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UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --

UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image UMS Concert Program, May 12, 13, 14, 1904: Eleventh Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan --  image
Day
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Month
May
Year
1904
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Season: 1903-1904
Concert: TENTH
Complete Series: CXXX
University Hall, Ann Arbor, Michigan

ELEVENTH
ANNUAL MAY FESTIVAL
OF THE
UNIVERSITY 2f MICHIGAN
1904
OFFICIAL PROGRAM BOOK
[official]
ELEVENTH
ANNUAL MAY FESTIVAL
OF THE
University of Michigan
TO BE HELD IN
University Hall, Ann Arbor, Michigan
May 12, 13, 14, 1904
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
University School of Music
1904
ILLUSTRATIONS
van Beethoven . . . . Frontispiece
Emil MOLLENHAUER ..... Facing page 4
Albert A. Stanley . . . . . " " 10
Anita Rio . . . . . . " " 12
Emilio de Gogorza . . . . . . '¦ "16
Frederic Martin . . . . . " " 20
Edward William Elgab. . . . . " "22
Louise Homer . . . . . " " 24
Holmes Cowper . . . . . . " 28
Richard Strauss . . . . . " " 30
Georges Bizet . . . . . " " 32
Florence Mulford . . , . . " '34
Guiseppi Campanari . . . . . 38
Jacques Bars . . . . . " " 40
FRANCIS W. KELSEY, President ALBERT A. STANLEY, Director
The Choral Union
FIFTEENTH SEASON 1903-1904
Board of Government
PAUL R. de PONT, President LEVI D. WINES, Treasurer
CHARLES K. PERRINE, Secretary ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
WALTER WEEKS, )
y Librarians
arthur 0. cook, ) Directors
MRS. E. H. EBERBACH MISS SUSAN POTTER MISS CARRIE L. DICKEN MRS. W. K. CHILDS
GEORGE B. RHEAD PHILIP L. SCHENK DR. E. D. BROOKS ALFRED G. FINNEY
DR. CHARLES B. NANCREDE
MINNIE M. DAVIS, Pianist LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK, Organist
LIST OF
CONCERTS and SOLOISTS
Thursday, May 12, 8 p. m.
Miscellaneous Concert
SOLOISTS MISS ANITA RIO, Soprano Signor EMILIO de GOGORZA, Baritone
THE CHORAL UNION Mr. EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductors
Friday, May 13, 3 P. M.
Symphony Concert
Mr. FREDERIC MARTIN, Bass Mr. EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
Friday, May 13, 8 P. M.
"The Dream of Gerontius"
An Oratorio, Elgar
CAST
PART I
Gerontius, HOLMES COWPER
The Priest, EMILIO de GOGORZA
Assistants, . CHORAL UNION
PART II
Soul of Gerontius, HOLMES COWPER
Angel, ., LOUISE HOMER
Angel of the Agony t EMILIO de GOGORZA
Demons, Angelicals, and Souls, . CHORAL UNION
Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
Saturday, May 14, 2.30 P. M.
Miscellaneous Concert
Miss FLORENCE MULFORD, Contralto Mr. EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
Saturday, May 14, 7.30 P. M.
"Carmen"
An Opera, .... Bizet
CAST
Carmen, ........ LOUISE HOMER
Micaela, .... .... ANITA RIO
Frasquita, . . . CLARA HENLEY BUSSING
Mercedes, ... ... FRANCES CASPARI
Escamillo (The Toreador), .... GUISEPPI CAMPANARI
Don Josd, ........ JACQUES BARS
Zuniga, I .... FREDERIC MARTIN
Morales, )
Dragoons, Smugglers, Cigarette Girls, Street Boys, etc., . . CHORAL UNION
Mr. ALBERT A. STANLEY, Conductor
Boston Festival Orchestra
PERSONNEL
EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor
First Violins
JOHN W. CROWLEY ALFRED SPEIL MAX SCHULTZ HENRY J. HORNBERGER ALFRED LORENZ JOHN C. COLE E. HALTNORTH FRANK MORTON O. E. WASGATT JULIUS AKEROYD
Second Violins
JULIUS SCHEEL L. STARZINSKY J. B. FIELDING H. TIEDGE MAX KORB B. J. HOLMBERG
Violas
W. A. HOCHHEIM HUGO CAROW MAX GEBHARDT JACQUES BENAVENTE
Cellos
CARL WEBSTER JULIUS STURM WM. M. WELLS CARL HEMMANN
Basses
R. N. DAVIS PAUL RAHMIG O. L. SOUTHLAND H. E. COUCH
Flutes
E. A. FRANKLIN MAX GUETTER
Oboes
EUG. DEVAUX
CARL STIEGELMAYER
.Clarinets
JOHN E. ST. CLAIR JACOB WOLL
Bassoons
R. KRUGER PAUL FUCHS
French Horns
ANTON HORNER JOSEPH HORNER ROBERT MINSEL A. ZOELLER
Trumpets
ARTHUR S. WONSON WM. HILL
Trombones
GUSTAV STANGE A. P. RIPLEY HENRY WOELBER
Tuba
OTTO LORENZ
Harp
WILHELMINA LOWE
Tympani
PRANK E. DODGE
Drums
CARL LUDWIG
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1903-I904 FIFTEENTH SEASON, SIXTH CONCERT
(No. CXXVI Complete Series)
FIRST MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Thursday Evening, May 12, 8 o'clock
MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT
SOLOISTS
Miss Anita Rio, Soprano Signor Emilio de Gogorza, Baritone
The Choral Union
Mr. Emil Mollenhauer,) _ ,
Mr. Albert A. Stanley! ICOnaUCtOrS
PROGRAM
PART I
Overture--Fantasie, " Romeo and Juliet," . . . Tschaikowsky Scenes 1 and 2, Act IV, from "Otello,"......Verdi
a '' The Poor Heart Sat Pining''
b "Ave Maria"
MISS RIO
" Danza dell' Or," from " I,a Giaconda " .... Ponchielli Arioso, "O Promise of a Joy Divine " from " I,e Roi de I,ahore" Masseiet
SIGNOR GOGORZA
PART II
Symphony, B minor, '' Unfinished ".....Schubert
Allegro Moderato ; Andante con Moto
"Fair Ellen," Op. 24, for Chorus, Solo and Orchestra . . Max Brack
CHORAL UNION SERIES
19034904 FIFTEENTH SEASON, SEVENTH CONCERT
(No. CXXVII Complete Series)
SECOND MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Friday Afternoon, May 13, 3 o'clock
SYMPHONY CONCERT
SOLOIST
Mr. Frederic Martin, Bass
Mr. Etnil Mollenhauer, Conductor
PROGRAM
Overture, '' Magic Flute''
Aria, " In diesen Heiligen Hallen," from " Magic Flute "
MR. MARTIN
"Good Friday Spell," from "Parsifal".....
Songs with Piano
a " Feldeinsamkeit.......
b "ImHerbst"........
c "Widmung"........
MR. MARTIN
Symphony, A major, No. 7, Op. 92 .
Poco Sostenuto-Vivace; Allegretto ; Presto ; Allegro con brio
Mozart Mozart
Wagner
Brahms
Franz
Schumann
Beethoven
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1903-1904 FIFTEENTH SEASON, EIGHTH CONCERT
(No. CXXVIII Complete Scries)
THIRD MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 13, 8 o'clock
"The Dream of Gerontius," Op. 38
An Oratorio by Edward Elgar
CAST
PART I
Gerontius The Priest . Assistants Mr. Holmes Cowper Sig. Emilio de Gogorza Choral Union
PART II
Soal of Gerontius . Angel . Angel of the Agony Demons, Angelicals and Souls Mr. Holmes Cowper . Madame Louise Homer . Sig. Emilio de Gogorza Choral Union
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor

SYNOPSIS
PART I
Prelude.-(Orchestra).
Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Jesu, Maria,
-am near to death." Chorus (Assistants).--"Kyrie Bleison." Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Rouse thee,
my fainting soul." Chorus (Assistants).--"Be merciful, be
gracious; spare him, Lord." Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Dcus."
Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"I can no
more." Chorus (Assistants).--"Rescue him, 0
Lord, in this his evil hour." Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Novissima
hora est." Bass Solo (The Priest).--"Proiiciscere
anima Christiana." Chorus (Assistants).--"Go, in the name
of Angels and Archangels."
PART II
Introduction.-{Orchestra).
Tenor Solo (Soul of Gerontius).--"
went to sleep; and nozv I am refreshed." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). -"My
work is done, My task is o'er." Dialogue, Mezzo-Soprano and Tenor
(Angel and Soul).--"All hail, My
child and brother, hail!" Chorus (Demons).--"Lowborn clods
of brute earth." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"It is
the restless panting of their being." Chorus (Demons).--"The mind bold
and independent." Dialogue--Tenor and Mezzo-Soprano
(Soul and Angel).--" see not those
false spirits." Chorus (Angelicals).--"Praise to the
Holiest in the height." Tenor Solo (Soul).--"The sound is like
the rushing of the wind." Chorus (Angelicals).--"Glory to Him." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"They
sing of thy approaching agony."
Tenor Solo (Soul).--"But hark! a grand mysterious harmony."
Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"And now the threshold as tve traverse it."
Chorus (Tutti).--"Praise to the holiest in the height."
Dialogue--Mezzo-Soprano and Tenor (Angel and Soul).--"Thy judgment now is near."
Bass Solo (Angel of the Agony).-"lesu! by that shuddering dread which fell on Thee."
Chorus (Voices on Earth).--"Be merciful, be gracious, spare him, Lord."
Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"Praise to His Name."
Tenor Solo (Soul).--"Take me away."
Chorus (Souls in Purgatory).--"Lord, Thou hast been our refuge."
Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"Softly and gently, dearly-ransomed soul."
Chorus (Souls).--"Lord, Thou hast been our refuge."
Chorus (Angelicals).--"Praise to the Holiest."
CHORAL UNION SERIES
1903-J904 FIFTEENTH SEASON, NINTH CONCERT
(No. CXXIX Complete Series)
FOURTH MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Saturday Afternoon, May i4, 2.30 o'clock
MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT
SOLOIST
Miss Florence Mulford, Contralto Mr. Emil Mollenhauer, Conductor
PROGRAM
Tone-Poem, " Don Juan," Op. 20 ..
Aria, " Farewell ye Hills," from " Jeanne d'Arc"
MISS MULFORD
Richard Strauss Tschaikowsky
Suite, for String Orchestra, Op. 16 . , Paul Juon
Ballade ; Slumber Song ;
Intermezzo ; IJlegie ; Dance
Songs with Piano
a Tratime ....... Wagner
b "AToi"....... Bemberg
MISS MULFORD
Suite, " Esclarmonde,"...... Massenet

CHORAL UNION SERIES
1903-1904 FIFTEENTH SEASON, TENTH CONCERT
(No. CXXX Complete Serie.)
