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UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union

UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 1902: Ninth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan 1902 -- The Choral Union image
Day
1
Month
May
Year
1902
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Season: 1901-1902
Concert: TENTH
Complete Series: CX
University Hall, Ann Arbor, Michigan

OFFICIAL PROGRAM BOOK
[official]
NINTH
ANNUAL MAY FESTIVAL
of
University of Michigan
TO BE HELD IN
University Hall, Ann Arbor, Michigan
May 15, 16, 17, 1902
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
University School of Music
1902
ILLUSTRATIONS
Richard Wagner Emil Mollenhauer - - - Albert A. Stanley ...
Christoph Willibald Gluck - - Iouise Homer - ...
"Orpheus,"--Orpheus, Euridice, and Hermes
(After an Antique Relief in the Naples Museum) EVTA KlLESKI ....
Ernest Hutcheson Charles Gounod - ...
Anita Rio -,
Emilio de Gogorza ...
Glenn Hall ----" Faust,"-Church Scene Janet Spencer - - - Barron Berthald
Sara Anderson ....
William A. Howland Frederic Martin '' Tannhaeuser, '' --Elisabeth's Prayer
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UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
FRANCIS W. KELSEY, President ALBERT A. STANLEY, Director
The Choral Union
THIRTEENTH SEASON 1901-1902
Board of Government
PAUL R. de PONT
President
LEVI D. WINES
Treasurer
THOMAS C. COLBURN
Secretary
ALBERT A. STANLEY
Conductor
BERNARD STURM, Assistant Conductor
WARREN WEBSTER HERBERT P. WHITNEY
Librarians
Directors
MRS. WIRT CORNWELL MISS MABEL PERRY MISS CARRIE L. DICKEN MRS. W. K. CHILDS
ALBERT J. BECKER GEORGE B. RHEAD DR. E. D. BROOKS ERNEST M. HALLIDAY
DR. CHARLES B. NANCREDE
MISS MINNIE M. DAVIS, Pianist
LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK, Organist
LIST OF
CONCERTS and SOLOSITS
Thursday, May IS, 8 P. M.
"Orpheus"
An Opera, - Gluck
CAST.
Orpheus, Madame LOUISE HOMER
Euridice, Madame EVTA KILESKI
Amor, Miss ANITA RIO
Chorus and Orchestra Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
Friday, May 16, 3 P. M.
Symphony Concert
SOLOISTS.
Madame KILESKI, Soprano Mr. ERNEST HUTCHESON, Pianist
Mr. EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
Friday, May 16, 8 P. M.
"Faust"
A Lyric Opera, - = Gounod
CAST
Faust, Mr. GLENN HALL
Margarita, ----Miss ANITA RIO Mephistopheles, - - - - Mr. FREDERIC MARTIN
Martha, Miss JANET SPENCER
Valentine, - Signor EMILIO de GOGORZA.
Brander, Mr. WILLIAM A. HOWLAND
Chorus, Organ and Orchestra Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
Saturday, May 17, 2.30 P. M.
Miscellaneous Concert
SOLOIST.
Miss JANET SPENCER, Contralto Mr. EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
Saturday, May 17, 7.30 P. M.
" Tannhaeuser"
A Romantic Opera, = = Wagner
CAST. Tannhaeuser, .... Mr. BARRON BERTHALD
Elisabeth, Miss SARA ANDERSON
Venus, Madame LOUISE HOMER
Wolfram, Mr. WILLIAM A. HOWLAND
Landgrave, - ... Mr. FREDERIC MARTIN
Walther, - - - - Mr. JAMES MOORE
Heinrich, - Mr. MARSHALL PEASE
Biterolf, Mr. EARLE G. KILLEEN
Reinmar, Mr. F. HOWLAND WOODWARD
A Shepherd, Miss FRANCES CASPARY
Four Noble Pages, Misses FARLIN, FISCHER, COFFEY and HARRIS Choral Union and Orchestra Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
Boston Festival Orchestra
PERSONNEL
EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
First Violins
WM. HOFMANN
A. SASLAWSKY JOHN W. CROWLEY W. S. COTTON ALEX. DAVIS
C. F. HIGGINS J. CHLUPSA JULIUS AKEROYD W. F. DODGE THEODORE COOK
Second Violins
JULIUS SCHEEL C. G. MILLER J. B. FIELDING FLORENZ WERNER ADOLPH EORENZ
B. J. HOLMBERG
Violas
W. A. HOCHHEIM F. FIALA S. WERTHEIM GEORGE SAUER
'Cellos
CARL WEBSTER RALPH SMALLEY H. EZERMAN J. MASSIAS
Basses
R. N. DAVIS PAUL RAHMIG O. L. SOUTHLAND H. E. COUCH
Flutes
E. A. FRANKLIN
F. H. EATON
Oboes
EUG. DEVAUX
C. STIEGELMAYER
Clarinets
JOHN E. St.CI.AIR JACOB WOW,
Bassoons
FEDOR BERNHARDI ACHILLE HEYMEN
French Horns
ROBERT MINSEL JULIUS EUGSTER HENRY KOCH
SCHINNER
Trumpets
A. S. WONSON WM. HILL .
Trombones
D. H. MOORE A. P. RIPLEY HENRY WOELBER
Tuba
OTTO EORENZ
Harp
WILrHELMINA LOWE
Tympani
JOHN M. CASEY
Bass Drum, Cymbals etc.
CARL LUDWIG
GEORGE W. STEWART, Manager
All Concerts '
Begin on Local Time, Which is Twenty-five Minutes Faster than Standard Time
DOORS OPEN ONE HOUR BEFORE THE
BEGINNING OF EACH
CONCERT
PROGRAMS
CHORAL UNION SERIES
J90J-1902 THIRTEENTH SEASON SIXTH CONCERT
(No. CVI Complete Series)
FIRST MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Thursday Evening, May IS, 8 o'clock
"ORPHEUS"
Opera In Three Acts by Qluck
CAST
Orpheus ....... Madame Louise Homer
Euridice ------- Madame Evta Kileski
Amor -------Miss Anita Rio
The Choral Union Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
SYNOPSIS.
ACT I.
Overture.
Chorus. "If here, where all is dark."
Recit. "My friends, lamentation but
adds to my affliction ! " Pantomime.
Chorus. "If here, where all is dark." Recit. "I pray you, go!"
RlTORNELLE.
Aria. "I mourn my loved one dead." Recit. "Euridice, Euridice." Aria. " Weeping sorely I stray." Recit. "Euridice! the name I love " Aria. "Still I shed bitter tears." Recit. "Relentless gods of Acheron." Aria. "Go, and with thy lyre." Recit. "What, shall I behold her
again."
Aria. "The gods, if they call thee." Recit. " What said he " Aria. "Away with mourning."
ACT II.
Dance of the Furies.
Chorus. " Who is the mortal one."
Dance of the Furies.
Chorus. " Who is the mortal one."
Solo and Chorus. "O be merciful to
ne!"
Chorus. "Sorrowing mortal." Aria. ¦' Thousand tortures."
Chorus. "Whatfeeling, strange to us.' Aria. "My entreating." Chorus. ''His moving elegies." Dance of the Furies. Ballet. Ballet.
Air and Chorus. "On these meadows." Quasi Recit. "How pure a light." Chorus. "In this realm." Ballet.
Recit. "O blessed and happy spirits." Chorus. "From the realm of souls departed."
ACT III.
Recit. "O come, Euridice." Duet. "Come,on my true love relying." Recit. "Ah, how can he persist! " Aria and Duet. "A change how de­ceiving! "
Rect. "Now recommences my trial." Aria. " She is gone, and gone for ever!' Recit. " Then let my pain be ended!' Chorus, with Solo. "The god of love." Ballet. Gavotte. Menuet.
Trio. "Sweet affection, heavenly treas­ure."
Chorus. "The god of love." Chaconne.
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1901--1902 THIRTEENTH SEASON SEVENTH CONCERT
(No. CVII Complete Series)
SECOND MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Friday Afternoon, May 16, 3 o'clock
SYMPHONY CONCERT
SOLOISTS
Madame Evta Kileski, Soprano Mr. Ernest Hutcheson, Pianist
Mr. Emil Mollenhauer, Conductor
PROGRAM
Overture " Der Wassertraeger," ... Cherubini
Aria, " Dove Sono " from " Marriage of Figaro," Mozart
MADAME KILESKI
3. Concerto, A minor, Op. 54, ... - Schumann
Allegro affettuoso; Andante grazioso; Allegro vivace.
MR. HUTCHESON
4. Symphony No. 5, C minor, ----Beethoven
Allegro con brio; Andante con moto; Allegro; Allegro.
The Concert Grand is a MASON & HAMLIN.
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1901-1902 THIRTEENTH SEASON EIGHTH CONCERT
(No. CVIII Complete Scries)
THIRD MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 16, 8 o'clock
"FAUST"
A Lyric Opera in Five Acts by Charles Gounod
CAST Faust, .----..-. Mr. Glenn Hall
Margarita, -------- Miss Anita Rio
Mephistopheles, - - - - - - Mr. Frederic Martin
Martha, --.-..- Miss Janet Spencer
Valentine, -.----- Signor Emilio de Gogorza
Brander, ------Mr. William A. Howland
Students, Soldiers, Villagers, Angels, Demons, The Choral Union Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
SYNOPSIS
Introduction.
ACT I.
Solo and Chorus. "In vain do I call!"
(Faust). Scene and Duet. "If I pray!" (Faust
and Mephistopheles).
ACT II.
Chorus. "754 Fair." (La Kermesse). Scene and Recitative. "Dear gift of my
sister!" (Valentine).
Cavatina. "Dio possente." (Valentine). Song of the Golden Calf. "Clear the
way!" (Mephistopheles). Scene and Chorus. "What ho ! Bacchus
up there!" Waltz and Chorus. ''Light as air."
ACT III.
Intermezzo and Song. "Gentle flozv'rs in
the dew!" (Siebel). Cavatina. "All hail thou dwelling pure!"
(Faust)
Scene and Aria. "The King of Thule!" (Margarita),
The Jewel Song. "0 heav'ns.' what brilli­ant gems! "
Scene, Quartet and Recitative.
Duet. "The hour is late" (Margarita and Faust).
ACT IV.
Romanza. "Wlien all was young!" (Siebel.) Soldiers Chorus. "Glorv and Love!" Serenade. "Ah! Calarina!" The Duel--Trio. (Valentine, Mephistopheles and Faust). The Death of Valentine. Scene in the Church.
ACT V.
Duet. (Margarita and Faust). Trio and Finale.
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1901--1902 THIRTEENTH SEASON NINTH CONCERT
(No. CIX Complete Series)
FOURTH MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Saturday Afternoon, May 17, 2.30 o'clock
MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT
SOLOIST
Miss Janet Spencer, Contralto Mr. Emil Mollenhauer, Conductor
PROGRAM
Symphony, B minor, "Unfinished," ... Schubert
Allegro moderato; Andante con moto.
Aria, " O Mio Fernando," - Donizetti
MISS SPENCER
Serenade, for Strings, Op. 48, - - - Tschaikowsky
Andante non troppo; Moderato--Tempo di Valse; Larghetto elegiaco; Andante--Tema Russo.
Three Moorish Dances,
(Ballet Music) from "Azara," - - - Paine
Allegretto animato; Poco meno mosso; Allegretto quasi Andante-Allegretto con moto e grazioso.
Songs with Piano,
" Printemps qui commence," - Saint-Sacns
'' Kypris," - Augusta Holmes
" Printaniere," .... Goring-Thomas
MISS SPENCER
Overture to Shakspeare's " Richard III.," Op. 68, - Volkmann
CHORAL UNION SERIES
J90J-J902
THIRTEENTH SEASON TENTH CONCERT
(No. CX Complete Series)
FIFTH MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Saturday Evening, May 17, 7:30 o'clock
" Tannhaeuser "
A Romantic Opera In Three Acts by Richard Wagner
(Paris Version)
CAST
Tannhaeuser, Mr. Barron Berthald Heinrich, Mr. Marshall Pease
Elisabeth, Miss Sara Anderson Biterolf, Mr. Earle G. Killeen
Venus, Madame Louise Homer Reinmar, Mr. F. Howland Woodward
Wolfram, Mr. William A. Howland A Shepherd, Miss Frances Caspary
Landgrave, Mr. Frederic Martin Four Noble Pages, Walther, - Mr. James Moore Misses Farlin, Fischer, Coffey, Harris
Knights, Nobles, Ladies, Minstrels, Pilgrims, Choral Union
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
SYNOPSIS.
Overture.
ACT I.
Scene I. The Hill of Venus. Chorus of . Sirens.
Scene II. Venus and Tannhaeuscr. Tann-haeuser's Song; "While I have life."
SCENE III. Tannhaeuser; Young Shep­herd; Pilgrims. Song of the Shepherd. Pilgrims' Chorus.
Scene IV. The Landgrave and Minstrels. Wolfram's Songs; "We welcome thee." "When for the palm." Tannhaeuser's Song: "Ah, dost thou smile ! "
ACT II.
Scene I. Elisabeth; "Oh, Hall of Song!" Scene II. Elisabeth, Tannhaeuser, and Wolfram. Duet (Elisabeth and Tann­haeuser); "Oh, blessed hour of meeting!"
Scene III. The Tournament of Song. Processional Aarch, Chorus, Land­grave's Address to the Minstrels, Wol­fram's Eulogy of Love; Biterolfs Song; Wolfram's Second Song; Tannhaeuser's Song to Venus; Elisabeth's Interven­tion; The Landgrave's Admonition; Tannhaeuser s Departure.
ACT III.
Scene I. Elisabeth, Wolfram, and Elder Pilgrims. Pilgrims' Chant; Elisabeth's Prayer.
Scene II. Wolfram alone. Song; "0, thott sublime Evening Star!''
SCENE III. Tannhaeuser and Wolfram; later, Venus, Landgrave, Minstrels, Pilgrims, etc. Tannhaeuser's Pilgrim­age; Scene with Venus; Funeral Chorus; Closing Chorus.
DESCRIPTIVE PROGRAMS
FIRST CONCERT
Thursday Evening, May 15
"ORPHEUS," An Opera in 3 Acts, - Gluck
CAST
ORPHEUS, Madame Louise Homer
EURIDICE, Madame Evta Kileski
AMOR, Miss Anita Rio
THE CHORAL UNION Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Christoph Willibald Gluck--born July 2, 1714, at Weidenwang; died at Vienna, November 15, 1787--is one of the epoch-making figures in the history of the opera. As a genius not to be compared with Handel, Mozart or Rossini, among the oper­atic composers, he was far ahead of them all in his appreciation of the true nature and mission of opera. At the time when Gluck produced his first operas--as was but natural in the Italian style--opera had become so thoroughly conventionalized that even Handel's vigorous attitude had made but a passing impression. These first operas were very successful for in them he blindly followed the lead of the public. He had not yet learned the force of Schiller's saying, that "he who would lead the public must despise its decisions " and these works won immediate success at the cost of enduring fame.
The failure of " Pyramus and Thisbe," a work written in the then prevailing form of the pasticcio, led him to reflect seriously upon the artistic and aesthetic foundations of the form as it should exist. Because he sought for light on this pro­blem from philosophy and Esthetics he became a reformer in the truest sense of the word. Fortunately we have an exact statement of his conclusions in the introduc­tory remarks to his opera of "Alceste," and we quote, therefore, as follows:
"When I undertook to set 'Alceste ' to music I resolved to avoid all those abuses which had crept into Italian Opera through the mistaken vanity of singers, and the undue compliance of composers, and which rendered it wearisome and ridiculous instead of being, as it once was, the grandest and most inspiring stage of modern times. I endeavored to reduce music to its proper function -that of seconding poetry--by enforcing the expression of the sentiment, and the interest of the situation without interrupting the action or weakening it by superfluous ornament. My idea was that the relation of music to poetry was much the same as that of harmonious col­oring and well disposed light and shade to an accurate drawing--which animates the figures without altering the outline. I have, therefore, been very careful never to interrupt a singer in the heat of a dialogue in order to introduce a tedious ritornelle.
