Press enter after choosing selection

The Farm

The Farm image
Parent Issue
Public Domain
OCR Text

We have made tho rem ark on a formr occasion, that there are fonr grades f prunning- the first, with the finger nd thumb-nail, which if timely perormed would obyiate anj other kind. nd no wounds would ever be visible, ie tree beingkept in perfect shape. The econd is with the pocket knife, which s used on shoots whieh have grown ome months, or those which aro too umerous, and must be cut out This mode makes no woimds worth mentionng. The third is the removal of small mos not over au men in diameter wita light saw, leaving small wounds which oon grow over, and which if neccessary re easily covered with paint or graftng wax. With these three ways, the ree is easily kept in symmetrieal shape, iio iirst being the easiest and most pereet. The fourth, whieh can be regarded s only a ehoice of evils, consists of the emoval of heavy limbs which have jrown out of shape from neglect, and which are to be ent off with a strong aw. If this work is carefoly and judiinnslv ilnnp. t.hf trofi. mflvlm tmiipVi )roved; if performed in the indiscriminate cut-and-slash system with a heavy axe, it leaves the trees more distortea ;han ever. It was a modiflcation of the ourth mode whieh tho man from the city met with on the farm which he had recently purchased, when he set the farm laborer to "trim the orchard," an operation which he supposed always neeessary. When the man, who liad witnessed forest clearing, carne in at night, thequestionwas, ''Well, Pat, how do you get on trirnming the trees?" "Thrimmed, is it? I've got 'em all cutted down, ready for aisy trimmin' to-morrow." The intelligenee which some owners of orchards display in various parta of the country, by different modes of mutilation, is not greatly superior to that of this matter. Winter pruning should be practiced omy on naruy neus, except u do uio removal of small twigs, whieh if few,may e cut away at almost anj' time. Hardy jearing apple trees may safely have small branches removed at the present time, the cutsurfaee soon drying, when jaint or grafting wax may be used for covering the wound. It is botter not to do all the work in a single year, ifthere s much to be done. The tree may remain a little one-sided or dense-headeá 'or a year or two, till gradually brought nto shapo. As to the best time, the same rule is not always to be applied to all places and circumstances alike. Many prefer early summer pruning, becauso the wounds soon heal over at that season, f large branches have not been cut away. This will answer well with young and vigorous growth, the check always jiven by the removal of much foliage lot doing great harm. The result, however, from summer pruniug, is not always so favorable as at first it appears ;o be. This was tested somc years ago Dy an orchardist in Iowa, who cut ofl' a araach in every month in the year, anc ril ii . t 1 "1 1 1 at tne ona 01 nve years, wnen au Jiaa healed over, the wood, on cutting into t was found least decaycd after the late winter pruning, and the most decayed after the early summer pruning; the latter being about three times as great as the former. In this case, the sudden check, in the rapidly growins; trees, by cutting away large limbs, to the flow o: the sap through them, deranged the currents of sap in the wood. while it ex pended itself in a more rapid formation of new wood near the outside. To avoid this difficulty in cutting of lar.o"(i limbs. it is nronosed tomirsue this course: The limb is partly taken off in winter or eai-ly spring, and when the tree is in full leaf and in full growth, i is again out off near the main stem This course obviates the objection of a sudden check to the tree, with the ad vantage of summer healing. A full se ries of experimento on this subject migh lcad to valuable resulta, and tney woulc be well worthy of the experiment sta tions of the country. But allowance should be made for the varying influ enees of soil, growth, wet or dry cli mate, and other causes. When the owner of an orchard can not devote his own personal labor to cutting away useless branches, and h delegates the work to a farm laborer no general instruction can preven many mistakes. We have found a great convenience in such cases, in literally chalking out every item before hand, and an intelligent orchardist majlay out in an hour enough work for a laboi'er for a whole day. Our mode i to draw a line at the precise spot wher the saw is to go through. The man i directed to follow accurately the ehali niark, ana tne orcnara is trimmea in neat and perfect manner. The owne may stand on the ground or ride a hors and mark out the work, with chalk se on a pole. The following mode of sawing off limb will prevent splitting down o tearing the bark. First set the saw be low and cut up part way, then cut f rom above slightly farther out to meet lirs cut. Or, saw the whole limb off a foo out, and then holding the foot stump in the leit hand, cut off neatly and carefully Never leave a projecting sturup to disiigure the tree. Lastly, use sharp tools of tho best steel, saving labor, and leaving a sniooth faoe. Notes. Pruno in autumn to insure growth, and in sprint to insuro fruitfulness, is a grape maxim. Pastures given to excessivo moisture should, as far as possible, be avoided for sheep grazing, excepting, perhaps, in the middlo of the dav. when the surface moisture has been dispersed. Many Western farmers are substitu ing miilet and Hungarian grassforoats the latter erop being liable to injur from severe droughts, or to fall dow and be of Httle valué on the black soiïs By constantly reinoving decayed ilo ers before a seed pod can swell, th growlh of the plant and the continuec developnient of new buds and flower upon the new growth are matters o course. To break a cow from sucking hersell put a niedium-sized snaflle bit in he mouth over the tongue, confine it by her eating, drinking or licking herseli From three to six weeks will eflect a peí manent cure; never known to fail. D not haye the head stall too short or to tight, so as to draw the bit too far up in her mouth. The great mistake, says a fruit-grow er, made by those who grow both cur rants and gooseberries, is in adherino to the "busk" íorm, by keeping down the suckers. or new shoots, and iruitinB from the new shoots which row from the oíd canes. The best fruit is produc ed from the new shoots, and new shoot should be encouraged to grow from th roots, the oíd canes being cut away re gularly every year. Wc would recommend prompt action in case of fowl cholera; for whatever i to be done should be done quickly when these severo assaults of disease manifes themsclyos in the poultry house. Fumígate the premises thoroughly. lJut the birds on low diet, and give cooked food only, wliile the trouble lasts. Administer three times a day a pill of equal parts of ginger and camphor, as large as a small pea - say 2J grains to the sick ones, and place in their drinking water a few drops of tincture of iron every morning. This will help them to recover if they are not to far gone when taken in hand. But the disorder is a difíicult one to manage after it gets fairly under way anong a flock of fowl3 - as all experienoe veriiies. Muny of our readers have a surplus f potatoes this f all, andnotbeing satisied with the prices offered, desire to tore them in the best and most economical method, and take the risk of geting a higher rate next spring. If you ïave a dry, well ventilated cellar of uiRcient size you canscarcelydo better ñan to store tüem there. lt is an aüantage however, to put them in large iiallow bins made with slats, nailed an nch or two apart, and raised a few nches from the floor to allow of circuation of the air among tho potatoes. 3ne such bin can be set upon another, f necessary without injury, if a few nches space is left between by means f boards of scantling. If it is necessary without injury, if a few inches space is eft between by means of boards or cantling. If it is necessary to store hem in pits or piles out of doors, a high ry place should be chosen and the spot hould be scraped smooth and drained, o that no water can get into Or under he heap. The pile should be a neat one in shape and should be covered írst with straw and then with earth, to he depths of six or eight inchos in alernate la}ers.


Old News
Ann Arbor Democrat