FIFTH MAY FESTIVAL CONCERT
Saturday Evening, May 14, 7.30 o'clock
"CARMEN"
An Opera in Four Acts by Bizet CAST
Carmen Madame Lomse Homer
Micaela Miss Anita Rio
Frasquita . Mrs. Clara Henley Bussing
Mercedes . Miss Frances Caspari
Escamillo (The Toreador) Sig. Guiseppi Campanari
Don Jose . Mr. Jacques Bars
Zuniga 1 Morales j ' Mr. Frederick Martin
Dragoons, Smugglers, Cigarette Girls, Street Boys, etc.
Choral Union Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
SYNOPSIS
Prelude.
ACT I.
Scene and Chorus. (Micaela, Morales,
Chorus.)
Chorus of Street-boys. Chorus of Cigarette Girls. (Carmen.) Habanera. (Carmen.) Scene.
Duet. (Micaela, Don Jose.) Chorus. Song and Melodrama. (Carmen, Don
Jose, Zuniga, Chorus.) Seguidilla and Duet. (Carmen, Don
Jose.) Finale. Entr'acte.
ACT II.
Gypsy Song. (Carmen, Frasquita, Mercedes.)
Chorus.
Toreador Song. (Escamillo.) Canzonetta. (Carmen, Don Jose.) Duet. (Carmen, Don Jose.) Finale. Entr'acte.
ACT III.
Sextet and Chorus. Trio. (Carmen, Frasquita, Mercedes.) Morceau d'ensemble. Air. (Micaela.) Duet. (Escamillo, Don Jose.) Finale. Entr'acte.
ACT IV.
Chorus.
March and Chorus. Duet and Final Chorus. (Carmen, Don Jose.)
DESCRIPTIVE PROGRAMS
ANALYSES BY ALBERT A. STANLEY
FIRST CONCERT
Thursday Evening, May 12, 1904
OVERTURE--FANTASIA, " Romeo and Juliet" Tschaieowsky Born at Wotkinsk, December 25, 1840; died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1896.
No more fitting opening number of a Festival could be selected than this superb orchestral composition, in which the characteristics of Tschaikowsky's art are brilliantly displayed. For a description of the circumstances under which it was written and an analysis of the work itself we quote from Mrs. Newmarch's biography as follows:
"About this time he first made the acquaintance of Balakirev, the talented leader of the nationalist school. In 1867 Balakirev had succeeded Anton Rubinstein as conductor of the St. Petersburg Musical Society, and head of the Conservatoire. He took advantage of this position to forward the interests of the rising school of Russian composers, and among these he included Tschaikovsky. But these national tendencies did not find favor with the committee of management, and he was compelled to resign both positions after a brief tenure of office. Tschaikovsky wrote a letter to the Sovrimenie Lietopis, protesting with great indignation against the injustice done to Balakirev, and this led to a friendship between the two musicians. In the spring of 1869 Balakirev moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow, and the relations grew still more intimate. To Balakirev's suggestion Tschaikovsky owed the plan of his 'Romeo and Juliet' overture. 'This is always associated in my mind,' writes M. Kashkin, 'with the memory of a lovely day in. May, with verdant forests and tall fir trees, among which we three were taking a walk. Balakirev understood, to a great extent, the nature of Tschaikovsky's genius, and knew that it was adequate to the subject suggested. Evidently he himself was taken with the subject, for he explained all the details as vividly as though the work had already been written. The plan, adapted to sonata-form, was as follows: First, an introduction of a religious character, representative of Friar Lawrence, followed by an Allegro in B minor (Balakirev suggested most of the tonalities), which was to depict the enmity between the Montagues and Capulets, the street brawl, etc. Then was to follow the love of Romeo and Juliet (second subject in D flat major), succeeded by the elaboration of both subjects. The so-called "development"--that is to say, the putting together of the various themes in various forms--passes over to what is called, in technical language, the "recapitulation"--in which the first theme (D flat major) now appears in D major, the whole ending in the death of the lovers. Balakirev spoke with such conviction that he at once kindled the ardour of the young composer, to whom such a theme was
12 Official Program Book.
extremely well suited.' Tschaikovsky returned from his holiday in September with the overture practically finished. His friends were enthusiastic over its beauties, and prophesied a great success. But an adverse fate seemed always to await the first performances of Tschaikovsky's works. 'Romeo and Juliet' was given at one of the concerts of the Musical Society on 4th March, 1870. It chanced that just at that time a student of the Conservatoire, resenting a reprimand which had been administered by the director, Nicholas Rubinstein, brought an action against him, and, owing to the absence of any legal code applying to the institution, won a technical victory. Public opinion was all in favor of Rubinstein, and when, on the evening of the 4th of March he appeared on the platform to conduct the new overture, he was received with the most frantic demonstration, while Tschaikovsky's music was completely forgotten in the excitement. The 'Romeo and Juliet' overture was afterwards published by Bote and Bock, of Berlin, in 1871, and underwent many changes before it attained its present curtailed form, as seen in a second edition of the same published in 1881."
SCENA, '' The Poor Soul Sat Pining'' and '' Ave Maria '' Verdi
" Otello," Act IV, Scenes I and II.
Born at Roncole, October 9, 1813; died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
Miss Rio
These selections from one of Verdi's latest works are illustrative of his highest ideals, and in them we may see how great is the gulf that separates the Verdi of "II Trovatore" from the great dramatist, who, after he had passed the allotted years of a man's life, displayed a vigor and originality ordinarily associated with youth. The two scenes are powerful in their portrayal of Desdemona's anguish and. her presentiment of approaching death.
As Desdemona, attended by Emilia, sits down before her looking-glass, she says to her: "I am sad tonight and weary. My mother, long ago, had a poor maid, as fair as she was faithful, and her name was Barbara. She was in love, and he she loved proved mad and did forsake her. She had a song of 'Willow.' Loose my hair, prithee, hie thee. That song this evening will not go from my mind; like that poor maid I e'en must sing it:-"The poor soul sat pining Alone and lonely, There on the lonely strand,
Sing willow, willow, willow! Upon her bosom her head inclining,
Sing heigho, sing heigho! Sing all a green willow shall be my garland."
[To Emilia.] Prithee despatch, anon will come Otello.
"The fresh stream ran by her, Where the rushes grow, And murmured all her groanings
And from her eyes the sad tears did flow
Which in her heart zvere rising. Sing willow, willoiv, willow! Sing heigho, sing heigho! Sing all a green willow shall be my garland."
First Concert. 13
"Down from the branches all the birds came Hying,
Listening to her sweet sighing.
So full of sorrow zuas her tender ditty
The stones were moved to pity."
[To Emilia, taking a ring from her finger.]
Lay by this ring and guard it.
Alas, poor Barbara! I think her story
In sad and simple wise thus did end. "For he zvas born to live in glory
And I do love him.".....
Do harken! Was that a sigh
Listen! Who is't
That knocks at this hour
Emilia.--The wind.
Desdemona.--"And I to love him and to die."
Farewell, Emilia! Mine eyes do itch this evening. Dost thou think it bodes weeping
[She embraces Emilia, who goes.] Good-night.
Desdemona, kneeling before the image of the Madonna.-Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Ah, pray for her who lies in prayer before thee!
Pray for the sinner, thou, and for the sinless.
Give thy aid to the oppressed and to the mighty-He too will need it--pray for all who implore thee.
Pray for her who is sadly sighing
As all the hopes of happiness betray her.
Oh, grant thy prayer!
Pray for us now and in, this hour of dying.
Holy Mary .....
at the hour of our death. Amen.
" DANZA DELL OR " from " La Gioconda " Ponchieu.i
Amilcare Ponchielli was born in Cremona, August 31, 1834. His first compositions were quite successful, and he was particularly fortunate in that he very early caught the favor of the Italian opera-going public. He died Jan. 16, 1886, and at that time, and for some years previous, enjoyed a position in Italy second only to Verdi, for he was generally regarded as his legitimate successor.
Modern criticism is not in accord with this judgment of the Italians, for Verdi's art was absolutely unique. Italy has yet to produce a genius of sufficient power and originality to be considered his successor.
"La Gioconda" was first brought out at La Scala, Milan, April 8, 1876. In England it was first produced at Covent Garden, May, 1883. It was first given by Abbey's famous Italian opera company in New York, and, later in the season, in Boston with Nilsson and Fursch-Madi in the leading roles.
14 Official Program Book.
ARIOSO, " O Promise of a Joy Divine " from " l,e Roi de Lahore "
Massenet
Born at Monteaux, May 12, 1842; still living.
SlGNOR GOGORZA
Jules Emile Frederic Massenet is one of the most eminent living French composers. Masterly in orchestral delineation, not devoid of dramatic insight, thoroughly equipped in the routine of all branches of composition, his brilliant style sometimes conceals a lack of ideality and originality, while a certain sensuousness of treatment often mars conceptions full of nobility and force. In spite of these defects he is one of the most striking figures in modern music, and in the selection from one of his greatest operas (produced in 1877) on this program, he is at his best.
PART II.
SYMPHONY, B minor, "Unfinished," Schubert
Born at Lichtenthal, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, November 19, 1828.
Allegro moderato; Andante con moto.
The symphony known as the "Unfinished" is one of those rare works that disarm criticism and render explanation unnecessary. The melodic beauty of the themes, the simplicity of the harmonic structure, the clearness of the instrumentation leave little room for formal analysis, and, possibly for this reason, it occupies a place in the affections of the music lover accorded to but few works. The fact that it is incomplete adds to the charm, for one can but wonder as to the exact character of the succeeding movements, had they been written. In this composition one may discover the same tendency to prolixity that is apparent in all of his orchestral works, but, after all, is it not a relief in these days of complicated scores to listen to these spontaneous, ingenuous melodies, even if they are repeated many times Where is there a more beautiful effect than that produced by the entrance of the second subject in the first movement of this symphony Is there anywhere a more beautiful touch than we find in the Andante, in the return to the principal subject Schumann said of Schubert: "He has strains for the most subtle thoughts and feelings, nay even for the events and conditions of life; and innumerable as are the shades of human thought and action, so various is his music." This judgment expresses most admirably all that one would say of Schubert, and in the two movements of this B minor Symphony we may see much of that power of expression of which Schumann speaks.
BAU.ADE, "Fair Ellen," Op. 24.....Max Bruch
Born at Cologne, January 6, 1838; still living.