14 Official Program Book.
nor to stop him in the middle of a piece either for the purpose of displaying the flexibility of his voice on some favorite vowel, or that the orchestra might give him time to take breath before a long sustained note. Furthermore, I have not thought it right to hurry through the second part of a song, if the words happened to be the most important of the whole, in order to repeat the first regularly four times over, or to finish the aria where the sense does not end, in order that the singer might be allowed to exhibit his power of varying the passage at pleasure. In fact my object was to put an end to abuses against which good taste and good sense have long protested in vain. My idea was that the overture ought to prepare the spectators for the character of the piece they are about to hear; that the instruments ought to be introduced in proportion to the degree of interest or passion in the words; that it was necessary above all to avoid too great a discrepancy between the air of a dia­logue and the preceding recitative, so as not to break the sense of a period or awkwardly interrupt the movement and animation of a scene. I also thought that my chief endeavor should be to attain a grand simplicity, consequently I have avoided making a parade of difficulties at the cost of clearness. I have set no value on novelty as such, unless it was naturally suggested by the situation and suited to the expression, in short, there was no rule which I did not consider myself bound to sacrifice for the sake of effect." That a theory of art so utterly at variance with the practice of the time should have subjected its 'promulgator to the bitterest opposi­tion is apparent--that his operas were unmercifully criticised is a matter of history. This declaration of principles, however, was not only a careful presentation of the abuses then existing, but was also a masterly statement of the true philosophical basis of opera. The operas in which we find our greatest satisfaction at this time are more or less permeated with these principles, and among them may be counted several of the later works of this composer who may be called with truth " The Prophet of Wagner."
The opera of "Orpheus" was first produced in 1762. The libretto by Calzabigi differs from the myth in certain particulars, but on the whole the story moves along the same lines. In listening to it one can but realize the courage it must have taken for a man to deny himself the resources at his command for the sake of retaining through the whole work the " grand simplicity " of which he speaks, for while in the end such reserve contributes in no small degree to success, " novelty as such " and a " parade of difficulties " is too often demanded by those who do not look below the surface, or who possibly have no desire to do so. That an opera like "Orpheus " should still maintain its hold, is at once a tribute to Gluck's greatness and an indi­cation that the world has not absolutely lost the taste for that which is simple and true.
OVERTURE.
ACT I.
Scene I.--On a knoll in a lonely grove of cypress and laurel the grave of Euri-dice is seen. A group of shepherds and nymphs enters, bringing wreaths of flowers and ivy. As they cast these on her grave--burning incense on the al­tar--they sing the following lament, tvhich Orpheus interrupts with pas­sionate appeals to Euridice. Chorus.--O, if in these dark, silent for­ests, Euridice, still thy spirit hovers round thy dreary tomb,
Hear, we pray thee, our lamenting;
see how tearful are our eyelids for
thee! See how he weeps, thy poor unhappy
Orpheus!
Moves thee not his complaint Come, thou wand'rer, With affliction his heart is laden; Come, dear one, banish the poison of
pain.
Orpheus.--My friends, lamentations but add to my affliction! To the sacred shade of Euridice the latest honours let us pay, and scatter flowers upon her grave.
First Concert.
PANTOMIME.
Chorus.--O, if in these dark, silent for­ests, etc.
Orpheus.--I pray you go! This spot is sacred to my grief, and here I would remain alone with sorrow.
RITORNELLE. [The shepherds and nymphs
withdraw. Orpheus.
I mourn my loved one dead,
When each morn is red,
When day is dying;
Yet she, whom death retains,
Deaf to my call remains,
Never replying.
Euridice, shade beloved,
Ah, where abidest thou
I, thy husband, with woe overwhelm'd, and tormented with grief, ever call thee.
Ask that the gods would restore thee.
The winds, alas, dispel my lamenta­tions.
Weeping sorely I stray,
Mourning her passed away,
I, left here lonely;
I call on her sweet name,
Echo repeats the same,
Kind Echo only.
Euridice! Euridice!
The name I love sounds ev'rywhere,
By me it is told to the groves,
Ev'ry vale knows it well,
On the leafless stem, on the bark of growing oaks,
My hand has oft engraved it.
Euridice is no more,
Yet it were mine to live.
Would she again were living,
Or that I were dead.
Still I shed bitter tears,
Early when day appears,
Late, at its leaving;
The brooks with murmurs flow,
As feeling all my woe,
As with me grieving.
Relentless gods of Acheron,
Who rule the upper world, the abode of the departed, by the dread com­mand of Pluto,
Ye, who eagerly fulfill his unchanging decrees,
Whom naught can move,
Neither youth nor yet beauty, from me have ye torn the wife I love so dearly.
What a cruel fate!
Her youth, her pure and winning beauty,
Did these not stay your hands from dealing such a stroke
Ye inexorable tyrants, my wife I would recall.
I will boldly descend to the kingdom of Orcus, where my groans and my tears will be heard and will pre­vail.
My resolve with yours I will measure,
I have strength, I have heart enough.
Amor.--The God of Love descends to console the afflicted. Give ear to me; thy grief has prevailed with the gods.
The realm of Orcus thou may'st enter, there to see Euridice numbered with the dead.
Go, and with thy lyre and thy singing, Tones that can touch a ruthless heart. Prevail thou on the rulers to let her de­part,
So thou shalt thence return, Her also with thee bringing.
Orpheus.--What, shall I behold her again
Amor.--Go, and with thy lyre and thy singing, etc.
Orpheus.--What, shall I behold her again
Amor.--Yes; but receive thou first what thou by the will of the gods art re­quired to do and to suffer.
Orpheus.--O, no command will keep me
back; For her I shrink not from the trial.
Amor.--Then hear thou what the gods command;
When thou to earth art returning, be­ware of attempting to look on thy wife, or her life thou wilt forfeit, and will lose her forever.
This do the gods require of thee,
Be thou worthy of all they grant.
The gods, if they call thee,
Obey thou with gladness,
Whatever befall thee,
In sorrow and. sadness,
Endure, and be still.
Forbear lamentation,
Whatever betide thee,
Beyond expectation
Does rapture abide thee,
Thy bosom to fill.
Orpheus.--What said he Is it true Shall I truly find her again, and call
her mine But double sorrow will be my portion
in yonder world, if I, transported
with joy, forbear to look on her, or
press her to my heart.
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0 my unhappy wife, thou will be seized
with unwonted pain; I see thee
with angry looks. What torture to think of this. Ah, the anticipation is already making
my life-blood run cold.
1 will endure, I will be fearless!
My sorrow--no longer can I bear it, and sooner would I encounter risk of loss than live without her.
Be the gods my defence!
I am ready to obey them.
Away with mourning and crying;
Lo, on the gods relying,
For her all risks defying,
I boldly go on my quest.
I'll press through hell's gloomy portal,
I'll force its powers immortal
To bow to my behest.
ACT II.
Scene I.--The Infernal Regions. Through clouds of smoke and flame may be seen the Furies and Lost Spirits wildly dancing and calling derisively on Or­pheus, who undismayed presses for­ward.
DANCE OF THE FURIES.
Chorus.--What mortal is so bold that this dark Erebus doth him not ter­rify
What mortal dares to seek these awful shades
DANCE OF THE FURIES.
Chorus.--What mortal is so bold that this dark Erebus does him not ter­rify
What mortal dares to seek these awful shades
Let deadly terror and horror possess his soul, when with most direful threats, frowning, fierce Cerberus his entrance stays.
Orpheus.--O be merciful to me! Furies, spectres, phantoms terrific, O let your hearts have pity on my soul-tormenting pain.
Chorus of Furies.--No!
Chorus of Furies.--Mortal deplorable,
what seekest thou of us Darkness and midnight gloom, weepand wailing
Resound through these awful shades, With din eternal. Here in these caverns is naught but
death's agonies; Here naught is heard but the cries of
condemned.
Drpheus.--Thousand tortures, phantoms of terror, are to me, as to you al­lotted ; the fire of hell rages in me, inflaming my inmost heart.
[As he sings the Furies are moved to sympathy, and their song of derision and hate is changed to one of tenderness and pity. Chorus of Furies. What impulse strange is this,
Tender compassionate, That can our wrath assuage, Warmth in our hearts infuse,
O'ercome our hate.
Orpheus.--My entreating, my complain­ing, would at length your pity move, had ye ever felt the anguish of the loss of one ye love. Chorus of Furies. This tender song of woe, Telling a mournful fate, Touches our sympathies, Causes kind thoughts to flow,
O'ercomes our hate. Ope, then, the portals wide To our immortal clime; Let him of lofty fame, With us in peace abide, Who us o'ercame.
DANCE OF THE FURIES.
Scene II.--The Elysian Fields.
BALLET. euridice and chorus of blessed
Spirits.
On these meadows are all happy-heart­ed;
Only peace and rest are known; Here for the spirits from earth de­parted,
Is bliss alone;
Here are dried the tears of the sad for­ever,
Earthly desires torment us never; Within the breast what raptures
reign; From our lives our former griefs we
sever, Pleasure and transport remain.
Scene III.--Orpheus (Alone). How pure a light! The sun is clear!
So bright his ray I ne'er have seen! How rich the harmonies I hear, Out-poured by a chorus angelic, Through the ambient air. The breeze full-scented blows, The brooklet softly murmurs, And ev'ry sight and sound of peace eternal tells.
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Yet though peaceful is all around me,
Peace of mind never more remains.
By thee alone, Euridice, can all the sorrow from my stricken soul be banished;
Thy voice tender and endearing, thy look of affection, thy smile of kind­ ness, I
These can alone with joy inspire me.
Scene IV.--As Orpheus sings, the spir­its, enraptured by the beauty of his mu­sic, draw nearer and nearer.
Chorus of Celestial Spirits. Bide with us of bless'd dominion, Noble hero, faithful companion, Seek her here for whom thou'st
mourned.
Love rewards a heart so loyal; Euridice, regal, royal, comes with
heav'nly charms adorned.
BALLET,
Orpheus.--O, blessed and happy spirits, give her for whom I mourn,
O give her back to me.
Ah, if ye could but feel the fire that burns within me,
Could ye but know what longing fills my breast,
Once more to call her mine, my be­loved, my sweet one-Give her back, give her back to me.
Chorus.--Be it so! we yield her to thee. [Euridice advances through the
singers.
Come from out the realms Elysian, To thy loving husband's vision, Thy pure glance on him bestow. Euridice, regal, royal, To be loved by one so loyal, Paradise anew thou'lt know.
[Orpheus, with averted face, takes Euridice by the hand and leads her forth.
ACT III.
Scene I.--A dark cavern--full of wind­ing passages. Orpheus appears, still leading Euridice by the hand. Orpheus.---O, come, Euridice, follow me, my ever faithful wife whom I love so entirely.
Euridice.--Who speaks Is it thou Say, is it thou--or a phantom
Orpheus.--Yes, thou see'st thine Orphe­us himself, and yet alive. From the realm of the dead would I bear thee away. Persuaded by my tear­ful pleading, have the gods re­newed thy existence.
2
Euridice.--What! to live! to be thine! Mighty gods what a joy! But-with thy hand thou claspest mine no longer! What--thou turnest away, and will not meet mine eyes Thy heart--and is it cold, now that we have met again Is my beauty decayed, are my charms already flown
Orpheus.--Alas, what shall I answer
Euridice.--Is my life given back that I may suffer pain Gods, I will gladly renounce what ye gave me. Go, disloyal heart, set me free. Orpheus.--Come, on my true love rely­ing,
Mark my anguish! Free from danger only to find thee! On earth I may thine forever be. Though pressed by sore temptation, Silent I have to be, Sweet the hope once set before me. That heaven my loved one would re­store me.
Yet will grief soon overpower me, All in vain from death to flee. Euridice.--No. I stay;
Would I might by dying anew, Be divided from thee. Leave me behind thee! Speak thou, regard my supplication. Sweet the hope once set before me, That heaven my loved one would re­store me,
Yet will grief soon overpower me, All in vain from death to flee.
[They turn away from each other Euridice in anger--Orpheus in sorrow.
Euridice.--The light begins to fail. I lament and I sigh, and I tremble with terror; I am cold. I hear the beat of my heart, through distress . and anguish; I am seized by the pains of death, I shall succumb to all my woe.
A change how deceiving, Repose I am leaving, Once more to be grieving,
At life and its pain. There was naught to alarm me, Only rapture to charm me, No danger to harm me
Forever again. Orpheus.
How the sight of my grief Increases her distrust! What is there to help me Ah ! I am quite despairing! Nowhere can I find A solace for her heart! I am doomed to misfortune, I can bear up no longer.
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Orpheus.--Now recommences my trial.
Euridice.--My dearest Orpheus, fare thee
well!
Think on Euridice, forget me not. Fare thee well! Orpheus.--What sorrow! To lose her will break my heart. Nay, the gods cannot ask me for an
offering so costly. O, beloved Euridice!
[Orpheus, who up to this time has not looked upon the face of Euridice, overcome by her entreaties, turns to her, where­upon she sinks down, and dies. Euridice.--My Orpheus, I faint, I die.
Orpheus.--What is this I have done
Unto what am I driven by my love and grief!
Euridice! My beloved!
Ah, she hears not my voice, she re­turns not again.
'Tis I to whom her death is due;
More than ever do I repent me;
My grief is past endurance.
In such an hour nought is left except to die and make atonement.
She is gone, and gone forever, All my joy, alas, is flown;
Life without her would I never, Why remain on earth alone
Euridice, Euridice,
Make answer, I beseech thee,
If truth and love can reach thee.
She cannot hear me,
Vain expectation!
No consolation, nought to cheer me,
Nowhere relief.
Scene II.--Orpheus, yielding to despair, is about to kill himself when Amor ap­pears, and, wresting his dagger from him, declares that the gods will reward his constancy by giving him Euridice again.
Orpheus.--Thee, only thee, Faithful wife, I long for thee; Till I come, I pray thee to wait for
me.
We never shall again be parted, But in death evermore united, thou
and I.
Amor.--Forbear and hear me. Thy constancy and faith have been
tried long enough; Wherefore now shall thy sorrows be
ended.
Euridice, awake thou! To the loving and true give the re­ward of love. Orpheus.--My Euridice!
Euridice.--My Orpheus!
Orpheus.--Good are the gods, how can
we show that we are thankful Amor.--By never questioning my power. Return ye unto earth, From out this dreadful place, and en­joy evermore the delights of faith­ful love.
Scene III.--The dark and gloomy cave in which the trial of Orpheus has taken place is transformed intothe Temple of Amor. It is filled with shep­herds and shepherdesses, who celebrate in dance and song the return of Or­pheus and Euridice.
Orpheus.--The god of Love has pre­vailed and is triumphant. Let us all his altar adorn; For mercy and freedom won and im­parted, Gladly we offer a life new-born.
Chorus.--The god of Love, etc.
Amor.--Wounded oft by reserve or an­ger,
Deeply will sigh a loving heart; But when concord sweet re-enters, Rapture revives to allay the smart.
Chorus.--The god of Love, etc.
Euridice.--Oft by unfaithful are wounds
made deeper,
Yet will faith reassert its power; When distrust from the heart has been
banished,
Love's true delight is but felt the more. Chorus.--The god of Love, etc.
BALLET, GAVOTTE, MINUET.
Euridice. -Sweet affection, heavenly
treasure,
It is bliss to feel thy chain. Orpheus.--Sweet affection, how much
pleasure
Thou dost bring to temper pain. Amor.--The grief ye had will quickly
wane,
If yet my favor ye retain. Euridice and Orpheus.
O what rapture all-entrancing Affection brings, our gladness enhanc­ing;
Then with joy offer we Thanks and praise unto thee. Amor.--Then with joy offer ye, Thanks and praise unto me.
BALLET.
Chorus.--The god of Love, etc.
CHACONNE.
SECOND CONCERT
Friday Afternoon, May 16
OVERTURE, "Der Wassertraeger," . Cherubini Born at Florence, September 14, 1760; died at Paris, March 16, 1842.
