; af ter deductiug tuition receipts, it was only $8.50 less even than the cost per scholar in the Grammar or "Ward schools. In developiug character and fitting pupils for the actual duties of life, preparatory studies are probably not so fruitful of immediate results as highschool studies proper. It is not strange, therefore, that some of the largest High Schools in the State refuse or relucían tly consent to undertake the preparation of students for the University. To those who are fond of rogarding our educational system a harmonious whole, these inoongruities will seem strange and to be regretted. A symmetrical adjustment, if ever made, will result, we think, in reducing preparatory and High School work to one and the same thing. Probably three-fourths of our High Schoei work is in the preparatory courses ; and the current in that direction is very strong. During the past year, quite a number of our students, not intending to enter the University, changed from the English to the preparatory Scientific course; an error, which we trust will not often be repeated. The general influence of the preparatory classes in the school is unquestionably happy : iuspiring ambitious aitns, earnest study, and thorough scholarship. But the High Sohool's best influence is exerted upon the departinents below. As the Univarsity gives tone and character to the work of the High School, so the High School gives inspiration, aim, and stability to the grades below. This may bo seen in the fact that about 60 por cent. of the pupils in the Grammar School enter the High School, and of these, more than half complete a course of study and gradúate. Every consideration, oducational, social, and material, urges the utmost encouragement of the growth of the High School, even to the extent, if necessary, of appropriating the entire central building to ita accomodation. In obediunce to the increasing requirements for admission to the University on the one hand, and continued complaints of the work of our students on the öther, we reluctantly recommend the extensión of the several courses of study to four years. (The new courses, as marked out and recommended are made an appondix to tMs report.) As will be seen, all the Algebra and Latin are brought iuto the High School, and the time of several branches is materially incroased. Doubtiess the change will contribute to better scholarship, and unless, it should quench the ambition of a considerable numbei who tinglit otherwise complete a courae, will provo to have heen a wise step. In the naw arrangement, provisión ia made for two years of Fronch or Germán in tho Latin and Soientific courses, I therefore rocommend a discontinuance of the French and Gorman courses, specifically as auch. The operation of tlie Commorcial course continúes to be worthy of hearty coinmondation. On June 19th, in the High School Hall, occurred tho graduating exercises of the largest class the school has sent forth. Sixty-six diplomas were awarded, distributed among the several jouraes as follows : Classical course, 19 Latin cour.se, - - - - - -10 Scientific courae, ..... 20 English courae, .-----; French and Scientific courses, - - - - 2 Germán and Scientific coursos, ... 2 Latin and Gerinan courses, - - - - 1 Germán course, ------ 1 Commercial course, - - - - - - 0 Six otbers aro preparing in special studies for exarnination in September on tho cotnplotiou of which they will be entitled to graduation. Of this total, 40 expeet to enter the Univorsity. I oannut justly close this consideration of the High School without expressing my high appreciation of the superior iustruction given in it during the past year : and tbis is the more deserved aa nearly all the teachers weie new to their work. JJlSCIl'LIXE. Referriug to soine views of school discipline expressed in my report of last year, which I would here re-assert and emphasize, it is somcwhat niortifying to report 146 cases of corporal punishment. The apparent necessity of so much resort to these barbarous methods of discipline is greatly to be regrctted. It iudieates too slow progress in the art of governing. Corporal punishment is a quick and easy mode of settling school difficulties, and, ruoreover, relieves the parent of much of the responsibility of his child's conduct. And right hero is the great mistake. We sacrifico a moral growth for temporary results of order and obedience. Now, no amount of pains can be too dear a price for a noble, uianly child ; and as we valué the good character oí our children, let us not shirk any responsibility in their proper discipline. If our schools would enter upon a higher career of character-making as well as orderkeeping, there must be less of the rod and more skül in directing the springs of youthful action ; and, if possible, more parental co-operation. Lest I be misunderstood, however, let me here add that good erder is the first necessity of every school room. Appended is a list of teachers with their salaries asemployed for the year 1874-5. Position. Name . Sal'y Superintendent, W. S. Perry, $2,000 HIGH SCHOOL. Principal, Latin z1 Greek, L N. Demmon, 1,500 Higher Mathemat-! ios, and Physics, II. X. Chute, 1,100 Commercial department, B. E. Nrehdls, 1,200 Preceptress, G e rraau and Higher English, Lucy A. Chittendim, 600 Mathematica and Science, Anna EP. Eastman, 500 French (half timo),1 A. Hennequin, 400 Assistant, lEtnma L. baker, 400 OKA5IMAE SCHOOL. Principal, lat Grade Sallie A. Crane, 450 2d Grade, Abbie A. Pond, 450 2d and 3d Grades, Adeline A. Ladd, 450 3d Grade, Sarah Barry, 460 Assistant, Clara L. Conover, 400 " M. LouisePond, 400 FIKST WARD SCHOi' Principal, lst Grade Bathette ; u;o 2d Grade, Flora I. Huil, 360 3d Grade, ly J. Eldridge, [ 360 3d Grade, I Maggie McDivitt, 850 SECOXD WARD SCHOOL. Principal, lst Grado Ella J. French,"" 2d Grade, Frank E. Larned, 350 3d Grade, M. Jennie Brev. 3d Grade, Celia Banister, 350 THIEÏWARD SCHOOL. Principal, lst ( rade Lizzie Wines, 300 2d Grade, Carne E. Canivell, 350 3d Grade, , Hattio L. Taylor, 326 FOURTH WARD SCHO Principal, lst Grade Eliza Botsford, 400 2d Grade, I Addie II. Morey, 350 2d Grade, ! Cornelia Corseíius, 350 3d Grade, I'. A. Sager, 325 3d Grade, Fannie II. Kíllogg-, 350 FIFTH WABD SCHOOL. Principal, lst Grade Carrie Matthews, 2d Grade, Belle Kellogg, ■ 350 3d Gaade, ; Nellie Arksey, 350 SPECIAL TEACHEB8. Painting and ' ing, jDoley O'IIar.i, 400 Music, Alvin W'ilsey, 660 Penmanship, j B. E. Nichols, COXCLUDIJS'G REMAEKS. A business .of any sort is prosperous largely, in proportion to the enthusiasm pervading its management. None is more so than the school business. Enthusiasm begets skill and makos the successful teacher. What our schools most need is good teachers. Fine buidings, extensivo apparatus, good text books and courses of study are all of secondary importance. Our patröns and citizens have a right to demand that our teachers shall be not only educated, but enthusiastic learuers of the art of teaching; for when they cease to be so, they cense to be useful. So, again schools cannot greatly flourish in a community indifferent to their wants and valuo. Teachers do their best work when nearest their patrons, assured of a ready confidcnce and co-operation. Some parents see this and always seek to maintain personal relations with the teachers of their children. Such practico ought to be more common. Public sentiment can do much to improve the quality of schools and teachers. The discerning eye of an appreciativo community upon its public school, is a constant stimulus to good endoavor. In all these respects, our location, in a town whose interests are so largely educational, gives us superior advantages and ought to do much in securing for us superior schools. It will do so if all conceined properly meet their responsibilities. In ciosing, perniit mo to express to you, gentlemen of the Board, my heartfelt thanks for your continued kindness and prompt oo-operation in all things pertaining to tho welfare of the schools, Yery respoctfully, W. S. TEiutY, Hupt. Aug. lOth, 1874. The guardians of the peace at Columbus, Ohio, are so zealous in the discharge of their duties that they take no note oí' personal mishaps, for it is seriously stated that one pólice oöiccr there had his trowsers stolen froro him fecently whilehe wéi on duty.