Although not a composer of the very first rank, Max Bruch has contributed many important works to the literature of the orchestra, one of the favorite violin concertos (G minor) and several most interesting choral works. Among these the virile setting of one of the most stirring episodes of the Indian Mutiny possesses dignity and perennial charm, and will probably maintain itself when his more ambitious works are forgotten.
First Concert. 15
Baritone Solo.
May God in His mercy be good to us now,
What boots it to shrink from dying No bread to sustain us the long day through,
No shot to the foeman replying: But pray for rescue, and that right soon,
To come to our leaguer'd tower; Though yonder the morning be low'ring red,
There's Death in the sunset hour.
Chorus.
Lord Edward spoke; downhearted and sad,
His gallant veterans stayed; Fair Ellen leant on a cannon near,
In tartan plaid arrayed. There's e'en a spell on the bonny face,
The last look heavenward turning, And straightway like a wraith she rose
Her eyne all darksome burning.
Soprano Solo.
"O haste ye, haste to the ramparts high,
Look out i' the misty gloaming; Methought I heard in the distant far The march, the Campbells coming. Oh list to the rolling sound of drums,
The Pibroch I hear them playing, 'We come for the sake of our olden troth,' Oh list what the breezes are saying."
Baritone Solo.
Ah, Maiden, I ween thou art sore distraught,
Nought hast thou seen or heard Save deep blue sky, and yellow sand, And dele reeds by breezes stirred.
Chorus.
And the sun rose to his midday height, And the sun pass'd over the heaven,
And nearer and nearer the last hour came, And sadly the farewell was given.
Fair Ellen stood with a fixed look, And brightly her eyes were aglowing.
Soprano Solo.
"The Campbells are coming, I told you true,
I hear the bugle blowing! The Pibroch is borne adown the wind,
The tones on the breezes quiver, 'Neath the tread of battalions that hurry along Afar the plains do shiver."
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Baritone Solo.
Ah, Maiden, we listen and listen in vain,
And fast the hours are flying, The breach is wide and the storm is nigh, ,
There's Honor, Honor in dying. Farewell, then, wife and child at home!
And the Highland lochs and the heather! And now for the last time God speed the shot,
Let your swords be unsheathed together.
Chorus.
And the volley rang, and the fight was hot,
And smoke hung thickly before them, The colors droop'd, but Fair Ellen rose,
And forward right boldly she bore them.
Soprano Solo.
"Oh stay, oh stay, 'tis the pipes I hear, The sound draws nearer and nearer, Ha! see, there's a rent in the mist, And the sight grows clearer and clearer."
Chorus.
And they broke on the foe like a Highland storm,
And nearer and louder becoming, Far over the mist there sounded the march, .
The march, "the Campbells are coming."
Soprano Solo.
There's a shimmer of steel o'er the far-spreading plain,
From the squadrons for battle arrayed,
With their plaids and gay plumes in their bonnets they come, And England's flag displayed.
Soprano, Baritone and Chorus.
And the foemen fled, and they enter'd the gate,
And Ellen's voice rose to heaven: We're sav'd by the bond of our olden troth,
To God praise and honor be given!
--E. Geibel.
SECOND CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 13, 1904
OVERTURE, "Magic Flute"......Mozart
Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791.
In the early dawn of December 5, 1791, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart--the "Raphael of Music"--breathed his last. He was weighed down by apprehension for the future of those whom he left behind; the last music he heard (portions of his immortal Requiem) but intensified his morbid condition, and he died unblessed, for the priest who was called to his bedside refused him the last sacrament because he was a Freemason. Dying without the pale of the church, his funeral (on the 6th) was held in the open air. He died of malignant typhus, but neither this fact, nor the driving storm in the midst of which his remains were hurried away, can account for the strange neglect of those to whom he had been a faithful, self-sacrificing friend. Even the faithful few who followed his remains turned back at the city gate. (Stubenthor.) His wife, overcome by grief and worn out by constant attendance, was unable to leave her bed, and thus was spared the misery of seeing the mean coffin of the greatest musical genius of his age lowered into an unmarked pauper's grave by unfeeling hands. "Oh, he's only a musician!" said one of the hirelings. Of the experiences of the closing years of his life we may not speak, neither can the fortuitous circumstances and the fateful coincidences, against the suggestions of which he could summon neither moral courage nor the resources of a well-trained mind, be touched upon, but there is no doubt that his superstitious nature so reacted upon a body weakened by disease that his death was thereby materially hastened. How much the world lost by reason of his early death may be realized by listening to his last great opera, "The Magic Flute." Emanuel Schikaneder (1751-1812), a brother Freemason, brought to Mozart, on the 7th of March, 1791, the book of a fairy opera in which were incorporated many of the mysteries of Freemasonry. As Schikaneder was in financial distress, Mozart, always too generous for his own good, gladly undertook its composition. Schikaneder did not redeem his promises, and proved himself so ungrateful that Mozart, who was ever charitable in his judgments, called him "Der Lump." It was first performed on September 30, 1791, in Vienna. The house program of that date shows the name of Emanuel Schikaneder in capitals at the top, while the name of Mozart, as the composer of the music and conductor, occurs in fine print at the bottom. It was successful, but the presumptuous Schikaneder stated at the time that "it would have been more successful had not Mozart spoiled it." The first twenty-four performances brought Schikaneder over 8,000 guldens, and Mozart--nothing. Future years, however, have brought Schikaneder a few lines in musical dictionaries and Mozart--immortality. To this immortality the beautiful overture on our program has contributed not a little. It was written on the night before the performance, in the
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little summer house, which is a holy spot to those who journey to Salzburg, because there Mozart was born.
It is so direct in statement, so clear and convincing in thematic development and so compelling in its effect that no analysis is needed.
ARIA, " In diesen Heiligen Hallen," from " Magic Flute," Mozart
Mr. Martin
This noble aria, sung by Sarastro in Act II, Scene XIII, is one of those melodic gems we meet with so frequently in Mozart's operas, and is ideal in form and content. The intrinsic beauty of Mozart's melodies often diverts attention from their dramatic force. One of the most important contributing elements to the effect of this special aria, contrast, is lost when it is heard in concert form, but inasmuch as we meet in Mozart's operas no hint of the interthematic relationship so characteristic of Wagner, it does not detract materially from its effect, and only those who are intimately acquainted with the opera from which it is taken will miss the environment.
"Within this sacred dwelling
Revenge no refuge finds; Where joy each bosom swelling
And love to duty binds, Thus led by friendship's guiding hand, In peace we reach the better land.
"These lovely walls around us
Confirm but willing hearts Relieved from care that bound us,
We fear no traitrous arts, Nor mortal halting thoughts unkind Within these walls can refuge find.'
" GOOD FRIDAY SPEIX," from "Parsifal," Wagner Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883.
The poem of "Parsifal" was completed in February, 1877, and its composition begun in the Autumn. The music was finished in January, 1882, and it was produced at Bayreuth on July 26 of that year. It rounded out the work of the master, and crowned the achievements of his life. The selection on our program is taken from Act III. Full of charming melody, it is at the same time truly delineative.
After Parsifal, purified by repentance and made strong through temptations overcome, has again entered the kingdom of the Grail, and has been baptised; after Kundry, through repentance and lowly service, has regained her lost womanhood and has been redeemed; they, with Gurnemanz, prepare to journey to the Temple of the Grail that Amfortas may be made whole through the touch of the sacred spear.
"The wild flowers sing in tuneful spell: They sing of One who on the Cross Gave up his life for sinful man. The heavens, that on that awful day Were clothed in darkness, smile. The sun Takes on new fervor, and all Nature joins In adoration, love and praise. The three Responding to this wondrous song Kneel silently in thankful prayer.
Second Concert. 19
SONGS WITH PIANO.
" Feldeinsamkeit,"......Brahms
(1833-1S97)
"ImHerbst," _....Franz
(1815-1892)
"Widmung," ...... Schumann
(1810-1856) Mr. Martin
SYMPHONY, No. 7, A major, Op. 92, Beethoven Born in Bonn, December 16, 1770; died in Vienna, May 26, 1827.
Poco sostenuto-vivace; Allegretto; Presto; Allegro con brio.
The program, beginning with a characteristic overture by Mozart, ends with one_ of the greatest works of the Prophet of the Symphony, Ludwig von Beethoven. No study of the symphony is complete that does not mention the great triumvirate, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Haydn, the "Father of the Symphony," may be compared to the first division of the sonata, in which are stated the themes, for he established its principles; Mozart, to the second division, in which the themes are developed and subjected to various treatments, for he revealed its plasticity; Beethoven, to the third, in which the themes are restated with added force and intensity, for he first displayed the utmost possibilities of the form, gave to it distinction and pointed to future glories. As to the symphony on our program, many there are who claim for it absolute preeminence. It is idle to compare the "Eroica," the Fifth, the Seventh, and the Ninth, with a view to the establishment of superiority, for each is sublime in its way.
The Seventh fairly pulsates with free and untrammelled melody, and has an atmosphere of its own quite unlike that of the others. It was written in 1812, and was first performed on December 8, 1813, in the large hall of the University of Vienna, a fact not without significance in connection with the environment of the present occasion.
Beethoven conducted in person, and the performance suffered somewhat from the fact that he could scarcely hear the music his genius had created. Romberg, Spohr, Mayseder and Dragonetti played among the strings. Meyerbeer and Hummel played the drums, and Moscheles the cymbals, (not in the symphony but in other compositions on the program). At the repetition on December 12 the Allegretto was encored.
Beethoven could not brook conventionality, and nothing inorganic was retained by him, even though established by tradition and fixed by habit. So at the very outset we find that the sustained introduction--A major, common time, poco sostcnuto, which in Haydn's time was naught but a foil to the Allegro proper--is full of meaning. The alternating themes of oboe, clarinet, and horn attract the attention immediately, and no less beautiful are the episodes for woodwind. Ascending scale passages for the strings, following each other in logical sequence, lead us onward, until after what appear to be tentative attempts at the establishment of a new rhythmical design, we are plunged, although not precipitously--possibly it would be better to say gently led-into the Vivace, the first movement proper, in which gayety, naivite and poetry so
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happily combine that the December frost outside the hall on the occasion of its first performance contrasted with the suggestion of Spring within. Why not call it the "Spring Symphony" In this movement much that goes to make up the typical sonata form is "honored in the breach," but no movement in the whole symphonic literature contains more of the real spirit of the form than this. The Allegretto, A minor, 2-4 time, with its vibration from major to minor; its broad melodies for the strings standing out against the constant metric pulsations, so suggestive of the Sapphic meter; the exquisite Cantabile in A major, separating the two statements of the principal subject matter, is as perennial in its charm as the "Unfinished Symphony" of Schubert. If the first movement suggests a lovely Spring landscape, this is a fleecy cloud that casts a faint shadow over the scene but neither fully conceals the sun nor hides aught of the beauty of the hills and meadows. In the Scherzo--F major, 3-4 time, Presto--we step for the nonce into the emerald shadows of the forest and witness the dance of the woodland fairies, while the trio--D major, Assai meno presto--is full of calm and quiet. Then again the fairies, again the calm, and then, after a final repetition of the dance, the Finale. This movement--A major, 2-4 time, Allegro con brio--is full of unbridled joy. With an intensity of rhythm that hurries us along from climax to climax it finally ends with a furious rush, as though Beethoven found the idiomatic speech of music, which Richard Wagner says he created, lacking in power of utterance for such elation of spirit.