A striking illustration of the universality of art is afforded by the career of the master, who a few days after his birth was christened Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobia Salvatore Cherubini. Thoroughly trained in the severest contrapuntal school, he soon won the admiration of his countrymen by the signal success of his first operas written in the florid style of Italy: later recognizing the artistic value of the romantic idea, he, through the work from which we take the overture for this program, exerted such an influence on Beethoven, that in a sense, we may look upon this opera as furnishing the inspiration for " Fidelio; " still later as Director of the Paris Conserv­atoire his: influence dominated French operatic writing to a wonderful degree. Cherubini as an opera composer was lacking in dramatic power, for his music, though full of nobility and in many instance superlatively dramatic,per se, retarded action instead of enforcing it. In spite of this fundamental defect his operas exerted a salutary influence on contemporaneous art, and " Der "Wassertraeger," notwith­standing the tremendous advance in the appreciation of the dramatic element, both on the part of composers and the public, still retains its charm. One listening to it can well understand why it appealed with such force to Beethoven, for the classic purity of its utterance had much in common with the noblest characteristics of the style of the greater genius.
Cherubini was especially gifted as a teacher, and, by the very restraints he imposed upon himself in his creative art, was singularly fitted to train composers, whose natural tastes led them to unbridled license of expression, restrained only by certain conventionalities which did not bear very heavily upon them; who were apt to mistake conceits of fancy, for imagination; nervousness, for vigor; ambition, for idealism, and posing, for dramatic feeling. Thus the Italian master was an inspir­ation to German art and a much needed restraining influence on the art of France.
The overture begins with a very dignified introduction (E major, 4-4 mt,An. dante molto sostenuto), which, after the interesting opening figure has been thoroughly exploited, leads into a brilliant Allegro, written in an abridged sonata form with such clearness of statement and development as to need no formal analysis.
ARIA, " Dove Sono," from " Marriage of Figaro," Mozart
Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.
Madame Kileski.
Flown forever love's sunny splendor,
Now forsaken and lone I mourn; Oft he vowed me love true and tender,
Ah, those lips are now forsworn!
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Why, oh, why, must I thus sorrow,
Why doth all to me seem changed From remembrance I must borrow
Ev'ry joy, since he's estranged. Ah! perhaps my constant yearning,
And these bitter tears that start, Yet will win his love returning,
And restore th' ungrateful heart.
CONCERTO, A minor, Op, 54, ----Schumann Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, near Bonn, July 29, 1856.
Allegro affettuoso;
Andante grazioso;
Allegro vivace.
Mr. Hutcheson.
In Robert Alexander Schumann we see one of the foremost composers of the last century, and one of the founders of the neo-romantic school. A composer of com­manding genius he was at the same time a critic of a type practically unknown since his day. He was sympathetic in his judgments of his contemporaries, many of whom, like Mendelssohn, Hiller and Hauptmann, failed to recognize his genius, not realizing that such pronounced lit erary power and critical acumen could be com. bined with even greater creative musical genius. Franz Liszt and Moscheles appreciated him from the first. Schumann, like Liszt, possessed great discernment, and was one of the first to welcome Chopin, of whom he said: " What is a whole year of a musical paper to a concerto by Chopin " He also heralded the advent of Brahms in such terms that many, even at the present day when Brahms is beginning to be appreciated, question whether he has justified Schumann's prophecy. To truly understand Schumann's compositions one should study his critical methods, for his articles over the names of Florestan, Eusebius, Raro, etc., looking at subjects from every point of view, display an insight into the hidden processes of creative art that illuminates his own methods. Early in his artistic career there were premoni­tions of the malady that brought his life to an end in a madhouse, but in the period just after his happy marriage with Clara Wieck, who afterwards became the greatest interpreter of his pianoforte works, his compositions sparkle with life and vigor. To this period belongs the concerto on our program.
The first movement (A minor, common time, Allegro affettuoso), was written in 1841 and was given the title " Fantasie" as it was intended to form an independent composition. The other two movements were written in 1845. It is free in form, for Schumann allowed formal rules to rest very lightly upon him, realizing, as Wag­ner states, " that a worthy idea will create an adequate form." In this as in all his works, however, his ideas are developed with a breadth well nigh symphonic, although Schumann did not look upon the concerto as a symphony for orchestra in which the piano is but a part. The first four measures of the principal theme remind one forcibly of Mendelssohn, but here all resemblance to his contemporary ceases, for, as the movement proceeds, it has little in common with the polished but somewhat superficial style of that composer. The second subject is a lovely melody treated with an admirable appreciation not only of the solo instrument, but also of its relation to the orchestra. The cadenza is happily illustrative of the composers style, and, above all, ot his disdain of difficulties as such. The Intermezzo (F major, 2-4 time, Andante grazioso), with its alternations of solo instrument and
Second Concert. 21
orchestra and the beautiful second subject, for 'celli, is worthy of that much abused designation "Tone-poem." It is hardly developed when it merges into the final movement (A major 3-4 time, Allegro vivace), a virile ending to the work. It bris­tles with difficulties, which, as in some of the more modern concertos, are realized more by the performer than the listener. This statement emphasizes the dignity of Schumann's art, for the tendency to magnify the technical side of performance, while it gave rise to the form originally, is a constant source of danger to the composer, and may account for the fact that only such works as disregard this element, as the end, are retained in the repertoire of the true artist.
SYMPHONY, No. 5, C minor, op. 67, Beethoven Born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827. Allegro con brio;
Andante con moto;
Allegro; Allegro.
In the presence of a work like the C minor Symphony one realizes the inade­quacy of words to explain or describe all that it conveys to the soul. Art is the shadowing forth of the infinite and of all arts, music does this most completely. No composer has ever equaled Beethoven in his power of suggesting that which can never be expressed absolutely, and nowhere in his compositions do we find a work in which all the noblest attributes of an art so exalted as his more happily com­bine. No formal analysis, dealing with the mere details of musical construction can touch the real source of its power, nor can any interpretation of philosopher or poet state with any degree of certainty just what it was that moved the soul of the composer, though they may give us the impression the music makes on them. They may clothe in fitting words that which we all feel more or less forcibly. The philos­opher, by observation of the effect of environment and conditions on man in general, may point out the probable relation of the outward circumstances-of a composer's life at a certain period to his works; the poet, because he is peculiarly susceptible to the same influences as the composer, may give us a more sympathetic interpreta­tion, but neither can ever fathom the processes by which a great genius like Bee­thoven gives us such a composition as the symphony we are now considering. Pos­sibly, were music so definite that interpretations of absolute music were obvious, we should lose one of its greatest charms, for music, indefinite to the mass, becomes definite to the individual when it is allowed to possess the soul and given freedom of suggestion. Of the many interpretations put upon this work we cite the following by Nohl. "It is the musical Faust of the moral will and its conflicts: a work whose progress shows that there is something greater than Fate, namely, Man, who, descending into the abysses of his own self, fetches counsel and power wherewith to battle with life; and then, reinforced through his conviction of indestructible one­ness with the god-like, celebrates, with dythyrambic victory, the triumph of the eternal Good, and of his own inner Freedom."
It may not be generally known that Beethoven was so attracted to Goethe's " Faust," that he at one time seriously considered using it as the subject of an opera. When we realize that Beethoven was infinitely greater in the domain of the symphony than the opera we may rejoice that he gave us this sublime symphony instead.
To fully understand the position this work occupies in the literature of the symphony, one must look upon it in its relation to the works of his predecessors in this field.
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Haydn had developed a form full of symmetry and perfectly adapted to the expression of such musical ideas as would naturally occur to a man in whose life there was no excitement, whose soul was rarely stirred to its depths, and to whom the problems of hair-dressing and satisfying the petty exactions of court etiquette represented the only " storm and stress " he knew. His music was simple, naive and full of good humor. Could one expect that he would develop to the utmost a form containing such infinite possibilities of expression as the symphony Neither could it be expected of Mozart, who, although a greater composer, by the very sunny qualities of this genius, turned his back, in-so-far as his music was concerned, on the graver aspects of life, even though he, like Beethoven, was compelled to face its most earnest problems As a matter of fact Mozart did extend its scope, but almost entirely on the formal side, and for the sake of objective beauty, not as the results of a compelling need of expression. Mozart relieved the symphony of many conventionalities, and working with freedom within its limitations, created as beau­tiful examples of the form as can be found. They were, however, objectively beauti-tiful for he did not aim at subjective expression. Neither Haydn nor Mozart were profound, in the sense that Beethoven was profound, and neither attempted to express those depths of experience for which Beethoven discovered fitting speech.
The first movement (C minor, 2-4 time, Allegro con brio), opens with a forceful figure of four tones by the strings and clarinets, which developed at some length, forms the thematic material of the first subject. The horns sound a transition theme of four measures ending in a long sustained tone over which a lovely second theme (E flat major) is sung by the strings. In the " development" section this transition theme of the horns is much in evidence and a wonderfully effective episode in which chords by the strings are answered by the wood-wind should be noted as it is peculiarly Beethovenesque. In the reprise the two principal subjects are most genially contrasted and elaborated. All through this movement the reiteration of the opening figure produces a most dramatic effect heightening the impression produced by its initial statement and giving color and meaning to the whole move­ment.
Such is the simplicity of the slow movement that it demands neither explanation nor suggestion.
The third movement (C minor 3-4 time Allegro), with its hesitating, questioning opening figure and cadence at first is full of alterations of unrest and unaffected gayety, but, as the movement develops, the questioning figure acquires a persistence that is expressed by the brusque, almost brutal fugato which, consumed as it were by its own intensity, finally ends in the almost despairing form in which the initial figure now appears. The long note by the strings in which the succeeding theme ends is sustained by the second violins and violas, while the first violins give out the " questioning motive " (if we may use modern phraseology), which finds its answer, when, introduced by a mighty crescendo comes the Finale (C major, common time, Allegro)--the most sublime song of victory ever composed.
THIRD CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 16
"FAUST," a Lyric Opera in 5 Acts, Gounod
FAUST, Mr. Glenn Hall
MEPHISTOPHELES, - Mr. Frederic Martin
MARGARITA, ... Miss Anita Rio
VALENTINE, a Soldier - Sig. Emilio Gogorza
BRANDER, a Soldier, - Mr. William A. Howland SIEBEL,
Miss Janet Spencer MARTHA SCHWERLEIN,,'
Students, Soldiers, Villagers, Angels, Demons
THE CHORAL UNION Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Charles Francois Gounod was born at Paris, June 17th, 1818; died there October 17, 1893. We must consider him one of the most eminent of French composers. There was a time when one who questioned his absolute preeminence would have been considered lacking in sanity. This was at the time when in " Faust" he displayed, as in no work before or since, his fertility of resource as a dramatic composer. With the years, new ideals of dramatic expression have come, and, unlikeVerdi, a much greater genius, he did not respond to these new suggestions, but remained unin­fluenced by forces that made an impression on many of his countrymen, even though, like Saint-Saens, they disavow the source of many of their most pronounced tendencies.
ACT I. INTRODUCTION.
Scene I.--Faust's study. He is seated at a table covered with books and parch­ments. It is nearly morning, and his lamp is on the point of going out.
Faust.
Vain! In vain do I call, Through my vigil weary, On creation and its Lord! Never a reply will break the silence
dreary-No sign--no single word. Years, how many! are now behind meI look in vain! I learn in vain! vain!
vain! The stars grow pale; the dawn covers
the heav'ns. Mysterious night passes away,
[Despairingly
Another day, and yet another day. O death! come in thy pity and bid the
strife be over. What then If thus death will avoid
me, Why should I not go forth and seek
him
All hail; brightest of days and last! Without a dread am I. The land of promise nearing, By spell of magic cheering Shall the narrow strait be passed!
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Chorus of Girls. (Without)
Ah! careless, idle maiden,
Wherefore dreaming still
Day with roses laden
Cometh o'er the hill.
The blithe birds are singing,
And hear what they do say:
"Through the meadows ringing
The harvest is so gay."
Brooks and bees and flowers
Warble to the grove,
Who has time for sadness
Awaken to love! Faust.
Foolish echoes of human gladness,
Go by, pass on your way!
Goblet so often drained by my father's hand so steady,
Why now dost thou tremble in mine Chorus of Reapers. {Without)
Come forth, ye reapers, young and hoary!
'Twas long ago the early swallow
Went up where eye can never follow--Yonder in the blue, far away.
The earth is proud with harvest glory!
Rejoice and pray. Faust.
If I pray there is none to hear-To give me back my love,
Its believing and its glow.
Accurst be all ye thoughts of earthly pleasure,
And every by-passed treasure,
Which by memory binds me below!
Accurst ye toys, which did allure me,
Yet, when possessed, no rapture could secure me.
Fond dreams of hope! ambitions high,
And their fulfillment so rare!
Accurst, my vaunted learning,
And forgiveness and prayer!
Accurst the patience that calms the
yearning
Infernal king, appear!
[Mephistopheles appears. Mephistopheles.--Here am I! You stare as you greet me. Does it fright you to meet me With sword at my side, And cap on my head, And a purse rather heavy, And a gay velvet cloak on my shoulder, I travel as noblemen travel. Speak out, wise men, what is your will At once tell me. Are you afraid
Faust.--No.
Mephistopheles.
Do you doubt my might to aid you
Faust.--It may be.
Mephistopheles. It were easy to prove me.
Faust.--Begone! Bephistophei.es.--Begone!
Is this the way you cheat me
Now learn, old man, with all your skill,
Well-born hosts politely treat me!
Call for aid from far away!
Then to say "begone!" as if to beat me! Faust.--Canst thou do aught for me
Mephistopheles.--Aught! All!
But first let me hear what I must do.
Say, is it gold Faust.
What is gold to me, who hath learning Mephistopheles.
Good! Methinks I can fancy your yearning.
'Tis then for glory Faust.--No, for more. Mephistopheles.--For a kingdom
Faust.--No. I'd have thee restore What outbuys them all. My youth ! Canst thou restore me!
Be mine the delight
Of beauty's caresses,
Her soft wavy tresses,
Her eyes beaming bright.
Be mine the warm current
Of blood in every vein,
The passion in torrent,
Which nothing can rein !
The rapture whose pleasure
To time giveth flight!
O Youth, without measure
Be mine the delight. Mephistopheles.--'Tis well--'tis well! Be young and enjoy without measure. I will content your wildest craving. Faust.
And what fee do you ask in exchange Mephistopheles.--What my fee Hardly worth having-Up here, I will wait on your pleasure; But down there you must wait on me. Faust.--Below!
Mephistopheles.
Below! Come on ! sign it!
What now! What appalls you
Needs there more to chase the cold
Is it now woman calls you
Doubt not, turn you; and behold!
[The vision--Marguerite is seen
sitting at her spinning wheel. Faust.--Heavenly vision! Mephistopheles.--Shall she love thee Faust.--Give me!
Mephistopheles.--It is done!
[Faust signs the parchment. For the rest of the chapter
[Raising the goblet.
Third Concert. 25.
'Tis I who wait upon you,
To drain from your goblet
The nectar of the sun.
No more of death--poison no more,
But life and rapture.
Faust.--I'm thine! Angel from heaven, come down!
[He empties the goblet and is transformed into a young man. The vision disappears. Mephistopheles.--Come! Faust.--I'll meet her again Mephistopheles.--It seems so. Faust.--How soon Mephistopheles.--Why, today. Faust.--Away! Mephistopheles.--Away then--away!
Faust.--Be mine the delight Of beauty's caresses, Her soft wavy tresses, Her eyes beaming bright. Be mine the warm current Filling every vein-Passion in torrent, Which nothing can rein! The rapture whose pleasure To time giveth flight! O Youth! without measure Be mine thy delight.
Mephistopheles.
Be thine the delight
Of beauty's caresses,
Her soft, wavy tresses,
Her eyes beaming bright.
Be thine the warm current
Filling every vein,
Share passion in torrent
Which nothing can rein,
And the rapture whose pleasure
To time giveth flight.
O Youth! without measure
Be thine the delight.
ACT II. KERMESSE.
Scene I.-The Fair (Kcrmesse). Bran-der, Students, Soldiers and Citizens discovered at a tavern, drinking and singing.
Chorus of Students. Still or sparkling, rough or fine, What can it matter, so we have wine What if the vintage great be or small, Your jolly toper drinketh of all.
Brander.
Student, versed in every barrel, Save the one of water white,
To thy glory, to thy love Drink away tonight.
Chorus of Soldiers.
Young girls, ancient castles, they are
all the same; Old towns, dainty maidens, are alike
our game! For the hero, brave and tender, makes
of both his prey, Both to valor must surrender and aransom pay.
Old Men.
Each new Sunday brings the old story. Danger gone by, how we enjoy! While to-day each hot-headed boy Fights for to-day's little glory! Let me but sit cosy and dry Under the trees with my daughter, And while raft and boat travel by Drink to the folk on the water.
Girls.
Only look how they do eye us, Yonder fellows gay! Howsoever they defy us, Never run away.
Students.
How those merry girls do eye us! We know what it means-To despise us, to decoy us, Like so many queens.
Matrons.
Only see the brazen creatures
With the men at play;
Had the latter choice in features,
They would turn this way. Chorus.
One would allure them,
They look so gay.
Only see, they look so gay.
If it give you pleasure
You may rail away.
To a gentle lover
We know what to say,
Tenderly moreover,
Take it as ye may.
If you secure them
What worth are they
What a display! ' .
Boldness without measure
Is the mode today,
All of us disgracing
By your vain display,
At a word embracing
People such as they.
Old Men.
Come here ! come here! Sit down and drink a drop, I sayr And drink a drop by the way; My wife is scolding away, It is her daily labor.
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Students.
No jolly rover need fear a "nay",
Never jolly rover need fear a "nay".
Take me for thy lover,
Pretty one, I pray;
Never jolly rover
Need fear a '"nay". Drinkers.
Long live the wine!
Red or white liquor, coarse or fine, etc.
Long live the soldier,
The soldier gay!
Be it ancient city,
Be it maiden pretty,
Both must fall our prey.
Comrades, to your armors!
If the silly charmers
Will provoke a fray,
If they meet disasters
Ere they own their masters,
Who 's to blame but they
[Enter Valentine, arranging a medal around his neck, fol­lowed by Siebel. Valentine.
Dear gift of my sister,
Made more holy by her prayer,
However great the danger,
There's naught shall do me harm,
Protected by this charm.
Even bravest heart may swell
In the moment of farewell,
Loving smile of sister kind,
Quiet home I leave behind.
Oft shall I think of you
When e'er the wine cup passes 'round,
When alone my watch I keep,
And my comrades lie asleep
Among their arms upon the tented bat­tle ground.
But when danger to glory shall call me,
I shall be first, will be first in the fray,
As blithe as a knight in his bridal array,
Careless what fate may befall me. Brander.--Ah! Valentine here!
It is time to be marching.
Valentine.
A parting cup, my friend, If we ne'er drink another!
Brander.--Why so dull Thou a soldier reluctant to go
VaIentine.
I am grave; for behind me I leave, alone and young, My sister Margarita. She has but me to look to, Our mother being gone!
Siebel.
. I shall always be near her, To guard her like a brother in thy stead!
Valentine.--Thine hand ! Siebel.--Be sure I will not fail. Chorus.--We will watch o'er her too! Brander.--Have done, my hearts!
Enough of melancholy.
Come what come may,
Let the soldier be jolly!
Some wine, and let some hero brave
Tune forthwith a merry stave! Chorus.
Some wine! and let some hero brave
Tune up forthwith some merry stave! Brander.
A rat, who was born a coward,
And was ugly too,
Once sat in the abbot's cellar,
'Neath a barrel new.
A cat-[Mephistopheles enters. Mephistopheles.---A what Brander.--Eh
Mephistopheles.
May not I, though a stranger,
Make one of such a jovial party
[To Brander.
Pray sir, conclude the merry stave, so well begun.
And I will sing when you have done a
much better one. Brander.--Sing it to us at once,
Or we shall call you boaster. Mephistopheles.
If you must, sirs, you shall;
I look to you for chorus.
Clear the way for the Calf of Gold!
In his pride and pomp adore him;
East or West, through hot and cold,
Weak and strong must bow before him!
Wisest men do homage mute,
To the image of the brute,
Dancing 'round his pedestal,
While old Mammon leads the ball. Siebel, Brander, Mephistopheles and Chorus.
While old Mammon leads the ball.
For a King is the Calf of Gold!
On their thrones the gods defying,
Let the Fates or Furies scold;
Lo his Empire is undying!
Pope and Poet join the ring,
Laurell'd chiefs his triumph sing,
Dancing 'round his pedestal,
While old Mammon leads the ball. Mephistopheles (Striking the, head of Bacchus at the side of the inn.)
What ho, Bacchus! up there! some liquors!
Come while you can,
And each one drink the wine most to his taste,
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27
While I propose the health of the dear­est of all dears, Our Margarita. Valentine.--Enough! Bridle thy tongue, or thou diest by my
hand! Mefhistopheles.--Come on!
[Both draw. Chorus.--Come on! Mephistopheles (Mocking.) So soon afraid Who so lately defied me Valentine. My sword! O dishonour! is broken in
sunder.
Siebel, Valentine, Brander and Chorus.
'Gainst the pow'rs of evil our arms as­sailing,
Strongest earthly might must be un­availing. Valentine.
But know thou art powerless to harm us. Look hither ! look hither! Whilst this blest sign we wear Thou canst not harm us. Mephistopheles.
We're sure to meet again, my fine' friends;
[Enter Faust. Good-bye now! Faust.--What's amiss
Mephistopheles.--Naught! I am here at your thought. What is your will with me How first shall I please you
. Faust.
First let me see her, that darling child, Whom I saw as in a dream; Or was all an empty vision
Mephistopheles.
Not so! but you may find it
Not easy to win her,
Task for no sanctimonious beginner. Faust.
What matter, so I win
Come, and if I cannot see her,
Thy promise I'll stamp as a lie! Mephistopheles.
As you will! I'm your slave on earth,
Ordained to do your will!
Soon this dainty treasure,
Too pure for such a sinner,
Shall be here!
While the dancers go so gaily by
You may your fortune try,
Try and succeed! Chorus.
Light as air at dawn of morning,
Our feet they fly over the ground,
To the music's merry sound.
For the flute and gayer viol,
Are today in cheerful trial,
To make the dance go round. Mephistopheles.
How their dear eyes are beaming!
Only see how ev'ry flower
Is waiting for thee to smile. Faust.
Cease to whisper for a little while,
And leave me alone with my dreaming. Siebel.--Weary I wait till she goes by,
Margarita. Chorus.--Why will you be shy,
Must we ask you to dance with us Siebel.
No, no, some more handsome one try. Chorus.--Light as air, etc. Faust.--It is she! my own one! Mephistopheles.
Thine own! Hast thou no tongue Siebel.--Margarita! Mephistopheles.--I'm here! Siebel.--Wicked monster! Not yet gone
Mephistopheles.
It seems not, you see,
Since again we meet!
Not gone yet! not gone yet!
[Margarita crosses the stage. Faust.
High-born and lovely maid,
Forgive my humble duty.
Let me be your willing slave,
Attend you home, today. Margarita.
No, my lord, not a lady am I,
Nor yet a beauty;
And do not need an arm,
To help me on my way! Faust (Gazing after her.)
By my youth!
What a charm!
She knows not of her beauty.
Angel of light! I love thee. Siebel--She has gone homeward. Mephistopheles (to Faust.,)
What news
Faust.--But ill. She would not hear me. Mephistopheles (Laughing.)
Not hear
What will you do
It would seem, master mine,
I must teach you to woo. Chorus of Girls.
What is this Margarita,
Who would not let a young
And handsome lord esquire her!
Again ! again! go on again!
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Light as air, at early morning, Our feet fly over the ground To the music's merry sound. Pleasure enchanting! Till breath be gone! All glowing and panting, Let us dance on! The earth it is reeling, The bliss of a trance, What bliss are we feeling. Long live the dance!
ACT III.
SlEBEL.
Gentle flow'rs in the dew,
Bear love from me,
Tell her no flow'r is rarer,
Tell her that she is fairer,
Dearer to me than all,
Though fair you be!
Gentle flow'rs in the dew,
Bear sighs from me,
Tell her in accents tender,
Tell her that I'll defend her,
Gladly my life surrender,
Her knight to be!
[She stoops and picks up a flower.
'Tis withered! Alas! that dark stran­ger foretold me
What my fate must be-Never to touch a single flower
But it must decay-Suppose I dip my hand in holy water,
Behind the abbey door,
Whither pravs Margarita
Yes, that will I try on the morrow.
This is not withered. No! Avaunt! Father of lies!
Gentle flow'rs lie there,
And tell her from me
Long is my weary waiting,
Strong is my heart's wild beating,
While to her in the air
I bend my knee,
Gentle flow'rs lie there
And tell her from me
Would she deign but to hear me,
With one smile to cheer me,
For a delight so sweet
I would die at her feet.
[Exit Siebel. Enter Faust. Faust.
What is it that charms me,
And with passion true and tender warms me
O Margarita! Thy unworthy slave am I!
All hail, thou dwelling pure and lowly!
Home of an angel fair and holy,
All mortal fair excelling!
What wealth is here, what wealth out­bidding gold,
Of peace and love, and innocence un­told!
Bounteous Nature!
'Twas here by day thy lore was taught her,
Here thou didst with care overshadow" thy daughter
Through the hours of the night!
Here, waving tree and flower
Made her an Eden-bower
Of beauty and delight,
For one whose very birth
Brought down Heaven to our Earth,
'Twas here!
All hail, thou dwelling pure and lowly,.
etc. VIephistopheles.
Attention ! here she comes!
If yonder flowers this casket do out­shine,
Never will I trust a little more. Faust.
Away! I will not bring shame to her door.
Mephistopheles. What now can keep you back On the door's quiet threshold, see, the
casket is laid.
[Laying down the casket. Exeunt. Stand back! be not afraid!
[Enter Margarita. Margarita. I wish I could but know who was hethat addressed me; If one of noble birth, or what his name
and station!
Once there was a king in Thule-Who was until death alway faithful, And in memory of his loved one, Caused a cup of gold to be made;
[Stopping and speaking to herself. His manner was so gentle, 'Twas true politeness!
[Resuming the song. Never treasure prized he so dearly, Nought else would use on festive days And always when he drank from it, His eyes with tears would be o'er-flowing!
When he knew that death was near, As he lay on his cold couch smiling, Once more he raised, with greatest
effort, To his lips the golden vase,
[Stopping and speaking to herself. I knew not what to say-My face with blushes red;
[Resuming the song. And then, in her praise and honor; And when he to honor his lady, Drank from the cup the last, last time, Soon it fell from his grasp, And gently passed his soul away.
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'Tis but to noble birth belongs so
brave a mien; And so tender withal! No more! an idle dream, Dear Valentine! may Heaven bless thee And bring thee home again! I am left here so lonely!
[Seeing the flowers. Ah! flowers left here, no doubt, by
Siebel, poor faithful boy! But what is this, And by whom can the casket have been
left I dare not touch it! though the key is
laid beside it.
What is within Will it open Why not! I may open, at least, since
to look will harm no one.
[Opens casket.
Oh heaven! What brilliant gems, With their magical glare deceive my
eyes! Can they be real Oh, never in my
sleep Did I dream of aught so lovely!
[Puts down the casket and kneels down to adorn herself with the jewels.
If I dared for a moment But to try these earrings, so splendid! And here, by a chance, at the bottom of
the casket, is a glass! Why resist it any longer Ah ! the joy past compare, These jewels bright to wear! Was I ever maiden lowly Is it I Come reply! Mirror, mirror, tell me truly. No, no, this is not I! No, surely enchantment is o'er me! High-born maiden I must be. This is not I, but a noble and King
shall pay homage before me. Ah! if it might only be, Ah! could he my beauty see, Now as a royal lady He would adore me. Ah! Ah! Ah! Ah ! as now a royal lady perchance
he would adore me! Here are more, ready to adorn me! Let us see this necklace, and bracelet
and oh!
A string of pearls! Ah! It feels like a weight laid on my arm
to oppress me. Ah! Ah! Ah! the joy past compare,
etc.
[Enter Faust and Mephistopheles. Faust.--Take my arm a little while. Margarita.
I pray you, I pray you, excuse me! Mephistopheles (Offering his arm to
Martha.)--My arm!
Martha (Aside.)--How sweet a smile!
Mephistopheles (Aside.)
This good neighbor hopes to steal me. Yes! she hopes to steal me.
Margarita.--Pray you, sir, excuse me! Martha.--Pray you, don't leave me.
Faust.--Pray you, forgive me!
But why are you lonely
[To Margarita. Margarita.
My rhother is gone;
At the war is my brother;
One dear little sister I had,
But, little darling, she, too, is dead!
The angel! the angel!
Loved me, and loved me only;
I waited on her, night and day.
How I worked for her! oh, so dearly!
But those to whom we cling most dearly
Are the first to be called away.
Sure as ever morning came,
Came her call, and I must be there!
Since she could speak, she called me mother.
Oh my bird! ne'er for another
Half so truly my heart will care!
Faust.
If a second angel, made by heaven, Could so pure, could so perfect be, She was an angel! An angel sister to thee. No, no; do not leave me! Wherefore should you fear Heaven! strike me down, if I deceive
you! For why should you fear
Margarita
You laugh at me! Ah, my lord, I fear Words like yours to hear! While they murmur near, I must, alas ! suspect you. I pray you to leave me. Yes! I must not hear them, Should they yet deceive me!
Martha.
Sir ! you do not hear,
And your quiet sneer
Is put on to grieve me.
Sir, you do not hear!
Oh! that sneer, that sneer,
Is put on to grieve me!
You go like another!
After having spoken,
Leaving one alone.
Why should you begone,
To leave me :
Mephistopheles. Do not be severe!
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The time is near when I must leave you.
Do not be severe!
If I go and travel,
Does that mean that I deceive you
If I travel on, does that deceive you Margarita.
The hour is late! Farewell! Faust.
Oh! never leave me, now, I pray thee!
Why not enjoy this lovely night a little longer
Let me gaze on the form before me!
While from yonder ether blue
Look how the stars of eve,
Bright and tender, linger o'er me!
To love thy beauty, too. Margarita.
Oh, how strange, like a spell,
Does the evening bind me!
And a deep languid charm
I feel without alarm,
With this melody enwind me,
And all my heart subdue!
Let me now try my fortune! Faust.--What is this
Margarita (Taking the leaves from a
Hoiver.) Let me, let me but try.
Faust.--Was it her fancy
Margarita.
He loves me--he loves me not!
He loves me! Faust (To her.)
Ah! 'tis no tale betraying;
The flower has told thee true!
Repeat the words anew
That Nature's herald brings thee!
He loves thee!
In that spell, defy what fate can do-In love, no mortal power
Faithful hearts can sever!
Whatever the weal or woe,
We will be faithful for ever!
Ever true! ever faithful!
0 tender moon, O starry Heav'n, Silent above thee, where the angels are
enthroned, Hear me swear how dearly do I love
thee! Yet once again, beloved one let me
hear thee,
It is but love to be near thee, Thine own and thine alone, Ah! loved one! I am thine own !
1 am thine own, and thine alone. Margarita!
Margarita.--Ah ! begone. Faust.--Unkind one! Margarita.--I falter !
Faust.--To bid me thus begone! Margarita.--Ah! begone!
Ah! I dare not hear!
Ah! how I falter ! I faint with fear!
Pity, and spare the heart of Margarita.
I entreat you only in mercy to begone! Faust.
Oh, fair and tender child!
Angel, so holy, thou shalt control me,
Be passion ever so wild!
I obey--but at morn Margarita.
Yes, at morn, very early!
At morn, all day! Faust.
One word at parting!
The one, one word of heaven say-Thou lov'st me!