THIRD CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 13, 1904
"THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS," Op. 38, PART I.
GERONTIUS,........
THE PRIEST,........
ASSISTANTS.........
PART II.
SOUL OF GERONTIUS,......
ANGEL, . . . . '.....
ANGEL OF THE AGONY,......
DEMONS, ANGELICALS, AND SOULS, .
Albert A. Stanley, Conductor.
Elgar
Holmes CowpEr Emilio de Gogorza Chokal Union
Holmes Cowper Louise Homer Emilio de Gogorza Choral Union
EDWARD WILLIAM ELGAR Born at Broadheath (near Worcester), England, June 2, 1857; still living.
We have come to associate with the products of English composers characteristics for which Handel, more than any other great composer, seems to stand. There has always been in English music a directness of purpose, a certain blunt, sometimes rough, honesty of statement, and a contempt for any over-accentuation of the emotions that comports perfectly with the genius of the Anglo-Saxon race. Such admirable qualities are not to be despised, but, unfortunately, English composers were so fully dominated by Handel and Mendelssohn that the originality and fervor seen in Purcell's music seemed to have been forever lost, and they drifted into a conventionality that made freedom of utterance impossible. But now that Italy seems to have exhausted herself, and Germany is unproductive--despite Richard Strauss,--England seems to have entered upon a new artistic era, and in the person of Edward William Elgar we find the embodiment of a reaction against the "ways of the fathers" that is fraught with hope and laden with prophecy.
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The unusual prominence given to Elgar in the programs of our great concert institutes, in reviews and in musical journals, would seem to indicate that in him we have a composer of more than ordinary significance, one of real originality.
Whether the superlative admiration expressed by some will be justified by the verdict of time we may not determine, but there can be no doubt--in view of the fact that he seems to be an artistic storm center--that he really has something to say.
His artistic equipment is superb, and, when we consider that he is almost entirely self-taught, the mastery he displays in every direction---especially in his control of the resources of the orchestra, in which he is only equalled by Richard Strauss--is nothing short of marvelous. His career seems to emphasize ultra-modern art not as the work of individual genius alone, but as an expression of the tremendous energy and complex forces conditioning modern life--and in the highest sense cosmopolitan. This view seems to be enforced by the fact that the art of the two composers to whom we have referred--while it seems to be a real necessity of expression and permeated by this Zeitgeist--has technically but comparatively little in common. The query so often put as to the permanence of this movement cannot be definitely answered, but if the foregoing suggestions are correct, there can be no doubt of its sincerity--and sincerity is a condition of enduring art. His life has been singularly lacking in incident, quite unlike the career of his younger contemporary, Richard Strauss, but his works display a versatility, a fine sense of values, and an intellectual appreciation, indicative of a wide acquaintance with literature, art, and life. None but a man to whom the highest concepts of life appeal could have written such a work as "The Dream of Gerontius," "the greatest choral work of the nineteenth century--not excepting Brahm's 'Requiem'."
Elgar is a devout Roman Catholic. Almost ascetic in his devotion to the teachings of the Mother Church, in "Gerontius" he has blazed a new path. Attracted by subjects often out of touch with the modern point of view, he clothes these subjects in ultra-modern dress, and, more than any other, seems to have solved the problem of the relation of dramatic form to religious content. Living in the Malvern Hills, it was not strange that he should have given us his noble "Caractacus," which reflects England's glory and tells the story of one of the noblest of her early heroes. It may be that in the partial seclusion of his environment we may see the reason for his present tendencies, so admirably illustrated in the "Dream of Gerontius" and his latest work, "The Apostles." Whether, as Ernest Newman fears, this absorption in mediaeval thought and early Christian history will react unfavorably on his work, by substituting introspection for action, and mysticism for clear cut realistic statement, time alone will tell. At all events, we must rejoice that Cardinal Newman's poem inspired him to write such a work as the one now under consideration.
Space forbids an extended analysis of the work, but certain characteristics must be pointed out, in, the interest of such an appreciation of the significance of the subject, as the nobility of the poetry, and the ultra-modern dramatic texture of the virile, fervid, and beautiful musical setting demand. First of all stress must be laid upon the fact, that it is organic in structure. It is so closely knit together by a complicated system of typical motives, in some instances expanded into broad melodies; it is so compact in form, so entirely unlike the typical oratorio, with its solos, choruses and orchestral episodes standing unrelated side by side, that it can not come under any conventional definition of the form. It is the poem set to music in such a manner as to emphasize the unity of the idea rather than to display the variety of its utterance in single numbers, or, in other words, it is a religious work composed along the musico-dramatic lines first laid down by Richard Wagner. All the musical factors exist in
Third Concert. 23
combination, and no one part is subordinated to another for the sake of specific, purely musical effects. The orchestra is delineative, and fills with subtle light and shade the more mystical parts, while in the intense dramatic episodes it is all that Wagner proclaimed it to be, both in his writings and in his practice.
Daring in, conception,--the choice of subject enforces this--powerful, logical and original in the portrayal of scenes generally more effective when left to the imagination, his touch is tender when he gives such pictures as the death of Gerontius, and the 12-voiced chorus "Go on thy course," which concludes Part I. When, in Part II, the Soul of Gerontius is led by an Angel past the place where he hears the "sour and uncouth dissonances" of the Demons; and when, in response to his query, "Shall I see my dearest Master' come the ethereal harmonies of the Chorus of Angelicals, "Praise to the Holiest," which develops into a chorus in which climax succeeds climax in soul-compelling sequence, the composer rises to greatness. The queries of the Soul and the answers of the Angels are touching in their humanity, and the music often recalls the mysticism of Wagner's "Parsifal." Then the Judgment, the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for Souls "who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee"; the beautiful Semi-Chorus of Voices on Earth, who sing "Spare him, Lord," when he goes before his Judge, and the subdued glory of the ending, for, as though awed by the awful mystery of it all, the three choruses sing the final Amens--pianissimo,-ending in a lonjj sustained unison which vanishes as we listen.
Having now gained a general impression of the scope of the work, it may be helpful to examine details somewhat closely. The very first motive of the prelude, D-minor, Lento, common time, given by clarionets, bassoons and violas, is prophetic of the pathetic aspects of the text. Elgar has marked it mistico. As it is developed the English horn contributes fitting color. At the completion of this theme, a sustained chord of D-major, introduces another motive of dramatic texture, which, alternating with a broad choral-like theme, leads into a wonderfully beautiful section, con molto espressivo, 3-4 time. This broadens into passionate utterance, only to die away in harmonies which are heard later as the soul of Gerontius takes its flight. A sustained motive, twice repeated, leads into a triumphant burst for full orchestra through which rings out the choral, which is here so important a factor that we must seek its fuller meaning in the text, ''Lover of Souls I Look to Thee!" When first heard the theme may be associated with the words "Jesu have mercy; Mary pray for me!" This strong, decisive movement gives way to a repetition of the theme which led up to it, after which comes a fine treatment of the theme of the chorus, "Go forth in the name of Patriarchs and Prophets." With an echo of No. 3, and a repetition of the initial motive, the prelude, through a suggestive motive, merges into the introductory recitative for Gerontius, "Jesu Maria.'' This motive is constantly in evidence in this whole scene, and by reason of its plasticity stands for contrasting phases of thought. After the words "And Thou art calling me" we hear a motive which is full of significan.ee, especially as used later in the development of the chorus, "Be merciful." The chromatic motive at the words "Not by the token of this failing breath" is delineative and suggestive. The choral theme is heard, and through this and other masterly motives, some new, and some suggested by the developments of the scene, we realize the feelings of Gerontius as he faces death, and much of the mystery of dying is brought home to us as we listen. The scene is interrupted by a lovely Kyrie, mediaeval in spirit, although the harmonies occasionally betray modern usage--not to the disadvantage of the effect, and, strangely enough, with no tinge of incongruity--then, after a short recitative, "Rouse thee and play the man," introduced by the rhythmic pulse of the basses in the orchestra, comes the chorus, "Be merciful," whose principal theme has in it much of
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the flavor of "Parsifal." And why not Suffering is the message of each. In this chorus the first motive mentioned in connection with the opening utterance of Geron-tius is developed into a broad and expressive melody by the basses, "By the birth." These words have just been given an infinitely tender cantabile motive by the sopranos. This chorus is followed by a long scene, for Gerontius, in which all the varied and subtle phases of the poem are brought out in a score eloquent with the latter-day eloquence of the orchestra. In this we have premonitions of the diabolical Chorus of Demons in Part II. Then the chorus, "Rescue him," divided into two parts, by responses between the semi-chorus, "Noe from the waters in, a saving home," and the amens of the chorus, after which the death of Gerontius, "Novissima hora est . and I fain would sleep . . into thy hands--"
Part I ends with the proclamation of the Priest, Proiiciscere, etc., and the final chorus, in the second section of which the voices seem poised in air, such is the freedom with which they are used.