[Hastens towards the pavilion, then stops short on the threshold, and wafts a kiss to Faust. Margarita.--I love thee! Faust.
Were it already morn!
Ah, now away!
Mephistopheles.--Why, thou dreamer! Faust.--Thou hast overheard Mephistopheles.
Well, I have,
Your parting with its modest word.
Go back, on the spot, to your school
again!
Faust.--Let me pass ! AIephistopheles.
Not a step; you shall stay, and over­hear again
That which she telleth to the stars.
You dreamer!
[Margarita opens the window.
I know!
Look! there she opens the window. Margarita.
He loves me! he loves me!
Repeat it again, bird, that callest!
Soft wind that fallest!
When the light of evening dieth,
Bear a part in the strain.
He loves me! Ah! our world is glo­rious,
And more than heaven above!
The air is balmy
With the very breath of love!
How the boughs embrace and murmur!
At morn! at morn !
Ah, speed, thou night, away!
He will return! Come! Faust.--Margarita! Margarita.--Ah! Mephistopheles.
There! Ha, ha, ha.! Ha!
Third Concert 31
ACT IV.
Scene I.--Grand Square.--Procession of Soldiers and Citizens.--alentine and Siebel meet.
SlEBEL.
When all was young and pleasant,
May was blooming,
I, thy poor friend, took part with thee
in play; Now that the cloud of Autumn dark is
glooming, Now is forever me, too, mournful the
day! Hope and delight have passed from life
away! We were not born with true love to
trifle! Nor born to part because the wind
blows cold;
What tho' thei storm the summer 'gar­den rifle,
O Margarita! O Margarita! Still on the bough is left a leaf of gold.
Chorus of Soldiers. Glory and love to the men of old, Their sons may copy their virtues bold; Courage in heart and sword in hand, Ready to fight or ready to die for
Fatherland!
Who needs bidding to dare by a trum­pet blown Who lacks pity to spare when the field
is won Who could fly from a foe, if alone or
last, And boast he was true, as coward might
do when peril is past Now to home again! We come, the long and fiery strife of
battle is over; Rest is pleasant after toil As hard as ours beneath a stranger sun, Many a maiden fair is waiting Here to greet her truant soldier-lover! And many a heart will fail and brow
grow pale to hear-To hear the tale of cruel peril he has
run. We are at home! We are at home!
[All exeunt rejoicing.
[Enter Mephistopheles and Faust.
Mephistopheles. Why linger here, my master You'll find her in the house!
Faust.
Be still, thou fiend!
Too much have I already brought here of sorrow and sin!
Mephistopheles. Then why come again, After having once left her
I know of beauties so fresh, and far more kindly,
And waiting but for you! Faust.--Margarita! Mephistopheles.
I see that I talk in vain,
Since, like a fool, you love her.
But to unclose yonder door
We must move her,
Just listen while I sing her a fanciful strain!
Catarina, while you sham asleep,
You contrive to hear,
Thro' the lattice shyly peep and see your love is near!
To his mistress dear, while creeping
Thus sang her cavalier!
Ha! ha! ha! ha! ha!
'Ere the tell-tale moon had risen,
A bird of night thus did sing-Lock thy heart like any prison,
Till thou secure a wedding-ring. Mephistopheles.
Caterina ! cruel, cruel I
Cruel to deny to him who loves thee-For thee doth mourn and sigh-A single kiss from thy rosy lips.
Thus to slight a faithful lover,
Who so long hath been a rover,
Too bad, I declare!
[Enter Valentine from the house. Valentine.--What is your will with me Mephistopheles.
With you, my captain splendid
My humble serenade was not for you
intended. Valentine.
At my sister!
You then would jeer. Faust.--Oh heaven !
[Valentine breaks Mephisto­pheles' guitar. Mephistopheles.
Is there something that bites you
Or, may be, no serenade delights you Valentine.
Enough of insult! Reply!
By which of you two shall I be re­quited
For name defiled, for laurel blighted!
Which of you two shall be thrust by
my sword Mephistopheles.
Will you be mad
Come on, my pupil,
[Faust draws his sword.
And take him at his word! Faust.
His eye, so stern and dark with blood,
With fatal might enthralls me!
Is not a brother's vengeance just,
If death befalls me
32 Official Program Book.
Valentine.
Thou who rulest right, Thou knowest the voice that calls me, My sword shall find his heart outright If death befalls me! Mephistophei.es.
Such an eye, dark with blood,
Enkindles, not appalls me;
For I smile, since in his ire
I see good luck befalls me!
Lean against me, my friend,
Be not eager to fight! lean on me!
He shall have it.
[Faust and Valentine fight--they make four thrusts. Valentine falls.
So, captain, lie you there, On your last bed of glory! And now come away! come away!
[Exeunt Faust and Mephistopheles. ¦Chorus.
This way was the noise! In the streets they were fighting, And one is on the ground, Over there in the shade.
[Martha and citizens enter. But he is not yet dead! He is trying to rise! Come to his aid! Support him, raise his head! Valentine. Too late! too late!
There's no need, good friends, to be­wail me! Too often have I looked on death to be
afraid, Now mat he is near.
[Enter Margarita at back. Margarita.--Valentine! Valentine!
Valentine.
Margarita, my sister,
What brings thee here Begone! Margarita.--Mercy!
Valentine.
Thy shame hath slain me!
Her fine betrayer's sword
Hath sent her brother home! Chorus.--Traitor's sword! Siebel.--Pardon!
Margarita.
Oh torture cruel! my doom is come! Siebel.--Pray have mercy!
Chorus.
Her shame hath slain him!
Her shame hath sent her brother home! Valentine.
Hear my last words!
Margarita, when fate strikes thee down,
Must thou, as I, be ready:
No use is it to struggle or pray When the call from on high bids us to
come away; Live, live, meanwhile, Enjoy thy guilty splendor, Wear a rich robe thy white limbs to
enfold. Cover with rings thy hand so soft and
tender! Laugh at the feast with other women
bold!
Go, and talk of thy mother, Who did love thee so well, And thy wild soldier brother. Live, and grow old! And remember for thy shame how he
fell! Let heaven reject thee and earth be thy
hell! Chorus.
Do not curse where thou liest, Beware how thou defiest! In Heaven's name Make thy peace ere thou diest! Forgive her, if thou wouldst thyself be
forgiv'n! Valentine.
Margarita, let me curse thee! On thy death-bed thou too must lie! Ah! thy hand hath slain me! Like a soldier I die.
[Valentine dies.
Siebel, Martha, and Chorus. Heaven give him rest! And accord her forgiveness for her sin.
Scene II.--The Church.--Margarita dis­covered kneeling at a font. Margarita.
0 Thou, who on thy throne Giv'st an ear for repentance! Here, before thy feet, let me pray.
Mephistopheles. No! Thou shalt pray no more! Let her know, ere she prayeth, Demons of ill, what is in store.
Chorus of Demons.--Margarita! Margarita.--Who calls me Chorus.--Margarita! Margarita.
1 falter--afraid!
Oh ! save me from myself! Has even now the hour of torture be­gun
[The tomb opens and discovers Mephistopheles who bends over to Margarita's ear.
Mephistopheles.
Recollect the old time, when the an­gels, caressing, Did teach thee to pray,
Third Concert. 33
Recollect how thou comest to ask for a blessing
At the dawn of the day!
When thy feet did fall back, and thy breath it did falter
As though to ask for aid;
Recollect thou wast then of the rite and the altar,
In thine innocence afraid!
And now be glad and hear!
Thy playmates do claim thee,
From below, to their home!
The worm to welcome thee,
The fire to warm thee,
Wait but till thou shalt come! Margarita.
Ah! What sound in the gloom
Is beneath me, around me
Angels of wrath Is this your sen­tence of cruel doom Choral (By the zvorshipers in church.)
When the book shall be unsealed,
When the future be revealed,
What frail mortal shall not yield Margarita.
And I, the frailest of the frail,
Have most need of Thy forgiveness! Mephistopheles.
No! Let them pray, let them weep!
But thy sin is deep, too deep,
To hope forgiveness!
No! No! Choral.
Where shall human sinner be,
How lie hid in earth and sea,
To escape, escape eternity Margarita.
Ah! The hymn is around and above me,
It bindeth a cord 'round my brow! Mephistopheles.
Farewell! thy friends who love thee 1
And thy guardians above thee!
The past is done! The payment now! Margarita.
O Thou! on Thy throne, who dost hear me
By the side of my grave,
Let a tear of mercy fall near me,
To pity and save! Chorus.
O Thou on Thy throne, who dost hear us
That go down to the grave,
Let a tear of mercy fall near me
To pity and save.
Mephistopheles. Margarita! 'Tis forever! Mine art thou! Margarita.--Ah!
[Mephistopheles disappears. 3
ACT V.
A Prison.--Margarita on the ground
asleep.--Enter Faust and Mephistopheles at the prison door. Faust (To Mephistopheles.)
My heart is torn with grief and re­pentance !
O what anguish! O worm that will not die!
O fire! no art can stay!
She lies there at my feet.
The young and lovely being,
Imprisoned here because of me!
As if herself, not I, were guilty!
No wonder that her fright hath reason taken away;
Our little child, O Heaven! was slain by her
In sudden madness!
Margarita! Margarita!
[Margarita awakes and arises. Margarita.
Ah! do I hear thee once again,
The darling song of time gone by;
That was not the laughter of the de­mons
Rejoicing in my ruin!
'Tis his own voice I hear! Faust.--Margarita! Margarita.
His hand is here to save me!
It is he! It is he! I am free!
For mine own faithful love is here!
Ah! I love thee only!
Love thee, love thee only;
Nor shame on the scaffold
Can make my heart afraid!
Since thou cam'st to find me,
No tears shall blind me!
Take me up to heayen,
To heaven by thy aid! Faust.
Yes, I love thee only,
Let who will goad me on,
Or mock me or upbraid!
Thy look doth appall me,
Thy truth doth recall me!
Earth will grow as heaven,
By thy beauty made! Margarita.--Not yet!
This is the fair
Where I was seen by you,
In happy days gone by-The day your eye did not dare
To meet my eye!
"High-born and lovely maid, Forgive my humble duty! Let me, your willing slave, Attend you home today."
"No, my lord, not a lady am I, Nor yet a beauty--not a lady, not a beauty!
Official Program Book.
And do not need an arm To help me on my way!"
Faust.--Come away, if thou lov'st me!
Margarita.
How my garden is fresh and fair, Every hour is incense breathing, And through the still evening air A cloud of dew with perfume wreath­ing.
[Enter Mephistopheles.
Mephistopheles.
Then leave her! then leave her!
Or remain to your shame.
If it please you to stay.
Mine is no more the game! AIaegarita.
Who is there
Dost thou see there in the shadow.
With an eye like a coal of fire.
What does he here--he, who forbade me to nray!
Mephistopheles.
Let us go, ere with dawn
Doth justice bring.
Hark! the horses are panting in the court-yard below,
To bear us away!
Come, ere it is day,
Or stay and behold her undone! Margarita.--Away, thou fiend, away ! Faust.--Come! Margarita.--Away, for I will pray!
Faust.
Come, mine own, ere 'tis too late to
save thee! Margarita.
Holy angel! in heaven blest, My spirit longs with thee to rest! Great heavens! pardon grant, I implore
thee, For soon shall I appear before thee!
Faust.
Come with me, I command!
Follow me! Margarita.
Oh save me ere I perish forever! Faust.--Come with me! Mephistopheles.
Let us leave her!
Come, or be lost! Come, or be lost!
For the day is near! Margarita.
To my despair give ear, I pray thee!
Holy angel in heaven blest,
My spirit longs with thee to rest! Faust.
Come, come, wilt thou not hear
Come, lean on my breast!
The early dawn is gray!
Come, oh come; I'm here to save thee. Mephistopheles.
Come away, come away! the dawn is gray;
Come, ere they claim thee;
Come away, the dawn is gray!
If the girl be not possest-Faust.--Margarita! Margarita.
But why such an air of despair Faust.--Margarita!
Margarita.--But why thy hand covered with blood
Go! I'm not thy prey. Faust.--Ah!
Mephistopheles.--She is mine! Chorus of Angels. No! not so!
All who have sinned here May here repent the sin By their holy living. Let earth be severe ! Heaven is forgiving.
FOURTH CONCERT
Saturday Afternoon, May 17
SYMPHONY, B minor, "Unfinished," .... Schubert
Born at Lichtenthal, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, November 19, 1828,
ALLEGRO MODERATO; ANDANTE CON MOTO.
The symphony known as the " Unfinished " is one of those rare works that disarm criticism and render explanation unnecessary. The melodic beauty of the themes, the simplicity of the harmonic structure, the clearness of the instru­mentation leave little room for formal analysis, and, possibly for this reason, it occupies a place in the affections of the music lover accorded to but few works. The fact that it is incomplete adds to the charm, for one can but wonder as to the exact character of the succeeding movements, had they been written. In this composition one may discover the same tendency to prolixity that is apparent in all of his orchestra] works, but, after all, is it not a relief in these days of compli­cated scores to listen to these spontaneous, ingenuous melodies, even if they are repeated many times Where is there a more beautiful effect than that produced by the entrance of the second subject in the first movement of this symphony Is there anywhere a more beautiful touch than we find in the Andante, in the return to the principal subject Schumann said of Schubert: "He has strains for the most subtle thoughts and feelings,nay even for the events and conditions of life; and innu­merable as are the shades of human thought and action, so various is his music." This judgment expresses most admirably all that one would say of Schubert, and in the two movements of this B minor Symphony we may see much of that power of expression of which Schumann speaks.
RECIT. AND ARIA, "O Mio Fernando" from "La Favorita," Donizetti
Born at Bergamo; November 29, 1797; died there April 8, 1848.
Miss Spencer.
SERENADE, for String Orchestra, Op. 48, Tschaikowsky Born at Wotkinsh, December 25, 1840; died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.
Andante con troppo; Moderato-Tempo di valse; Larghetto elegiaco;
Andante-Tema Russo.
No composer of recent years has attained greater prominence than Tschai­kowsky, and his fame seems to be steadily increasing.
There is a primal quality in his music that appeals to the general public as well as to the musician. In this work we see much of that originality in melodic and harmonic treatment so characteristic of his art that there is no mistaking his touch. To be sure the very nature of the orchestral combination employed by him forbids
36 Fourtli Concert.
the opulent color and intensity of thematic expressions we find in the larger sym­phonic works, but no one can mistake the breadth and fervor of his style.
BALLET MUSIC from the Opera "Azara," John Knowles Paine Born at Portland, Maine, on January 9, 1839; still living in Cambridge, Mass.
The opera "Azara," the text and music by John Knowles Paine, has not yet been given. It has been the work of the last ten or twelve years of the composer's life. The libretto, which is on a Hispano-Moorish subject, has been published.
The first of the dances played at this concert, (G minor, Allegretto animato), comprises the development of a lively, quaint dance motive, first given out by thg bassoons and worked up elaborately with varying instrumentation.
The second dance, (G major, Poco meno mosso), is essentially the trio to the first one. It contains the development of a single theme, of Moorish character, first given out by the English horn, and of a breezy little subsidiary derived from it. After this movement the key of G minor returns and with it some new developments on the theme of the first dance. These two dances are scored for 3 flutes, 2 oboes, I English horn, 2 clarinets, 1 bass-clarinet, 3 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trom­bones, 1 bass-tuba, 1 pair kettle drums, triangle, tambourine, cymbals and the usual strings.
The third dance begins with an introduction (Allegro quasi Andante), in which there is a series of preluding modulations from G minor to A major with arpeggios and glissandos for the harp and a recitative-like passage for the clarinet. The main body of the movement (A major, Allegretto con moto e grazioso), contains the extended alternate development of three themes. The first is given out immedi­ately in A major by the strings; the second makes its first appearance somewhat later, in the strings and wind, in F major; the third a more sustained cantabile melody, comes in eight measures later in A-flat major, in the clarinets, horn, trumpet and strings in octaves. This dance is scored for 3 flutes, 2 oboes, 1 English horn, 2 clarinets, 1 bass-clarinet, 3 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 bass-tuba, a set of 3 kettle drums, triangle, tambourine, cymbals, harp and the usual strings.