Part II gives us, in the opening measures of the introduction, an impression of that peace of which the Soul of Gerontius speaks, "How still it is--I hear no more the busy beat of time." A wonderful conception of the waking of a soul now ensues. Closely bound together, unity secured by the frequent introduction of motives already heard, the score is truly delineative and expressive. At the words, "Another marvel, some one has me fast within his ample palm," we hear the motive that accompanies the Angel, throughout this wonderful portrayal of the after life of a soul released from the body and hastening to its Judge. Now after the calm and comfort of the assurance of the Angel, "Thou hast forestalled the agony," and the duo, "Now that the hour is come I can forward look with serenest joy," comes a "fierce hubbub." The Chorus of Demons, terrible in its depiction of the "hideous purring," "the incessant pacing to and fro," "the sullen howl of spirits who assemble by the judgment seat and gather souls for hell," is now heard by Gerontius, who says to the Angel, "I see not these false spirits, shall I see my dearest Master, when I reach His throne" "Yes for one moment thou shalt see thy Lord!" Then as the "sour dissonances" are heard no more, the glory of the Celestial Choir steals upon his ear; ever gaining in intensity, piling climax on climax it finally ends in a long sustained chord. This chorus is symphonic in breadth of development, and with the short explanatory solos by the Angel, and illustrative orchestral episodes, comprises nearly one-third of the entire work. This is the climax judged by ordinary standards, and the most difficult artistic problem of the composition is now faced. "Thy judgment now is near," proclaims the Angel. Then Gerontius hears "the voices that on earth, around his bed, chant the 'Subvenite' with the priest." Then the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for the soul that now is to go before the Judge. The Voices on Earth sing, "Spare him Lord." Then the one glance at the glory of God, a most intense moment, with its one tremendous climax, succeeded immediately by a pianissimo, and the cry of Gerontius, "Take me away, and in the lowest depths there let me lie!" The Souls in Purgatory sing, "Lord, Thou hast been our refuge." The Angel, in a broad and eloquent melody, comforts the Soul: "Softly and gently, dearly ransomed soul; in my most loving arms I now enfold thee. And o'er the peaceful waters as they roll I poise thee, and I lower thee and hold thee. Thou shalt pass the night here; and I will come and wake thee on the morrow; farewell! Be brave and patient, brother dear." "Praise to the Holiest in the height, Amen." This by the chorus in threefold utterance. We see now that the glory of the song before the throne was but incidental. It is in this quiet ending--this suggestion of infinite peace and rest eternal that we see the real climax.
Third Concert. 25
Part I.
Gerontius.--Jesu, Maria--I am near to
death, And Thou art calling me; I know
it now. Not by the token of this faltering
breath. This chill at heart, this dampness
on my brow,-(Jesu, have mercy! Mary, pray for
me!)
'Tis this new feeling, never felt before,
(Be with me, Lord, in my extremity!) That I am going, that I am no more. 'Tis this strange innermost abandonment,
(Lover of souls! Great God! I _ look to Thee,)
This emptying out of each constituent And natural force, by which I came
to be.
Pray for me, O my friends; a visitant Is knocking his dire summons at
my door, The like of whom, to scare me and to
daunt,
Has never, never come to me before;
So pray for me, my friends, who have
not strength to pray. Assistants.--Kyrie elei'son, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. Holy Mary, pray for him. All holy Angels, pray for him. Choirs of the righteous, pray for him.
All Apostles, all Evangelists, pray for
him. All holy Disciples of the Lord, pray
for him.
All holy Innocents, pray for him. All holy Martyrs, all holy Confessors, All holy Hermits, all holy Virgins, All ye Saints of God, pray for him. Gerontius.--Rouse thee, my fainting
soul, and play the man; And through such waning span Of life and thought as still has to be
trod,
Prepare to meet thy God. And while the storm of that bewilderment
Is for a season spent, And, ere afresh the ruin on me fall,
Use well the interval. Assistants.--Be merciful, be gracious;
spare him, Lord.
Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him.
From the sins that are past; From Thy frown and Thine ire; From the perils of dying; From any complying With sin, or denying His God, or relying
On self, at the last; From the nethermost fire;
From all that is evil;
From power of the devil;
Thy servant deliver,
For once and for ever.
By Thy birth, and by Thy Cross,
Rescue him from endless loss;
By Thy death and burial,
Save him from a final fall;
By Thy rising from the tomb, By Thy mounting up above, By the Spirit's gracious love,
Save him in the day of doom. rfiRONTius.--Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De profundis oro te, Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce rnihi, Domine. Firmly I believe and truly
God is Three, and God is One; And I next acknowledge duly
Manhood taken by the Son. And I trust and hope most fully
In that Manhood crucified; And each thought and deed unruly
Do to death, as He has died. Simply to His grace and wholly
Light and life and strength belong, And I love, supremely, solely,
Him, the holv, Him the strong. Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De profundis oro te, Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce mihi, Domine. And I hold in veneration,
For the love of Him alone, Holy Church, as His creation,
And her teachings, as His own. And I take with joy whatever
Now besets me, pain or fear, And with a strong will I sever
All the ties which bind me here. Adoration aye be given,
With and through the angelic
host, To the God of earth and heaven,
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De profundis oro te, Miserere Judex meus,
Mortis in discrimine. I can no more: for now it comes again' That sense of ruin, which is worse
than pain. That masterful negation and collapse
26 Official Program Book.
Of all that makes me man.
And, crueller still, A fierce and restless fright begins to
fill The mansion of my soul. And, worse
and worse,
Some bodily form of ill Floats on the wind, with many a loathsome curse Tainting the hallowed air, and laughs,
and flaps
Its hideous wings, And makes me wild with horror and
dismay. O Jesu, help! pray for me, Mary,
pray! Some Angel, Jesu ! such as came to
Thee
In Thine own agony. Mary, pray for me. Joseph, pray for
me.
Mary, pray for me. Assistants.--Rescue him, O Lord, in
this his evil hour, As of old so many by Thy gracious
power:- Noe from the waters in a saving
home; (Amen.)
Job from all his multiform and fell
distress; (Amen.)
Moses from the land of bondage and
despair; (Amen.)
David from Golia and the wrath of
Saul; (Amen.)
--So, to show Thy power, Rescue this Thy servant in his evil
hour. Gerontius.'--Novissima hora est; and I
fain would sleep, The pain has wearied me. Into
Thy hands,
O Lord, into Thy hands. The Priest and Assistants:--Profi-ciscere, anima Christiana, de hoc mundo! Go forth upon thy journey, Christian
soul! Go from this world! Go, in the Name
of God
The Omnipotent Father, who created thee!
Go, in the Name of Jesus Christ, our
Lord, Son of the living God, who bled for
thee! Go, in the Name of the Holy Spirit,
who Hath been poured out on thee! Go in
the name Of Angels and Archangels; in the
name Of Thrones and Dominations; in the
name Of Princedoms and of Powers; and '
in the name
Of Cherubim and Seraphim, go forth! Go, in the name of Patriarchs and
Prophets;
And of Apostles and Evangelists, Of Martyrs and Confessors; in the
name Of holy Monks and Hermits; in the
name Of holy Virgins; and all Saints of
God, Both men and women, go! Go on thy
course; And may thy place to-day be found in
peace, And may thy dwelling be the Holy
Mount Of Sion :--through the Same, through
Christ our Lord.
Part II.
Soul of Gerontius.--I went to sleep;
and now I am refreshed, A strange refreshment: for I feel in
me
An inexpressive lightness, and a sense Of freedom, as I were at length myself, And ne'er had been before. How still
it is!
I hear no more the busy beat of time, No, nor my fluttering breath, nor
struggling pulse; Nor does one moment differ from the
next.
This silence pours a solitariness Into the very essence of my soul; And the deep rest, so soothing and so
sweet, Hath something too of sternness and
of pain.
Another marvel: someone has me
fast
Within his ample palm; A uniform
Third Concert. 27
And gentle pressure tells me I am not Self-moving, but borne forward on
my way. And hark! I hear a singing: yet in
sooth
I cannot of that music rightly say Whether I hear, or touch, or taste the
tones.
Oh, what a heart-subduing melody! Angel.--My work is done, My task is o'er, And so I come, Taking it home, For the crown is won,
Alleluia, For evermore. My Father gave In charge to me
This child of earth E'en from its birth, To serve and save,
Alleluia,
And saved is he. This child of clay To me was given, To rear and train By sorrow and pain In the narrow way,
Alleluia, From earth to heaven.
Soul.--It is a member of that family Of wondrous beings, who, ere the
worlds were made, Millions of ages back, have stood
around The throne of God.
I will address him.
Mighty one, my Lord,
My Guardian Spirit, all hail!
Angel.--All hail, my child! My child and brother, hail! what
wouldst thou Soul.--I would have nothing but to
speak with thee For speaking's sake. I wish to hold
with thee Conscious communion; though I fain
would know A maze of things, were it but meet to
ask, And not a curiousness.
Angel.--You cannot now Cherish a wish which ought not to be
wished. Soul.--Then I will speak. I ever had
believed
That on the moment when the struggling soul Quitted its mortal case, forthwith it
fell
Under the awful presence of its God,
There to be judged and sent to its own place.
What lets me now from going to my
Lord ngel.--Thou art not let; but with extremest speed
Art hurrying to the Just and Holy Judge.
Sour.--Dear Angel, say,
Why have I now no fear at meeting Him
Along my earthly life, the thought of death
And judgment was to me most terrible.
Angel.---It is because Then thou didst fear, that now thou
dost not fear. Thou hast forestalled the agony, and
so For thee the bitterness of death is
passed.
Also, because already in thy soul The judgment is begun.
@@@@A presage falls upon thee, as a ray Straight from the Judge, expressive
of thy lot.
That calm and joy uprising in thy soul Is first-born to thee of thy recompense,
And heaven begun. Soul.--Now that the hour is come, my
fear is fled;
And at this balance of my destiny, Now close upon me, I can forward
look With a serenest joy.
@@@@But hark! upon my sense Comes a fierce hubbub, which would
make me fear Could I be frighted. Angel.--We are now arrived
Close on the judgment-court; that
sullen howl Is from the demons who assemble
there,
Hungry and wild, to claim their property, And gather their souls for hell. Hist
to their cry. Soul.--How sour and how uncouth a
dissonance!
Demons.--Low-born clods Of brute earth,
They aspire To become gods,
28 Official Program Book.
By a new birth, And an extra grace, And a score of merits,
As if aught Could stand in place
Of the high thought, And the glance of fire Of the great spirits, The powers blest, The lords by right, The primal owners,
Of the proud dwelling And realm of light,-Dispossessed, Aside thrust,
Chucked down, By the sheer might Of a despot's will,
Of a tyrant's frown, Who after expelling Their hosts, gave, Triumphant still, And still unjust,
Each forfeit crown To psalm-droners, And canting groaners,
To every slave, And pious cheat,
And crawling knave, Who licked the dust Under his feet. Angel.--It is. the restless panting of
their being;
Like beasts of prey, who, caged within their bars, In a deep hideous purring have their
life,
And an incessant pacing to and fro. Demons.--The mind bold
And independent,
The purpose free, So we are told, Must not think To have the ascendant.
What's a saint One whose breath
Doth the air taint Before his death;
A bundle of bones, Which fools adore,
Ha! ha!
When life is o'er. Virtue and vice, A knave's pretence. 'Tis all the same; Ha! ha!
Dread of hell-fire, Of the venomous flame,
A coward's plea. Give him his price,
Saint though he be,
Ha! ha! From shrewd good
sense
He'll slave for hire; Ha! ha!
And does but aspire To the heaven, above With sordid aim, And not from love.
Ha! ha! Soul.--I see not those false spirits; shall
I see
My dearest Master, When I reach His throne
Angel.--Yes,--for one moment thou
shalt'see thy Lord.
One moment; but thou knowest not,
my child, What thou dost ask; the sight of the
Most Fair Will gladden thee, but it will pierce
thee too. Soul.--Thou speakest darkly, Angel!
and an awe
Falls on me, and a fear lest I be rash. Angel.--There was a mortal, who is
now above In. the mid glory: he, when near to
die, Was given Communion with the Cru-.
cified,-Such, that the Master's very wounds
were stamped
Upon his flesh; and, from the agony Which thrilled through body and soul
in that embrace,
Learn that the flame of the Everlasting Love
Doth burn ere it transform. Choir of Angelicals.--Praise to the
Holiest in the Height, And in the depth be praise: Angel.-Hark to those sounds ! They come of tender beings angelical, Least and most childlike of the sons
of God.
Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways ! To us His elder race He gave
To battle and to win, Without the chastisement of pain,
Without the soil of sin. The younger son He willed to be
A marvel in His birth: Spirit and flesh His parents were; His home was heaven and earth.
Third Concert. 29
The Eternal blessed His child, and
armed,
And sent Him hence afar, To serve as champion in the field
Of elemental war. To be His Viceroy in the world
Of matter, and of sense; Upon the frontier, towards the foe,
A resolute defence. Angel.--We now have passed the gate,
an.d are within
The House of Judgment. Soul.--The sound is like the rushing of
the wind-The summer wind--among the lofty
pines.
Choir of Angelicals.--Glory to Him,
who evermore By truth and justice reigns; Who tears the soul from put its case,
And burns away its stains! Angel.--They sing of thy approaching
agony, Which thou so eagerly didst question
of. Soul.--My soul is in my hand: I have
no fear,But hark! a grand mysterious harmony: It floods me, like the deep and solemn
sound Of many waters.
Angel.--And now the threshold, as we
traverse it,
Utters aloud its glad responsive chant. Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! O loving wisdom of our God!
When all was sin, and shame, A second Adam to the fight
And to the rescue came. O wisest love! that flesh and blood
Which did in Adam fail, Should strive afresh against the foe,
Should strive and should prevail; And that a higher gift than grace
Should flesh and blood refine, God's Presence and His very Self,
And Essence all divine. O generous love! that He who smote
In man for man the foe, The double agony in man
For man should undergo; And in the garden secretly, And on the cross on high,
Should teach His brethren and inspire
To suffer and to die. Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! Angel.--Thy judgment now is near, for
we are come
Into the veiled presence of our God. Soul.--I hear the voices that I left on
earth. Angel.--It is the voice of friends
around thy bed, Who say the "Subvenite" with the
priest. Hither the echoes come; before the
Throne
Stands the great Angel of the Agony, The same who strengthened Him,
what time He knelt Lone in the garden shade, bedewed
with blood. That Angel best can plead with Him
for all Tormented souls, the dying and the
dead.
Angel of the Agony.--Jesu! by that shuddering dread which fell on Thee;
Jesu ! by that cold dismay which sickened Thee; Jesu! by that pang of heart which
thrilled in Thee; Jesu! by that mount of sins which
crippled Thee; Jesu! by that sense of guilt which
stifled Thee; Jesu ! by that innocence which girdled
Thee; Jesu! by that sanctity which reigned
in Thee; Jesu! by that Godhead which was one
with Thee; Jesu! spare these souls which are so
dear to Thee,
Souls, who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee; Hasten, Lord, their hour, and bid
them come to Thee, To that glorious Home, where they
shall ever gaze on thee. Soul.--I go before my Judge. Voices on Earth.--Be merciful, be gracious; spare him, Lord. Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him. Angel.-Praise to His Name!
O happy, suffering soul! for it is safe, Consumed, yet quickened, by the glance of God.
3d Official Program Book.
Soul.--Take me away, and in. the lowest deep
There let me be,
And there in hope the lone night-watches keep,
Told out for me.
There, motionless and happy in my pain,
Lone, not forlorn,-There will I sing my sad perpetual strain,
Until the morn,
There will I sing, and soothe my stricken breast,
Which ne'er can cease To throb, and pine, and languish, till possesst
Of its Sole Peace.
There will I sing my absent Lord and Love:-Take me away,
That sooner I may rise, and go above, And see Him in the truth of everlasting day.
Souls in Purgatory.--Lord, Thou hast been our refuge: in every generation;
Before the hills were born, and the world was: from age to age Thou art God.
Bring us not, Lord, very low: for Thou hast said, Come back again, ye sons of Adam.
Come back, O Lord! how long: and
be entreated for Thy servants.
Angel.--Softly and gently, dearly-ransomed soul,
In my most loving arms I now enfold thee, And, o'er the penal waters, as they
roll, I poise thee, and I lower thee, and
hold thee.
And carefully I dip thee in the lake, And thou, without a sob or a resistance,
Dost through the flood thy rapid passage take, Sinking deeper, deeper, into the dim
distance. Angels, to whom the willing task is
given, Shall tend, and nurse, and lull thee,
as thou liest; And Masses on the earth, and prayers
in heaven, Shall aid thee at the Throne of the
Most Highest. Farewell, but not for ever! brother
dear, Be brave and patient on thy bed of
sorrow; Swiftly shall pass thy night of trial
here, And I will come and wake thee on
the morrow. Souls.--Lord, Thou hast been our
refuge, &c. Amen.
Choir of Angelicals.--Praise to the Holiest, &c. Amen.
Cardinal Newman.
FOURTH CONCERT
Saturday Afternoon, May 14
TONS POKM, Op. 20, " Don Juan " Richard Strauss Born in Munich, June n, 1864; still living.
Richard Strauss is to many the artistic problem of the hour. That his art is vital none can deny; that he seeks new paths is conceded. Whether he is justified in so doing is the question that has been asked ever since he sounded a new note in his great orchestral works--of which the one on our program is by no means the least. Whatever one think of works like "Don Quixote" and "Helden-leben," "Don Juan" and "Tod und Verklaerung" powerfully portray all that is implied in their titles. That they have titles---'and that an explanation is necessary if one is to arrive at an. understanding of the specific meaning of these works--places them distinctly in that class of "program music" developed by the one who seems to have been his inspiration, Franz Liszt. The present work was performed for the first time at Weimar in and is based on Lenau's poem, which we quote as follows:-0 magic realm, illimited, eternal,
Of gloried woman,--loveliness supernal! Pain would I, in the storm of stressful bliss, Expire upon you the last one's lingering kiss! Through every realm, O friend, would wing my flight, Wherever Beauty blooms, kneel down to each, And--if for one brief moment, win delight!

1 flee from surfeit and from rapture's cloy, Keep fresh for Beauty's service and employ, Grieving the One, that All I may enjoy.
The fragrance from one lip to-day is breath of spring:
The dungeon's gloom perchance to-morrow's luck may bring.
When with the new love won I sweetly wander,
No bliss is ours upfurbish'd and regilded;
A different love has This to That one yonder,-Not up from ruins be my temples builded.

Yea, Love life is, and ever must be new, Cannot be changed or turned in new direction; It cannot but there expire--here resurrection; And, if 'tis real, it nothing knows of rue! Each Beauty in the world is sole, unique: So must the Love be that would Beauty seek! So long as youth lives on with pulse afire, Out to the chase! To victories new aspire!
32 Official Program Book.
It was a wond'rous lovely storm that drove me: Now it is o'er; and calm all round, above me; Sheer dead is every wish; all hopes o'ershrouded,-'Twas perhaps a flash from heaven that so descended, Whose deadly stroke left me with powers ended, And all the world, so bright before, o'erclouded; And yet p'raps not! Exhausted is the fuel; And on the hearth the cold is fiercely cruel.
(English Version by John P. Jackson.)
ARIA, "Farewell Ye Hills," from "Joan of Arc," Tschaikowsky
Miss Mulford
God's will be done!
Joan must yield obedience to the heavenly mandate! Yet why this fear arising in my breast, That breaks my heart and fills my soul with anguish Farewell ye hills, and all ye fertile valleys, Ye lovely peaceful plains, a long farewell. Joan no more among your shades will linger, The hour has come, the hour for her to say,
Farewell!
Ye meadows fair, ye trees which I have cherished, Ah! when I am gone, your flowers will open still! My grotto cool, my brooklet swiftly flowing, From you I pass, I never more may see you; Joan departs, her life with you is ended. Ye quiet scenes where peaceful pleasures blended, No more shall I your pleasant ways behold, My scattered flocks will wander undefended: The shepherdess is driv'n. to leave her fold. For other flocks must now by her be tended, When murd'rous war's tremendous plains unfold. 'Tis thus the voice of God to me hath spoken, No low ambition tempts me by her token. Madonna! To thee my heart is wholly open, 'Tis filled with sorrow, it throbs with anguish. Farewell forever more!
SUITE, for String Orchestra, Op. 16, .... Paul Juon
Ballade: Slumber Song; Intermezzo; ElEgie: Dance.
SONGS WITH PIANO,
a. "Traume," ------Wagner
(1813-1883)
b. "AToi," -.---.Bemberg
(1861------)
Miss Mulford
SUITE, " Esclarmonde,".....Massenet
"Esclarmonde" was produced in 1889. It is a fairy opera, and, like all the works of that genre, rises in its action above all mundane restrictions, and utterly disregards the dramatic unities.
FIFTH CONCERT
Saturday Evening May 14,
" CARMEN," Opera in Four Acts, -----Bizet
CAST.
CARMEN,.........Louise Homer
MICAELA, .......¦. Anita Rio
FRASQUITA,........Clara Henley Bussing
MERCEDES,........Frances Caspari
ESCAMILLO (The. Toreador),.....Giuseppi Campanari
DON JOSE,.........Jacques Bars
ZUNIGA,......... }
MORALES,......... Frederic Martin
Dragoons, Smugglers, Cigarette girls, Street boys, etc., Choral Union
Albert A. Stanley, Conductor.
GEORGES ALEXANDRE CESAR LEOPOLD BIZET Born in Paris, October 25, 1838; died at Bougival, June 3, 1875.