SONGS WITH PIANO.
'.' Printemps qui commence," Saint-Saens
"Kypris," - Augusta Holmes
"Printaniere," - Goring Thomas
Miss Spencer
-OVERTURE TO SHAKESPEARE'S "RICHARD III,"
Op. 68, VOLKMANN
FIFTH CONCERT
Saturday Evening, May 17
"TANNHAEUSER," a Romantic Opera in 3 Acts, Wagner
CAST HERMANN, Landgrave of Thuringia, Mr. Frederic Martin
"TANNHAEUSER, Me. Barron Berthald WOLFRAM, von Eschenbach, Mr. William A. Howland Minstrel WALTHER, von der Vogelweide, Mr. James Moore
Knights, j BITEROLF, Mr. Earle G. Killeen
HEINRICH, der Schreiber, Mr. Marshall Pease l_REINMAR, von Sweter, Mr. F. Howland Woodward ELISABETH, niece of the Landgrave, Miss Sara Anderson
VENUS, Madame Louise Homer
A YOUNG SHEPHERD, .... Miss Frances Caspary FOUR NOBLE PAGES, Misses Farlin, Fischer, Coffey and Harris Thuringian Nobles and Knights, Ladies, Elder and Younger Pilgrims and Sirens, Naiads, Nymphs and Bacchantes
THE CHORAL UNION Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
In the art of Richard Wagner (born at Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883), we have the fulfillment of the prophecies of Jean Paul, Wieland, Herder, and Rosseau.
In the " Flying Dutchman" lines of cleavage between the old and new concepts of opera are clearly discernable, but in the present work the line of demarcation was crossed forever. In the seven years intervening between the beginning of "Rienzi " and the completion of " Tannhaeuser " Wagner's genius had expanded and deepened to an extent unknown in the case of any other composer. His dramatic ideas had been completely revolutionized, or possibly it would be nearer the truth to say clarified, for in the earliest stages of his career he saw "as in a glass darkly " that which in " Tannhaeuser" first found definite form and adequate statement. Gluck had impressed dramatic statement on an undramatic form, but had retained the features of the form that made an entire renovation of its tendencies impossible. He stopped just short of the final and most important step in the evolution of musico-dramatic art because he was intellectual rather than musical, a dramatist rather than composer, if one maybe allowed to exaggerate somewhat, and finally, because he was not in the highest sense a constructive genius. Wagner, after a short expe­rience as a worshipper at the same shrine as Meyerbeer, experienced a change of heart, and, having caught a glimpse of music's possibilities when it is the servant of
38 Fifth Concert.
Poetic Aim in the " Flying Dutchman," was not satisfied until he broke entirely with established traditions.
To say that he realized his ideals in this work as completely as in " Tristan " and the " Ring," would be to deny him the possession of one of the sublime attrib­utes of genius--the capacity for infinite development. In the process of readjust­ment necessary in the reformation of an art so comprehensive as to amount to an almost entire reversal of many of its accepted forms of expression, it could hardly be expected that the advance would be continuous, and we are not surprised to discover in' "Tannhaeuser" that, while in the main it represents an enormous advance over its predecessor, in certain characteristics it is not an improvement.
Let us consider for a moment the problem as he saw it. In the old concept to quote Wagner, "the means of expression had become the end; " in the new art the end must condition the means; an art justly held to be somewhat indefinite in meaning must be made definite; the musical side must be symphonic in intent while denied the formal means of symphonic development; the themes must enforce action while thematic interrelation by its very nature retards it; the effect of act and word must not be hampered, but rather enforced by the music to which is assigned at the same time the task of explaining hidden motives of action, and its future effect; in short, music as one of the combining factors in a unity of arts must deny the principles that were evolved by generations of geniuses from its own inner self, to satisfy the demands of this seemingly iconoclastic genius who wished to use it in a new conception of a form in which it should not, as in the past, be supreme.
To say, as some have proclaimed in the past, that Wagner resorted to extra musical means to accomplish his end would be to class him with Berlioz, while the folly of the assumption that his music is lacking in the qualities that appeal to all is made clear by the enjoyment his music gives to those to whom his dramatic prin­ciples are unknown. Wagner, himself, in one of his gloomiest periods says " the common people have always understood me." The truth is, that all the operatic composers prior to Wagner looked at the problem from the point of view of abso­lute music, i. ., music whose meaning is not declared by act or word. A genius be he never so great can never produce artistic effect by the negation of the nature of the art he serves, neither could this master write in a form in which music holds an exalted position by denying her fundamental processes. He simply saw that music's position in the opera must be looked at from the point of view of the poet as well as that of the composer and that the relation of one to the other must be determined by the dramatist. Because he saw this, and further than this realized that such a perfect blending of these often opposing points of view was impossible when each was represented by an individual; and again, because in his genius these three essential characteristics combined, Richard Wagner was the fulfillment of Jean Paul's prophecy (penned on the very year of Wagner's birth), " The world is now awaiting the advent of a man who shall create a genuine opera, by writing both the words and the music."
The legend forming the basis of "Tannhaeuser" reveals but little of the dra­matic force found in the plot as developed by Wagner. It contains neither dramatic contrast, psychological development, human interest nor historic environment. Wagner took the underlying motive, enriched it and developed its possibilities. Dis­regarding the unities of time, he places the sainted Elizabeth in opposition to Venus, gathers together in the " Tournament of Song " historic minstrels of several widely separated generations, and, first giving us a view of the unworthy side of the man, reveals to us the processes through which he, truly repenting, becomes worthy of forgiveness. He weds the text to music, in which dramatic intensity and suggestion combine with pure formal beauty, to produce an artwork worthy of a sublime genius of the prophetic type.
Fifth Concert. 39
OVERTURE.
ACT I. Scene I.--The Grotto of Venus.
(The grotto is Ailed with a soft, rosy light. In the background a beautiful lake in which Naiads are sporting. On its, banks are groups of Sirens. Venus and Tannhaeuser in the foreground.)
BACCHANALE.
The Sirens.
Come to these bowers! Radiant with flowers! Here love shall bless thee, here endeth
longing,
Soft arms shall press thee, 'mid blisses thronging!
[The dance becomes, frenzied but ¦finally dies away as the Sirens repeat their song.
Scene II.--Venus and Tannhaeuser.
Venus.--Oh say, my love, where stray thy thoughts
Tannhaeuser.--No more, no more! Oh, that I now might waken!
Venus.--Say, what grief is thine
Tannhaeuser.--I dreamt I heard upon the air, sounds that to me were long estranged--the silv'ry sound of bells was borne upon the breezes. Oh say, how long has earth been lost to me Venus.
What folly seizes thee Why thus disturbed
Tannhaeuser.--The time I dwelt with thee, by days I cannot measure, seasons pass me, how, I scarcely know,--the radiant sun I see no longer, strange hath become the heaven's starry splendor,--the sweet verdure of spring, the gentle token of earth's renewing life; the night­ingale no more I hear, who sings of hope and promise! All these de­lights, are they forever lost
Venus.
What, art thou wav'ring Why these vain lamentings Canst thou so soon be weary of the
blisses that love immortal hath cast
around thee Can it be Dost thou repent that
thou'rt divine Hast thou so soon forgotten, how thy
heart was mourning till by me thou
wert consoled
My minstrel, come,
Let not thy harp be silent!
Recall the rapture,
Sing the praise and bliss of love
In tones that won for thee
Love's self to be thy slave!
Of love sing only,
For its treasures all are thine!
Tannhaeuser (seising his harp and con­fronting her).
While I have life, alone my harp shall praise thee,
No meaner theme shall e'er my song in­spire !
Naught can have grace or charm but it obeys thee,
Of all that lives thou best and chief de­sire.
The fire thou kindled in my longing spirit,
An altar flame shall burn for thee alone!
My song shall be divine but by thy merit,
That as thy champion, harp and sword I own!
And yet for earth, for earth I'm yearn­ing,
In thy soft chains with shame I'm burning,
'Tis freedom I must win, or die.
For freedom I can all defy,
To strife and glory, forth I go,
Come life or death, come joy or woe!
No more in bondage will I sigh!
O Queen belov'd! Goddess ! let me fly I
Venus (t violent anger). Then go,
0 traitor heart! Away!
Thou madman, go, I hold thee not!
1 set thee free! Away! Go forth ! Thy heart's desire shall be thy! doom! Go to the cold and joyless earth, Where neither love nor life can bloom, Whence ev'ry smiling god hath flown! Where dark suspicion first had its birth ! Go forth, thou madman! There seek
thy joy!
There seek thy joy, and seek in vain!
Soon will this fever quit thy soul,
Humbled and sorr'wing thou'lt return,
Remorse shall gnaw thee, naught con­sole.
For joys remembered thou shalt burn! Tannhaeuser.
Ah, fair enchantress,
Fare thee well!
Never again can I return! Venus (despairingly).
Ah! if thou never should'st return!
If thou forget me!
Return then if there is no hope!
40 Official Program Book.
Tannhaeuser.--No hope! My hope resteth in Mary!
[Venus, with a cry, vanishes. The scene changes to a lovely vale in the immediate vicinity of the Wartburg. A shepherd reclining on a large rock is playing on his pipe. He pauses as the chant of a band of pil­grims approaching from the direction of the Wartburg is heard.
Scene III.--Tannhaeuser, a Shep­herd and Pilgrims.
The Shepherd.
Dame Holda stepp'd from the moun­tain's heart, To roam through wood and through
meadow, Sweet sounds and low around me did
start,
I longed to follow her shadow. And there dreamt I a golden dream, And when again the day did gleam The spell was gone that bound me, 'Twas May, sweet May around me. Now songs of joy attune my lay, For May has come, the balmy May!
Chorus of Pilgrims (in the distance). To thee, Oh Lord, my steps I bend, In thee both joy and sorrow end! Oh, Mary, pure and gracious one! Bless thou the road we have begun! Oh, see my heart, by guilt oppressed, I faint, I sink beneath my burden! Npr will I cease, nor will I rest Till heav'nly mercy grants my pardon. At thy august and holy shrine, I go to seek the grace divine; Thrice blessed, who thy promise know! Absolved by penance shall they go.
The Shepherd. God speed! to Rome! There for my soul, oh breathe a prayer.
Tannhaeuser (falling on his knees'). Almighty, praise to Thee! Great are the marvels of thy mercy! Oh see my heart by guilt oppressed, I faint, I sink beneath the burden, Nor will I cease, nor will I rest Till heav'nly mercy grants my pardon. [During this prayer, which inter­rupts the chant of the pilgrims, they disappear down the valley. Their song, as it dies away in the distance, is interrupted by the sound of horns heralding the approach of the Landgrave Her­mann and a party of minstrels.
Scene IV.--The Landgrave and Min­strels. The Landgrave {Perceiving TannHAEUSER.)
Who is yon knight so deep absorb'd in prayer
Walther.--A pilgrim, sure. Biterolf.--By every sign, a noble! Wolfram.--Our lost one! The Minstrels.--Henry! Is it thou Landgrave.--Is't no delusion Dost thou return to us, whom thou so
rashly did'st abandon Biterolf.'--Say, what doth thy return this
day forebode us The Minstrels.--Yes, declare! Biterolf.--Is't friendship or a challenge
as of old Walther.--Com'st thou as friend or
scornful foe The Minstrels.--As foe
Wolfram {cordially approaching Tannhaeuser.) Oh, ask him not! His looks bespeak not scorning! We welcome thee, thou gallant min­strel !
Alas! too long wert thou from us es­tranged ! Walther.--Yes, welcome, if thou com'st
in peace! Biterolf.--All hail, if we as friends can
meet! The Minstrels.--All hail, we welcome
thee!
Landgrave.
I also welcome thy return! But say, where did'st thou stay so long Tannhaeuser.--In strange and distant realms I wandered far, where nei­ther peace nor rest were ever found. Ask not. At enmity I am with none; we meet as friends-let me in peace depart. Landgrave.--Depart! Thou shalt not,
for our own we claim thee. The Minstrels. Thou must not go! From us thou must not sever, 'Mid friends and home thou shalt find
rest.
What dost thou seek with vain endea­vor
Tannhafjjser.
I must! Onward I am driven ever, Never upon earth can I have rest! The past to me is closed forever, I'm doomed to roam alone unblest!
Fifth Concert. 41
Wolfram.--Here dwells Elisabeth! Tannhaeuser (overcome by emotion).
Elisabeth! Oh, ruth of heaven, that name adored
once more I hear Wolfram.
He is no foe, who doth that name to
thee recall! My sov'reign lord, permit that I may
tell him of the prize he won Landgrave.--Tell him the marvel that his
song hath wrought; and keep him,
Heav'n, in virtue, that nobly he
may own it! Wolfram..
When for the palm in song we were
contending, And oft thy conq'ring strain the wreath
had won,
Our songs anon thy victory suspending, One glorious prize was won by thee
alone.
Was't magic, or a pow'r divine, That wrought through thee the won­drous sign,
Thy harp and song, in blissful hour, Enthralled of royal maids the flow'r! For ah, when in scorn thou left us, Her heart was closed to joy and song, Of her sweet presence she bereft us, For thee in vain she wearied long. Oh minstrel bold, return and rest thee, Once more awake thy joyous strain! Cast off the burden that oppressed thee, And her fair star will shine again! The Minstrels and Landgrave. Return then, Henry! Thou our brother! Anger and strife shall be no more! In joy and peace with one another, Our strains united let us pour.
Tannhaeuser (Embracing Wolfram
and the Minstrels.) What joy! Oh guide my steps to her!
Tannhaeuser.
Ah, dost thou smile once more upon
me,
Thou radiant world that I had lost! O Sun of heaven, thou dost not shun
me,
By stormy clouds no longer crossed! 'Tis May, sweet May, its thousand car­ols tender
Rejoicing, set my sorrow free! A ray of new unwonted splendor, My soul illumes, oh joy, 'tis she! Guide me to her!
The Landgrave and Minstrels. He doth return, no more to wander! Our loved and lost is ours again! All praise and thanks to those we ren­der,
Who could persuade, and not in
vain!
Now let your harps indite a measure Of all that hero's hand may dare! Of all that poet's heart can pleasure, Before the fairest of the fair! [The retinue of the Landgrave and the hunters appear and taking Tannhaeuser with them they set out for the Wartburg.
ACT. II.
Scene I--The Hall of Song, Wartburg
Castle. [Elisabeth enters in joyous
emotion. Elisabeth.
Oh, hall of song, I give thee greeting,
All hail to thee, thou hallowed place!
'Twas here that dream, so sweet and
fleeting,
Upon my heart his song did trace. But since by him forsaken, A desert dost thou seem! Thy echoes only waken
Remembrance of a dream! But now the flame of hope is lighted, Thy vault shall ring with glorious
war,
For he, whose strains my soul de­lighted,
No longer roams afar! All hail to thee,
Thou hall of glory, dear to my heart! [Tannhaeuser, conducted by Wolfram, enters the hall.
Scene II.--Elisabeth, Tannhaeuser and Wolfram.
[Elisabeth perceives Tann­haeuser. Wolfram.
Behold her, naught your meeting shall
disturb.
Tannhaeuser {throwing himself impet­uously at Elisabeth's feet). Oh, Princess! Elisabeth (in confusion). Heav'n, do not kneel! Leave me! Here, thus we should not
meet!
Tannhaeuser. We may! Oh, stay! Let me kneel forever here! Elisabeth.
I pray thee rise!
'Tis not for thee to kneel where thou hast conquered, this hall is thy do­main. Rise! I implore!
42 Official Program Book.
Thanks be to heav'n that thou return'st
to us!
So long, where hast thou tarried Tannhaeuser (slowly rising). Far away, in strange and distant re­gions-Between yesterday and today oblivion's
veil hath fallen.
Ev'ry remembrance hath forever van­ished. Save one thing only, rising from the
darkness; That I then dared not hope I should
behold thee,
Nor ever raise my eyes to thy perfec­tion. Elisabeth.