The scene of Carmen, the one successful dramatic work of the composer, who was one of the first French composers to discover power in fields other than the dramatic, is laid in Spain. It has no positive ethical virtues--indeed, the leading character, the flippant, careless, heartless Carmen,cita is the negation of all that we hold dear,--but it has a distinct musical quality of its own, and has become a great favorite, especially with those who do not probe the sources of their enjoyment. The plot revolves around two leading characters, one of whom, by her cruelty and flippancy, forfeits our sympathy; the other, possessing all the dash and bravado of the typical toreador, but no distinct characteristics other than a willingness to accept the intense adoration paid to brawn, and athletic skill at all times and in all countries, arouses but passing admiration. The real heart of the plot is bound up in Don Jose and the faithful and pure Micaela. The first, fickle in love and blinded by the allurements of Carmencita, casts to one side his honor, and later, in a fit of jealous rage, kills Carmen and makes away with himself; the second, attempts to hold her lover by revealing the strength of her love, and by sacrifice of self. Bizet showed himself possessed of true artistic intuition by giving to these characters the most beautiful music in his score, while to Carmen and Escamillo he gave music captivating through its pictorial quality, but appealing to the sensibilities through musical means no higher than the motives actuating the actions of these dramatic personages. There is a peculiar charm to the
34 Official Program Book.
Spanish rhythms associated with their dances, and there must be a touch of the "purely human" in the Toreador's air, for it has made its way over the entire world, and many who know neither Bizet nor "Carmen" go into ecstasies over this melody, that barely escapes vulgarity. The episodes of the smugglers, the scene in the tavern, the brilliant march to the bull-ring, are all secondary to the four principal characters. The score abounds in brilliant music, and is not without tender touches. Gorgeous, well-considered orchestration we find in abundance, but in the last analysis "Carmen" is of interest as a type, and for that reason it has been placed on our program. It is not as idyllic as "Faust," and through it all we seem to be conscious of the odor of the cigarette--and no one has yet claimed for that any inspiration toward high living. It is spectacular, but not to the extent to which Meyerbeer carried that element in "Roberto," in which nuns forsook their graves, threw off their shrouds and danced, to the great delight of the French youth, who approved of the ballet in the abstract and adored it in the concrete. It is intense in its dramatic delineation of character, but not psychological in analysis, for neither in. Carmen, the Toreador nor in Don Jose is aught that is not grasped as soon as we know them, and in none, save to a certain extent in Don Jose, is there any conflict between good and evil. They have nothing to conceal and seem to glory in their lack of moral fibre. Yet with all these defects, apparent to any one who prefers nobility of thought and heroic action to the exploitation of the "seamy side" of life, "Carmen" is one of the greatest operas of the French school, and in concert form the objectionable features are so concealed as not to disturb the pleasure the music cannot fail to bring to all who are not hampered by non-catholicity, and who "in loving are willing to forgive."
ACT I.
OVERTURE.
A square in Sevilla. On the right, the door of the tobacco factory. At the back, a rude bridge. On the left, a guard-house. When the curtain rises, Corporal Morales and the soldiers are discovered, grouped in front of the guard-house. People coming and going on the square. Soldiers.--What a bustling, What a
hustling,
Everywhere on the square:-O, what a sight these people are! Morales.--At the door of the guardhouse lazing, To kill time we try, While smoking, joking, we're gazing At the passers-by. What a bustling, what a hustling, Everywhere 6n the square:-O, what a sight these people are!
{Enter Micaela.) Morales.--But see that pretty maiden
waiting,
And looking so shyly this way; See there! see there! she is turning,
hesitating.
Soldiers.--Off to her aid without delay!
Morales{to Micaela, gallantly).--Fair
one, what are you seeking
MicaEla (with simplicity).--I I seek
a corporal here. Morales.--I am he, I'm sure! Micaela.--You are not he of whom I'm
speaking:
Don Jose. Is he known to you Morales.--Don Jose Why, we all
know him, too. Micaela (animatedly).--Indeed! Is he
with the soldiers I see Morales.--No, he is not a member of
our company. Micaela (with disappointment).--Oh,
then he is not here Morales.--No, pretty maiden, no, he is
not here,
But very soon he will appear. For you must know, His guard will soon relieve us, And we must go, However it may grieve us. But while waiting for him, pray, Pretty darling, come this way; If you will but be so kind Within a seat you will find. Micaela.--Within Oh no, oh no!
Thank you, Sir, that never would do! Morales.--Have no fear of us, my dear, For I pledge my honor here. We will take the best of care Of you as long as you are there! Micaela.--I am sure you will, for the rest,
Fifth Concert. 35
I will return, that will be best; I will return when other guards relieve you, And you must go, however it may
grieve you. (The soldiers surround Micaela,
zvho tries to evade them.) Soldiers.--Do not sav no!
For other guards relieve us, And we must go,
However it may grieve us! Micaela.--No, no! So good-bye! I
really must go! Morales.--The bird is flown; No use to moan! Let us do as we did before, And watch the people pass our door. Chorus of Street-boys. (A military march is heard at a distance. )
(Bugle-call on stage. The soldiers form in line in front of the guardhouse.)
(The relief appears; first a bugler and fifer, then a crowd of street-boys. Following the latter, Lieutenant Zuniga and Corporal Don Jose, then the dragoons. During the street-boys' Chorus, the relief forms in front of the guard going off duty.) Street-boys.--With the guard on duty
going,
Marching onward, here we are!
Sound, trumpets, merrily blowing!
Ta ra ta ta ta ra ta ta.
On we tramp, alert and ready,
Like young soldiers every one;
Heads up and footfall steady,
Left, right, we're marching on!
See how straight our shoulders are,
Ev'ry breast is swelled with pride,
Our arms all regular-Hanging down on either side.
With the guard on duty going,
Marching onward, here we are!
Sound, trumpets, merrily blowing,
Ta ra ta ta ta ra ta ta. Morales.--Just before you came, there addresses
Me here a charming girl, to ask if you were here.
Blue her gown, and woven her tresses. Don Jose.--That is surely Micaela!
(Exuent guard going off duty-Street-boys march off behind bugler and in front of the retiring guard, in the same manner as they followed those of the relief.) Zunica.--Is it here that the girls are making cigarettes,
In the building over the way there
Don Jose.--Indeed, Captain, it is, and
every one admits That there never were' girls bolder
than those that stay there. Zuniga.--Are their faces not worth
your mention Don Jose.--Captain, I vow I cannot
tell; That is a thing to which I never pay
attention. Zuniga.--Where your thoughts are, my
friend,
I know right well: One fair maid your heart all posesses, And her name is Micaela; "Blue her gown, and woven her
tresses:"
You give me no answer, aha! Don Jose.--I reply, it is true, I reply
that I love her!
When the cigarette girls appear, You will see them too, here they are! Now see what charms you can discover !
{Don Jose, sits down and pays no attention to the shifting scenes.) {Enter Workingmen.) Workingmen.--'Tis the noon-day bell,
now we workmen gather, Waiting till the gay throng of girls
appears; We shall follow you when you all
come hither;
Whisp'ring words of love in your willing ears!
{Enter Cigarette-girls, smoking cigarettes, and slowing descending to the stage.)
Here they are! how boldly they stare, Saucy coquettes!
While they smoke with jauntiest air Their cigarettes. Cigarette-Girls.--See how the smoke
lightly flies,
While ascending, while ascending Up to the skies
In a fragrant cloud 'tis blending; To the head it mounts as well, As it rises, 'Tis like a spell, That our senses all surprises! What are the sighs that fond lovers
heave
What are the vows they'd us believe Only smoke! Yes, only smoke! Workingmen.--But why do we not see la Carmencita!
{Enter Carmen.)
That is she! That is la Carmencita! Carmen! We all follow wherever
you go!
Carmen! Be so kind, and answer us now,
36 Official Program Book.
And tell us the day your heart will be
ours!
Carmen {after a szvift glance at Don Jose).--When my heart will be yours
I, faith, I do not know,
It may never be! it may be to-morrow!
'Twill not be to-day, that I vow!
Love is like any wood-bird wild, That none can ever hope to tame; And in vain is all wooing mild If he refuse your heart to claim. Naught avails, neither threat nor
prayer,
One speaks me fair, the other sighs, 'Tis the other that I prefer, . Tho' mute, his heart to mine replies.
A Gypsy boy is Love, 'tis true, He ever was and ever will be free; Love you not me, then I love you, If I love you, beware of me!
As a bird, when you thought to net
him,
On buoyant wing escapes in air, Love is wary when you await him; Await him not, and he is there! All around you he swiftly sweeps, Now here, now there he lightly flies, When you deem him yours, he escapes; You'd fain escape, and you are his!
Workingmen (to Carmen.)--Carmen!
we all follow wherever you go! Carmen! be so kind and answer us
now!
(The young men surround Carmen; she looks first at them, then at Don Jose; hesitates; turns as if going to the factory, then retraces her steps and goes straight at Don Jose, who is still occupied with his primer. Carmen takes from her bodice a bunch of cassia-flowers, and throws it at Don Jose. General burst of laughter. The factory bell begins to ring. Ex-uent Workingmen. The soldiers enter guard-house. Don Jose is left alone; he picks up the flozvers, which had fallen at his feet.) Don Jose.--What an eye! what a wanton air!
This little flower gave me a start, Like a ball aim'd fair at my heart! And the woman! If there really are witches, She is one, 'tis beyond a doubt. Micaela.--Jose! Don Jose.--Micaela!
MlCAELA.--It is I.
Don Jose.--Joyful meeting!
Micaela.---'Tis from your mother I bear
greeting! Don Jose.--Tell me, what of my
mother Micaela.--Her faithful messenger,
alone I've travel'd hither With a letter.
Don Jose.--(joyfully) With a letter! Micaela.--A little money, too, To eke your payment out, she sends
to you. And then-Don Jose.--And then Micaela.--And then--I hardly dare to! And then there's something else she
bade me bear you, Worth more than any gold; And, for a loving son, Must surely be of worth untold ! Don Jose.--What can it be, then You will tell me, will you n.ot Micaela.--Yes, for tell I must. Whatever I have brought, Nothing will I withhold. As your mother and I together left
the chapel,
And with a kiss on me she smiled: Now go, she said to me, to Sevilla
repair;
The way is not too long, And when you once are there, Seek first of all my son, my Jose, my
dear child!
Tell him that his mother is lonely, Praying night and day for her son, That her regretful heart now only Yearns to forgive what he has done. Go, my sweet, I can well believe you, That a messenger true you'll be; Go, and this parting kiss I give you, To my son you will give from me! Don Jose.--(deeply moved) A kiss
from my mother!
Micaela.--'Tis a kiss for her son! Jose, I give it you, as she would have it done!
(she kisses Don Jose.) Don Jose.--My mother I behold! Again I see my village home! O happy mem'ries of old, How ye my heart overcome! Ye fill my yearning breast With tender calm and rest. Who knows of v,hat a demon I was
nearly the prey! Tho' far away, a mother's love can.
see,
And with the kiss, she sends to me,-Averts the threat'ning peril from her son to-day!
Fifth Concert. 37
Micaela.--What demon what peril
Why do you murmur so
Is there anything wrong Don Jose.--No! no!
Speak of yourself whom she sent hither:
Do you really mean to go home Micaela.--Yes, and this evening.