How wert thou led now to return to
us Tannhaeusee.
A marvel 'twas, by heaven wrought
within my spirit! Elisabeth. I praise the pow'r that wrought it from
out my heart's recesses! Forgive, I scarcely know what I am
saying. Thy presence here, a vision doth it
seem! Strange dream of life, mysterious and
alluring!
The world to me is changed. Can'st thou declare what this emotion
to my heart betokens In minstrels' lays delighting,
I marked and listened long and oft; Their subtle sweet inditing
To me seemed dalliance soft; But now the past to me is darkened,
Repose and joy from me have flown! Since fondly to thy lays I hearkened, The pangs of bliss and woe I've ,
known. Emotions that I comprehend not,
And longings never guessed before, Upon my bidding they depend not, But fled are all delights of yore! And when this land thou had'st for­saken,
Repose and joy for me were fled, No minstrel could my heart awaken, To me their lays seemed sad and
dead;
In slumber oft near broken-hearted, Awake, each pain fondly recalled; All joy had from my life departed; Henry, Henry! Why thus am I en­thralled
Tanxhaeuser (with exaltation). All praise to love for this fair token, Love touched my harp with magic sweet,
Love through my song to thee hath
spoken, And captive leads me at thy feet.
Elisabeth and Tannhaeuser.
O blessed hour of meeting, O blessed
power of love! At last I give thee greeting, no longer
wilt thou rove! Now life, renewed, awaketh the hope
that once was mine! The cloud of sorrow breaketh; I know
but joy divine.
(Tannhaeuser parts from Elisa­beth, hastens towards Wolfram, embraces him impetuously, and disappears with him by the stair­case. Elisabeth looks after, Tannhaeuser from the balcony.
Scene III.--Elisabeth and the Land­grave.
[Enter the Landgrave from a side entrance. Elisabeth hastens to meet him, and hides her face in his breast.
Landgrave.
Com'st thou at last to grace the con­test, wilt thou shun these walls no longer
What had lured from thee thy soli­tude to come among'st us
Elisabeth.
My sov'reign, O my more than father! Wilt thou at last reveal to me thy
secret Tell it I cannot; read my eyes and
know.
Landgrave
This day it still shall be unspoken, Thy treasured thought thou need'st
not own; The spell shall yet remain unbroken,
Till what the future brings is known. So be't. The wondrous flame that song hath kindled, this day shall bright­ly soar; Thy joy, all hearts rejoicing, shall on
this day be crowned. What hath been sung shall spring to life for thee!
[Trumpet-calls are heard in the court-yard.
This day will see our nobles assembled; to grace the solemn feast they now approach.
None will be absent, since they know that once again thy hand the vic­tor's wreath bestows.
Fifth Concert. 43
THE TOURNAMENT OF SONG.
Scene IV.--{The Landgrave and Elisa­beth watch the arrival of the guests from the balcony. Four noble Pages enter and announce them. The Landgrave directs their reception, etc.) ¦Chorus of Knights and Nobles.
Hail, bright abode, where song the
heart rejoices! May lays of peace within thee never
fail; Long may we cry to thee with cheerful
voices,
Prince of Thuringia, Landgrave, Hermann, hail!
[After all are seated according to rank, the Minstrels enter and are escorted to their places by the Pages.
.'Landgrave (rising).--Minstrels assem­bled here, I give thee greeting; full oft within these walls your lays have sounded, in veiled wisdom or in mirthful measure, they ever gladdened ev'ry list'ning heart. And though the sword of strife was loosed in battle, drawn to main­tain our German land secure, when 'gainst the southern foe we fought and conquered, and for our coun­try braved the death of heroes; unto the harp be equal praise and glory! The tender graces of the homestead, the faith in what is good and gracious, for these you won, with noble art, full many a triumph pure and high. Your strains inspiring then once more attune, now that the gallant min­strel hath to us returned, who from our land too long was parted. To what we owe his presence here amongst us in strange mysterious darkness still is wrapped; the mag­ic pow'r of song shall now reveal it, therefore hear now the theme ye all shall sing; "What is love, by what signs shall ye know it" This be your theme, who-so most noblv this can tell, him shall the Prin­cess give the prize. He may de­mand of her the fairest guerdon, I vouch that what-so-e'er he ask is granted.
Up then, arouse ye, sing, oh gallant minstrels! Attune your harps to love, great is the prize, ere ye be­gin let all receive our thanks! Knights and Nobles. Hail! hail!
Lord of Thuringia, hail! Protector them of gentle song! Hail!
[All seat themselves. The Pages advance and collect the names of the Minstrels, which each hands in a folded slip of paper, into a golden cup, which one of them presents to Elisabeth, who draws out one of the papers and returns it to the Pages, who read the name and then step back into the midst of the assembly. The Pages. Wolfram von Eschenbach, begin
thou! Wolfram.
Gazing around upon this fair assembly, How doth the heart expand to see
the scene! These gallant heroes, valiant, wise and
gentle, A stately forest, soaring fresh and
green; And blooming by their side in sweet
perfection, I see a wreath of dames and maidens
fair.
Their blended glories dazzle the be­holder, My song is mute before this vision
rare. I rais'd my eyes to one whose starry
splendor,
In this bright heav'n with mild efful­gence beams, And gazing on that pure and tender
radiance, My heart was sunk in pray'rful, holy
dreams. And lo, the source of all delight and
power,
Was then unto my list'ning soul re­vealed ; From whose unfathomed depths all joy
doth shower, The tender balm in which all grief is
healed.
Oh never may I dim its limpid waters, Or rashly trouble them with wild de­sires ! I'll worship thee kneeling, with soul
devoted, To live and die for thee my heart
aspires! I know not if these feeble words can
render
What I have felt of love both true and tender.
Chorus of Nobles and Ladies.
They do!
We praise thy noble song! Tannhaeuser (rising, as from a dream).
I too drank of that source of pleasure,
44 Official Program Book.
Its waters, Wolfram, well I know; Who that hath life did e'er ignore it Hear how its virtues I will show! But I would not draw near its margin
Unless desire consumed my soul, Then only would its wave refresh me With new life and a heart made
whole;
Oh tide of joy, let me possess thee, All fear and doubt before thee fly; Let thy unfathomed raptures bless me, For thee alone my heart beats high. So that I own thy fiery splendor, Let me with longing ever burn. I tell tnee, Wolfram, thus I render what
I have known of truest love. Wolfram.
Oh Heaven! Let me here implore
thee!
Hallow my song to worthy praise! Let sin crouch in the dust before thee. Nor dare 'mongst us its head to
raise! Thou noble love, inspire me,
Thy glory let me sing, Thy flame immortal fire me,
Fanned by an angel's wing! Thou com'st from heav'n descended,
I follow thee afar; By ev'ry joy attended,
Forever shines thy star! Tannhaeuser {in zvildest exaltation.) Thou goddess of love, inspire my
measure, In joyful strains thy praise be ever
sung! Thou art the source of all in life we
treasure, Thy sweet delights are ever fair and
young!
Whose burning soul once hath em­braced thee, Can speak of love, none else its joys
can prove! Hail, mortals, who of love have never
tasted.
Go forth! Venus alone can show ye love!
{General consternation. All rise from their seats.
The Landgrave, Minstrels, Nobles and Ladies.
Ah! hear the miscreant! Hence away!
Hear him ! He hath with Venus been !
Away! nor near him stay!
[The ladies quit the hall; Elisa­beth alone remains, leaning, pale and trembling, against one of the pillars of the royal canopy. The men have left their seats and stand together facing Tann­haeuser. They close round him zvith drawn swords.
The Men (rushing upon Tannhaeuser with drawn swords).
We all have heard!
His mouth profane hath confessed, that he hath shared the joys of hell, in Venus' dark abode that dwell! Disown him! Curse him! Ban­ish him! So let his traitor life-blood flow ! in hellish fires forever glow!
Elisabeth (throws herself between them).
Stay your hands!
[Shielding Tannhaeuser.
Away from him!
'Tis not for you to judge him!
Shame on you! He is one against you all!
Oh, let a spotless maid your grace im­plore !
Let Heav'n declare through me what is its will.
The erring mortal, who hath fallen within the weary toils of sin,
How dare ye close the heav'nly por-tal,
Where he on earth his shrift may win
If ye are strong in faith and honor,
Why do ye not His word obey who gave to us the law of mercy,
Who ne'er from sinner turned away
On me, a maiden, young and tender,
Yon knight hath struck a cruel blow,
I who so deeply, truly loved him,
Am hurled in dark abyss of woe!
I pray for him, spare him, oh I implore thee!
Let not the hope of pardon be denied!
To life renewed his sinking faith re­store ye,
Think that for him our blessed Saviour
died. Tannhaeuser (crushed with remorse).
Oh, lost now and forever!
Landgrave, Minstrels and Nobles. An angel hath from heav'n descended,
To bear us God's most high behest! Behold, and see whom thou'st offended!
Thy crime forever haunt thy rest! Thou gav'st her death, She prays that life be spared thee! Who would not yield who heard the
heav'nly maid
Though as accursed and guilty I de­clared thee,
The voice of heav'n by me shall be obeyed!
Tannhaeuser.
Have mercy, Thou ! I cry to Thee!
I cry to Thee despairing,
Thou who has sent this Saint to me!
Fifth Concert. 45
Landgrave.--A crime dark and un-heard-of hath befallen; in mask of loyal knight there treacherously stole amongst us Sin's accursed child! By us thou art disowned, from this land thou art banished. Thou with shame hast stained this threshold pure, the wrath of Heav'n may strike the roof that harbors thee, too long by guilt defiled! One path alone can save thee from per­dition, from everlasting woe, by earth abandoned, one way is left, that way thou now shalt know. A band of pilgrims now assemble, from
ev'ry part of my domain. This morn the elders went before them,
the rest yet in the vale remain. 'Tis not for crimes like thine they trem­ble, And leave their country, friends and
home,
Desire for heav'nly grace is o'er them, They seek the sacred shrine at Rome. Minstrels, Nobles and Knights. 'Tis there repentant kneeling Before the shrine of grace, In tears thy heart annealing, Thy sin thou shalt efface; In dust bow down before him,
Who holds the keys of Heav'n! But never more returning, Unless by him forgiv'n! Our just revenge resigned we,
Because an angel prayed, But yet this sword shall find thee, Unless thou seek Heav'n's aid! Chorus of Younger Pilgrims (from the
valley).
At thy august and holy shrine, I go to seek the grace divine. Thrice blessed who Thy promise know! Absolved by penance shall they go. Tannhaeuser (animated by a ray of hope).--To Rome!
[He rushes away.
Elisabeth, Landgrave and Nobles (call after him).--To Rome!
ACT III.
INTRODUCTION --TANNHAEUSER'S PIL­GRIMAGE.
Scene I.--(The valley near the Wart-burg as in Act. I. Elisabeth kneeling before a shrine. Wolf­ram comes down from a forest path. Perceiving Elisabeth, he stops.)
Wolfram.--By yonder shrine I'm ever sure to find her, kneeling in fer­vent prayer, when my joyless way back to the valley leads me.
The death-blow, struck by him, within her,
She prays that Heav'n may shrive the sinner,
His weal imploring day and night,
Oh, blessed love, how great thy might!
The pilgrims soon from Rome will be returning,
The year declines, ere long they must be here.
Will he return, repentant and absolved
This doth she pray for, Heav'n entreat­ing.
Ye saints, oh grant their happy meet­ing!
Although my wound may never heal,
Oh may she ne'er my anguish feel!
[As lie is about to descend into the valley, he hears the Pilgrims'' Chant, and again stops.
Chorus of Elder Pilgrims (slowly ap­proaching).
Once more with joy, oh my home I may meet thee;
Elisabeth (rising). The Pilgrim's song!
Wolfram.--They come at last!
Pilgrims.
Once more, ye flow'ry meadows, I greet ye;
Elisabeth.--'Tis they! Wolfram.
It is the pious chant, telling of the sin absolved and pardon granted.
Pilgrims.
My pilgrim staff henceforth may rest, Since Heav'ns sweet peace is in my breast.
Elisabeth.
Ye Saints, oh let me know my task, That I may worthily fulfill it!
Wolfram.
O Heaven, let her heart be strong, If now her fate must be decided.
The Pilgrims (coming nearer).
Oh Lord, eternal praise be Thine!
The blessed source of thy mercy o'er-flowing,
On souls repentant, who seek Thee be­stowing ;
Of hell and death I have no fear,
My gracious Lord is ever near.
Hallelujah! Hallelujah, eternally!
Elisabeth (who has been anxiously
watching for Tannhaeuser). He will return no more!
46 Official Progratn Book.
[The Pilgrims' song dies away as they disappear in the distance. Elisabeth falls on her knees be­fore the shrine.
Oh, blessed Virgin, hear my prayer! Thou star of glory, look on me! Here in the dust I bend before thee, Now from this earth, oh set me free! Let me, a maiden, pure and white, Enter into the kingdom bright! If vain desires and earthly longing, Have turned my heart from thee away, The sinful hopes within me thronging, Before thy blessed feet I lay; I'll wrestle with the love I cherfshed Until in death its flame hath perished. If of my sin thou wilt not shrive me, Yet in this hour, oh grant me aid! Till thy eternal peace thou give me, I vow to live and die thy maid. And on thy bounty I will call, That heav'nly prace on him may fall! [She remains a short time absorbed in her devotions, then, rising slowly, and rejecting Wolf­ram's proffered aid, proceeds up the ascent and gradually disap'r pears from view. Wolfram.
Oh royal maid, shall I not guide thee homeward
Scene II.--(Wolfram, zvho has folloived Elisabeth with his eyes, seats himself and begins to prelude on his harp.) Wolfram. Like death's foreboding, twilight all
surrounding,
Envelopes hill and vale with sable man­tle; The soul that longs to mount on yonder
heights,
Feels terror at its flight through dread and night.
And thou appear'st O fairest star of heaven,
Thy gentle light thro' space afar thou spreadest;
And dark'ning twilight softened by thy ray
With cheering light from the vale shows the way.
O thou sublime sweet evening star.
Toyful I greet thee from afar;
With glowing heart that ne'er dis­closed,
Greet her when she in thy light re­posed,
When parting from this vale, a vision
She rises to an angel's mission.
Scene III.--Tannhaeuser, Wolfram. Later, Venus, Minstrels, No­bles and Pilgrims.--(It has now become quite dark. Tannhaeu-ser enters in a ragged Pilgrim's dress. He is pale and wan. He comes forward with faltering steps, leaning on his staff.) Tannhaeuser.
The sound of harp I heard, it spoke of sadness! It was not she who sang.
Wolfram. Who art thou, Pilgrim, the lonely path
pursuing Tannhaeuser.
Who I am I, who know thee so well! Wolfram art thou, the wise and skilful minstrel!
Wolfram.
Henry! Thou What means thy com­ing thus dej ected Speak! Tell me not that thou un-absolved hast dared to set thy foot within these sacred precincts!
Tannhaeuser.
Nay, have no fear, oh sapient minstrel, I seek not thee, nor yet thy proud com­panions.
A path I seek, or one to guide my foot­steps to find a path erewhile I trod with ease.
Wolfram.--What path is that Tannhaeuser.--It leads to Venus hill! Wolfram.--Thou Godless man! Thy words defile my ear! What is thy mission Tannhaeuser (in a whisper).
Dost thou know the path Wolfram.
Oh, madman! dread unknown thy
words inspire! Whence com'st thou Hast thou been in Rome Tannhaeuser (enraged).
Speak not of Rome!
Wolfram.--Hast thou sued for pardon" Tannhaeuser.--Speak not of that! Wolfram.--Thou wert not there
Oh, I conjure thee, speak! Tannhaeuser (dreamily, with bitter­ness).
Yea, I have been in Rome. Wolfram.--Say on! 0, tell me all! Unhappy man!
With deep compassion I will hear thy words!
[Tannhaeuser contemplates Wolfram with astonishment.
Fifth Concert. 47
Tanihaetjser. What say'st them, Wolfram Say, art thou not my foe
Wolfram.
No, nevermore while thou art true to
honor. But tell what thee in Rome befell.
Tannhaeuser.--I will, I will!
Thou, Wolfram, shalt know what be­fell me.
[Exhausted, he seats himself at the foot of a projecting rock. Wolfram is about to seat him­self by his side.
Away from me!
The spot whereon I rest me is ac­cursed !
Now mark, Wolfram; mark well!
Contrite in spirit, as no pilgrim yet on earth hath been,
I bent my steps to Rome. '
An angel had dispelled the pride of sin, its mad profaneness from my bo­som ; for her sake I went forth, a pilgrim, to reconcile offended Heav'n;
She who with tears for me had pleaded, should know my sin had been for­given !
Thus Rome I gained at last, with tears imploring,
I knelt before the rood in faith ador­ing.
When daylight broke, the silv'ry bells were pealing,
Thro' vaulted roof a song divine was stealing,
A cry of joy breaks forth from thou­sand voices,
The hope of pardon ev'ry heart re­joices.
Then him I saw, who holds the keys of Heaven, and prostrate fell they all before his face.
And thousands he forgave that day, and blessed them, and sent them forth renewed in heav'nly grace.
Then I drew near, my glances earth­ward bending,
I made my plaint, despair my bosom rending, I told what mad desire my soul had darkened, By sinful, earthly pleasure long en­slaved ;
To me it seemed that he in mercy
harkened,
A gracious word in dust and tears I craved.
Then he, to whom thus I prayed, re­plied, "If thou hast shared the joys of hell,
If thou unholy flames hast nursed, That in the hill of Venus dwell, Thou art for evermore accursed! And as this barren staff I hold Ne'er will put forth a flow'r or leaf, Thus shalt thou never more behold Salvation, or thy sins' relief!" Then hopeless dumb despair obscured
my senses,
I sank down motionless. When I awoke, 'twas night, and I
alone, by all forsaken, I heard afar the songs of praise and
prayer;
With loathing I fled t'escape the sound! What were to me the tidings of their
joy, an outcast, spurned, in whom
all hope was dead With horror in my breast I turned and
fled! Then longed my soul those joys to
taste again, Which once before my earth-born pains
had slain! To thee, fair Venus I surrender,
Let thy sweet magic round me play, I'll be thy slave, thou star of splendor, Thou only can these pangs allay!
Wolfram.--Oh stay thy godless raving!
Tannhaeuser.
Oh, guide my steps that I may find thee,
Wolfram.--No more, thou madman!
Tannhaeuser.
How well erewhile the road I knew! Behold! men have with curses spurned
me, Come, lovely Goddess, guide me true!
Wolfram.
Thou Godless one! Whom do=t thou call
Tannhaeuser. Ah! dost thou not feel balmy breezes
Wolfram. Away! oh fly, or thou art lost!
Tannhaeuser.
My senses what ecstasy seizes Hear'st thou not rapturous music
Wolfram.
Oh wert thou rather in thy grave! [The dark clouds which have en­veloped the scene now begin to glow with a rosy light. A con­fused vision of dancing forms be­comes visible. Tannhaeuser.
In mazy dance the nymphs now are
flying!
Come on! come on! ye fair, receive your slave!
48 Official Program Book.
Wolfram.
Woe! Evil demons fill the air, That hell its victim may ensnare!
Tankhaeuser.
Oh come, on Pleasure's rosy pinion,
I feel thy breath ambrosial!
This is of love the sweet dominion,
Oh Venus, on thee I will call!
[In a rosy light Venus is seen. Venus.
I welcome thee, perfidious man!
Earth laid thee low beneath its ban!
Hast thou by all then been forsaken
In my arms blissfully to waken
Tannhaeuser.
Sweet Venus, oh, in bliss receive me! With thee, with thee oh let me fly!
Wolfram (restraining Tannhaeuser 631
force).
Ye hellish phantoms, leave him! All hope is lost when ye are nigh!
Venus. Com'st thou on grace from me relying,
Thy rash resolve I will forgive; Come where joy is fed from source un­dying, In pleasure's bright abode to live!
Tannhaeuser {with desperation tearing
himself away from Wolfram). Accursed, of hope they have bereft me, Now joys of hell alone are left me!
Wolfram (again seizing Tannhaeu­ser).
Oh, mighty Lord, in mercy see! Henry, one word, and thou art free! Repent! Yet canst thou gain thy soul's
salvation!
Venus.--Oh come! Beloved! For ever thou art mine!
Tannhaeuser.--No more!
Away from me!
No, Wolfram! The heav'ns are closed!
Leave me! Wolfram.
Heaven hears an angel's supplications,
Who now its grace implores; Elisa­beth!
Tannhaeuser (who has just released himself, remains suddenly rooted to the spot). Elisabeth! Oh maid divine!
[A funeral train comes slowly down from the Wartburg. The gleam of torches is seen through the darkness. Chorus.
Receive the soul, oh bounteous Lord, That now to Thee hath taken flight!
Hers be the angel's blest reward,
Bright be her glory in Thy sight! Wolfram.--Thine angel prays for thee before the throne, and Heav'n re­ward relents. Henry, thou art ab­solved ! Venus.--Woe! I have lost him!
[She sinks into the earth; morn­ing dawns. Wolfram.
Oh, say, hear'st thou that strain Tannhaeuser (dying).--1 hear it!
[Here the funeral train reaches the valley, preceded by the Elder Pil­grims; then follow the Minstrels bearing Elisabeth's hearse; they are followed by the Landgrave, Knights and Nobles. Chorus. Sainted forever, through all the
spheres, She who through love thy salvation
attained!
Blest is the sinner, saved by her tears, [The Minstrels put down
the hearse. Now he the heav'nly gate hath
gained.
Tannhaeuser (has been led to the
hearse by Wolfram; he slowly
sinks to the earth beside it).
Holy Saint Elisabeth, oh pray for me!
[He dies. All invert their
torches. Chorus of Younger Pilgrims (on an
eminence in the foreground). Hail! Hail!
The Lord hath marvels wrought! Redemption He to all hath brought! One night in blest propitious hour, He left a sign of His dread power; The barren staff of priestly rule He made to bloom with summer's
green;
Now man's curse doth the Lord annul, His pitying love shall make us clean! Declare it loud through ev'ry land, None who condemn at last shall stand! High doth He throne 'bove sin and
death,
Reigning in mercy not in wrath! The Knights and Elder Pilgrims
(with exaltation).
The Lord Himself now thy bondage hath riven, go enter in with the blest in His Heaven! Younger Pilgrims. Hallelujah! Hallelujah!
This is omitted, in performance.
THE CHORAL UNION
Sopranos
Genevieve Allen Mrs. Geo. Blaich Faye Bodmer Gertrude Borden Edith L. Burch Elzina Calahan Frances Caspary Florence E. Chapin Adeline Christopher Caroline Chubb Gertrude M. Chute Mrs. S. W. Clarkson Mrs. Bertha Cody Mrs. YVirt Cornwell Georgia L. M. Covert Ruth Ellen Crim Bessie V. Cross Fanny R. Cross Lulu A. Daley Nina M. Davison Margaret N. Dodds Mrs. S. M. Dudley Mrs. E. H. Eberbach Mrs Antoinette Edwan Leila H. Farlin Lillian M. Farthing Babette L. Fischer Natalie Fischer Bertha Fitzgerald Eleanor B. Fowler Lucy Gannett Effie Godfrey Mrs. E. S. Gorsline Nellie M. Hamilton Leila M. Harlow Blanche Hedrick Mabel Haywood Mrs. Flora Henry Nellie M. Howell Mabel K. Inglesh Grace Jamieson M. Marilla Johnson Mrs. E. A. Keith Ethel E. Kendrick Cornelia Koch Clara Kramer Elizabeth Liebig Lucy Mackenzie Alice Marble E. Lorein Miller
May Miller
Charlotte L. Millard
Mrs. Glen V. Mills
Gertrude Mulhollen
Mrs. Alice A. Mummery
Winifred Nichols
Mrs. B. D. Niles
Mary L. O'Loane
Myrtal C. Palmer
Mabel Perry
Mrs. M. C. Peterson
Elizabeth P. Pond
Mrs. T. H. Potter
Georgina Potts
Mabel J. Pratt
Emily J. Purfield
Mrs. Lina Rainey
Laura N. Ranson
Mrs. L. L. Renwick
Amanda C. Ryer
Jennie D. Rhoades
D. Evelyn Roberts
Julia Rominger
Kdith Schleede
Orel Seeley
Ruth M. Sinclair
Ora Sperry
K. Louise Stanger
Clara V. Strain
Arline Strenick
Bertha Tarrant
Mrs. W. L. Taylor
Berenice Thayer
Grace Thompson
Kate Tremper
Mildred Tremper
Bessie R. Trowbridge
Estelle J. Vaughan
Elsie Wagner
Agnes A. Waite
Emma C. Weinmann
Sara Whedon
Elizabeth Wheeler
Mrs. Florence M. Whitfield
Lillian Whitman
Rose M. Whitney
Mrs. Vernon J. Willey
May Wood
Mrs. H. M. Woods
50 Official Program Book.
Altos
May E. Allmendingcr Eleanor Armstrong Florence A. Barnard Roberta Bull Mrs. H. Bumps Mrs. W. H. Butts Celia Caspary Dula N. Chandler Henrietta Chase Mrs. W. K. Childs Agnes E. Chubb Gertrude Chubb Martha C. Clark Rose E. Coffey Marguerite Crego Mrs. A. L. Davis Caroline DeGreene Ada K. Densmore Carrie L. Dicken Katharine Diehl Sara E. Edwards M. Leona Gandy Bernice B. Harris Grace Harrison I. Sue Hovey Beatrice Isbell Grace Kaiser Melvina Koch Florence E. Lewis
Almira F. Lovell Mrs. A. C. McGraw Rachel McKenzie Emily R. Marschke Eleanor Mead Carlotta A. Medaris Elizabeth C. Mogk Blanche E. Myers Mrs. Dean W. Myers Bernice C. Perkins Helen Post Mrs. Delle W. Ritter Elizabeth M. Rowland Marion Smith Belle Spore Evelyn St. James Helen M. St. Johns Mrs. John Staebler Helen M. Stevens Adeline A. Stine Sara J. Strain R. May Vincent Ottilie Wahl Neva Wilkins Mrs. J. C. Wilson Blanche Wood Cornelia Wood Mrs. W. R. Wright
Tenors
Lucius E. Allen Fred A. Baker J. Stanley Baley Albert J. Becker LaVerne Brown Fred M. Capron R. D. Clippmger W. H. Cooper John H. Crosby Ross K. Durfey John A. Ferguson Squire Fouch C. A. Fuller T. U. Fuller G. L. Gordon C. S. Gorsline Martin Hanson V. D. Hawkins Roy H. Johnson H. M. Kimball Ralph R. Latimer
Rudolph Lewen
Wm. Franklin Mayhew
John W. Mertz
E. M. Moore Arthur B. Nice B. D. Niles Robert F. Quail Chris. Rentschler Geo. B. Rhead
F. M. Root James H. Russell Harold W. Ryland Philip L. Schenk Arthur G. Smith Leon A. Stebbins N. E. Tousley Frank Vandeburg Chas. M. Welch Mario C. Wood-Allen Virgil C. Zener
Choral Union. 51
Basses
W. Roy Alvord Harold H. Armstrong Oliver R. Austin Hubbard N. Bradley Dr. E. D. Brooks Donald Campbell L. Hyatt Carragan Ch. E. Caster Herbert E. Coe Carl T. Cotter Lewis W. Curtis Rice B. Davis E. A. Densmore P. R. dePont Webb D. Doane Noble D. Eddy Frank C. Emerson Donald M. Ferguson Alfred C. Finney Burdett S. Frary
E. M. Halliday Gilbert W. Hands Walter H. Himes Dr. R. B. Howell John Jeffers, Jr. Mose Johnson Ch. E. Keeler
C. LeRoy Kilgore
F. J. Kilgore E. G. Killeen Will R. Kirn Eugene J. Koch George A. Lindsay Douglas Macduff
James G. McLean John McNaughton j. R. Mansfield K. S. Markham Boyd Marshall Leonard O. Meigs Dr. Dean W. Myers Dr. Charles B. Nancrede B. R. Parrish Victor M. Puster Collin B. Rogers Louis H. Ruegnitz Carl Smith Gregor Smith Dana M. Snell A. A. Snowden Jonathan Stanger Theophilus Stanger George A. Stegeman James R. Stewart Clarence E. Sutliff Joseph E. Sweeney Henry W. Tobias A. L. Turner William S. Vail Ray Van Dorn D. Warren Webster Walter S. Weeks H. Bert Whitney Lyle A. Whitsit George R. Wilbur Levi D. Wines F. Howland Woodward
THE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MUSIC
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A. M., Director.
Offers systematic Courses of Instruction in Piano, Organ, Voice Culture, Violin, Violoncello, Orchestral Instruments, Public School Music, Ensemble and Orchestral Playing, Harmony, Counter­point, Canon, Fugue, Composition, and History of Music. The work is organized in five distinct Departments of Study, all being1 under the direct charge of Heads of Departments.
f. Introductory Course, or General Musical Instruction.
2. High-School Course. 3. Public-School Music. 4. Course Leading to a Diploma.
5. Normal or Teacher's Course.
FACULTY.
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A.M., Director (Leipsic, 1871-1875, Professor of Music in the University of Michigan),
Counterpoint, Orchestration, Organ.
ALBERT LOCKWOOD (Pupil of Zwintscher, Bein-ecke, Buonamici and Leschetizky), Head of Pianoforte Department,
Pianoforte.
WILLIAM A. HOWLAND [Pupil of F. E. Bristol of New York; A. Sandegger and Frederick Walker of London), Head of Vocal Depart­ment,
Singing and Voice Culture.
BERNARD STURM (Pupil of Cesar Thomson), Head of Orchestral Department,
Violin, Ensemble Playing and Harmony.
RUTH I. MARTIN (Pupil of Mac Bowell, Moszlcow-ski and Leschetizky),
Pianoforte.
MRS. EMMA FISCHER-CROSS (Gh-aduate of Uni­versity School of Music, Pupil of Leschetizky),
Pianoforte.
HARRIETTE E. HUNT (Graduate of University School of Music),
Pianoforte.
VIRGINIA M. FISK (Gh-aduate of University School of Music),
Pianoforte.
ELSA G. STANLEY {Pupil of Professor Heinrich Barth),
Pianoforte.
LEILA M. HARLOW (Children's Classes), Pianoforte.
MINNIE M. DAVIS (Graduate of University School of Music),
Pianoforte.
CLARA J. JACOBS (Graduate of University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
LLEWELLYN L. REN WICK (Graduate of Uni­versity School of Music, Pupil of Albert A. Stan­ley and Charles M. Widor),
Pianoforte, Organ and Harmony.
RUTH DURHEIM,
Public School Music and Sight Singing.
ALFRED HOFMANN,
Violoncello.
MELL GILLESPIE,
Mandolin and Guitar.
FRED MCOMBER,
Flute.
WALTER CREGO,
Band Instruments.
Among the special musical advantages of the School are the following-:
The privilege of membership in the Choral Union, which competent students may enjoy upon payment of a small sum. The Choral Union Series of Concerts, ten in number.
The Chamber Concerts given by distinguished artists from abroad.
The Faculty Concerts, by members of the Faculty of the School of Music, one each month.
The Pupils' Recitals.--Practice in Orchestral Playing.--Use of University Library.
Lectures on Sound, History of Music, Music Analysis, .Esthetics, Psychology, Hygiene, and other subjects, by members of the University Faculties.
Opportunity to study the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments.
With the exception of the first three named above, these advantages are free to members of the School.
On application to the Director, the artists comprising the faculty may be secured, singly or together, for a limited number of concert engagements.
For further information address,
THOMAS C. COLBURN, Secretary of the University School of Music,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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