To-morrow I shall see your mother. Don Jose (animatedly).--You'll see her then!
0 then tell her from me:
Say, that her son his love would send
her,
And say, that to-day he repents; And hopes that his darling mother, Will forgive his offense! Now, my sweet, I can well believe you, That a messenger true you'll be! And that this loving kiss I give you, You will give to her from me! Micaela.--Indeed, I give my word, as
a messenger true,
Jose, it shall be given as I have promised you. Don Jose.--Now, until I have read it,
wait a moment here. Micaela.--Oh no! read first, and I will
then soon reappear. Don Jose.--But why go away Micaela.--It is better To leave you alone with your letter! Now read! Then I will return. Don Jose.--You will return Micaela.--I will return.
(Exit Micaela.)
(Don Jose reads the letter in silence.) Don Jose.--Do not fear, dear mother, Your will shall be my law. Your son will heed your prayer;
1 love Micaela.
'Tis she my heart is bent on; As for thy fiow'rs, thou brazen wanton!
(Cries behind the scenes.) Zuniga.--What can be going on, below Cigarette-Girls.--Help! help! will you
never hear
Help ! help! Is no soldier near 'Twas la Carmencita!
No, no! she did not do it!
O yes, O yes, it was she! 'Twas she began it with a blow.
Do not mind what they say! My-lord, they do not know!
(dratving Zuniga to their side.) Manuelita raised a cry, That one could hear all through town, That she had a mind to buy Her an ass to ride upon.
Carmencita quickly cried (She never lets a chance pass) : "What do you want with an ass When a broom will do to ride"
Manuelita answered too, All over in fury shaking: "For a ride you'll.soon be taking, My ass will do well for you! Then you'll have a right to rise Far above us in your pride, With two lackeys at your side Taking turns in chasing flies!"
Then they both started to tear And to pull each other's hair!
Zuniga.--Have done with all your silly
chatter! (to Don Jose.) Hark you, Jose, take two good men
with you, And go in to find out what is really
the matter!
{Don Jose enters the factory followed by two soldiers.) Cigarette-Girls.--'Twas la Carmencita!
No, no, she did not do it! Zuniga.--I say! Off with these women
without more ado! (The soldiers enter the square-Carmen appears at the factory door, led by Don lose and fol-loived by tzvo soldiers.) Don Jose.--Captain, I find there has
been a quarrel,
They began it with words, then quickly came to blows; And one woman is wounded. Zuniga.--And by whom Don Jose.--She can tell you. Zuniga.--You hear the charge; what
have you to oppose Carmen.--Tra la la la la la la la You mav flay me or burn, me; but
nothing I'll tell, Tra la la la la la la la For your steel and your fire, and e'en
Heaven I defy. Zuniga.--You can sing better bye-andbye; And now that you are ordered to
answer, reply!
Carmen (staring impudently at Zuniga.)--Tra la la la la la la la My own secret I'll keep, and I'll keep
it right well! Tra la la la la la la la, There is one whom I love, and for
him I would die.
Zuniga.--As nothing I say can avail, You will go sing your song to the walls of the jail!
Official Program Book.
Cigarette-Girls.--To the jail! to the
jail!
(Carmen strikes a woman ivho happens to be near her.) Zuniga (to Carmen).--Now, steady! Aye, sure enough, with your hand you
are ready. Carmen (with the utmost impertinence)
--Tra la la la la la la la la la la, etc.
Zuniga.'--"Tis a pity, 'tis a great pity, For she is so youthful and pretty: Nevertheless, spite of her charms, We must bind these two lovely arms. Carmen.--Where shall you take me
now Don Jose.--Into the jail; there's no
way I can help you. Carmen.--You say, there's no way to
help me
Don Jose.--No, none! I obey my commands.
Carmen.--As for me, I am sure that despite your commands, you'll save me.
And will do all that I desire; And you will, because you love me! Don Jose.--I, love you Carmen.--Yes, Jose! The flower I
gave you to-day,
You know, the brazon wanton's flower,
Tho' now you may throw it away, You feel its power! ION Jose.--Now say nothing more, do
you hear
Say nothing more, I will not hear! Carmen.--Near to the walls of Sevilla, With my good friend Lillas Pastia, I'll soon dance the gay Seguidilla And I'll drink Manzanilla. I'll go and see my good friend Lillas
Pastia!
But all alone what can one do True love begins where there are
two;
And so, to keep me company, I'll take my lover dear with me!
(laughing.)
My lover dear has got the mitten. And where he is the deuce may care! Now my poor heart, so sadly smitten, My heart is free, is free as air! Tho' I have suitors by the dozen There is not one that suits my whim. The week is gone and none is chosen: Who will love me I will love him! Who'll have my soul 'Tis for the asking! Now some good fairy has sent you here!
And my patience will bear no tasking, For, beside my new lover dear, Near to the walls of Sevilla, With my good friend Lillas Pastia, I'll soon dance the gay Seguidilla And I'll drink Manzanilla. Yes, I'm going to my friend Lillas
Pastia!
Don Jose (ivith severity).--Be still! Did I not say you must not speak to
me Carmen (with simplicity).--I did not
speak to you, I only sang a song, And I'm thinking-By thinking I can do you no wrong! An officer I have in mind, Who loves me, And who knows well, ,
Yes, who knows well, That I am not unkind! Don Jose (agitated).--Carmen! Carmen (pointedly).--That he's no captain I well am aware, Nor a lieutenant is he; He's only a corp'ral, But why should a Gypsy girl ever
care
And I think he will do for me. Don Jose.--Carmen, do my senses all
leave me
If I yield, can you deceive me Will you then surely faithful be Ah! if I love you, Carmen, Carmen, will you love me Carmen.--Yes (Don Jose loosens the cord which binds Carmen's hands.) Soon we shall dance the Seguidilla, And we shall drink Manzanilla. Near to the walls of Sevilla, With my good friend Lillas Pastia.
(Zuniga comes out of guard-house.) Zuniga (to Don Jose).--Here is the order; now go!
Take care she does not cheat you! Carmen (aside to Don Jose).--On the
way I'll give you a push, Just as hard as ever I can: You must fall, off I rush; You know where I shall meet you ! (Singing, and laughing in Zuniga's
face.)
A Gypsy boy is Love 'tis true, He ever was and ever will be free; Love you not me, then I love you, If I love you, beware of me!
(She inarches off with Don Jose
and the Soldiers.) (On arriving at the bridge, Carmen pushes the soldiers down, and escapes, laughing loudly.)
Fifth Concert. 39
ENTR ACTE. ACT II.
Lillas Pastia's Inn. When the curtain rises, Carmen, Frasquita and Mercedes are discovered seated at a table with the owner. Dance of the Gypsy-girls, accompanied by Gypsies playing the guitar and tambourine. (The dance ceases.)
Carmen.--The cound of sistrum bars
did greet
Their ears with dry, metallic ringing, To this strange music soon up-springm ing
The Gypsy-girls were on their feet.
The rattling, ringing tambourine, And twanging of guitars now mingle, And, pinched and pounded, throb and
jingle,
Alike in time, alike in tune! Tra la la la, etc.
Set off by tawny skins, are rings Of silver and of copper flashing, In measure with the music clashing: Mantles flying like waving wings. The singers' mood the dancers feel, With slow and timid step beginning; Then fast and faster they are spinning, And wilder, wilder, wilder grows the
reel! Tra la la la la, etc.
With fingers fleet the gypsy boys On string and leather romp and riot; No gypsy maiden can sit quiet Who hears that glorious, merry noise! And, to the measure of the song, All join the glowing, wanton revel; Round and round the ring, how they
travel,
Borne on whirl-winds of joy along! Tra la la la, etc.
{Carmen, Frasquita and Mercedes
join the dance.)
Frasquita.--Kind sirs, Pastia begs leave-Zuniga.--Well, what does he want now, Master Pastia
Feasquita.--He says, that the corregi-dor tells him, it's time to be closing.
Zuniga.--All right! we'll go away: And you shall go with us.
Frasquita.--No, no! We'd rather stay!
Zuniga.--And you, Carmen Will you
you stay here
Just listen ! A word in your ear! You are vexed!
Carmen.--Why am I vexed How so
Zuniga.--The dragoon, put in jail because he let you go-Carmen.--Have they killed him, now, in
their spite
Zuniga.--Is no longer in prison! Carmen.--Not in prison That's right! And now, kind gentlemen, good-night!
(Chorus behind the scenes.) Hurrah ! hurrah, the Torero ! Hurrah! hurrah, Escamillo ! Zuniga.--A torchlight procession I see! 'Twas he who won the bull-fight at
Granada.
Will you join in a glass, old friend You shall be welcome! Here's to your best success, to triumphs yet to be!
(Enter Escamillo.') All.--Hurrah ! hurrah, the Torero!
Hurrah! hurrah, Escamillo ! Escamillo.--For a toast, your own will
avail me, Senors, senors! For all you men of
war,
Like all Toreros, as brother hail me! In a fight we both take delight! 'Tis holiday, the circus full, The circus full from rim to floor; The lookers-on beyond control, The lookers-on now begin to murmur
and roar!
Some are calling, and others bawling, And howling too, with might and
mam
For they await a sight appalling!
'Tis the day of the braves of Spain!
Come on, make ready! come on! Ah !
Toreador! Toreador!
And think on her, who all can see:
On a dark-eyed lady,
And that love waits for thee,
Toreador, Love waits, love waits for
thee! All--Toreador, make ready!
Toreador, Toreador!
And think on her who all can see,
On a dark-eyed lady,
And that love waits for thee! Escamillo.--All at once they all are silent:
Ah, what is going on
No cries! the time has come!
With a mighty bound the bull leaps out from the Toril!
With a rush he comes, he charges!
A horse is lying, under him a Picador!
Ah! bravo! Toro! the crowd is crying!
Now he goes on, he halts, he turns, charges once more!
Oh how he shakes his banderillas!
How madly now he runs!
40 Official Program Book.
The sand is wet and red! See them running, see them climb the
barriers!
Only one has not fled! Come on! make ready! come on! Ah! Toreador, make ready! Toreador! Toreador! And think on her who all can see, On a dark-eyed lady, And that love waits for thee. Chorus.--(As before.) Escamiixo.--My fair one, a word! What name may one dare give you When danger comes again, I would
call on your name! Carmen.--Carmen, Carmencita !
To me 'tis all the same. Escamiixo.--How if I should tell you,
I love you Carmen.--I should tell you then to be
more discreet! Escamii.i.0.---Your answer is not at all
tender, But to waiting and hoping my heart
must surrender! Carmen.--There is no harm in waiting,
And they say, hope is sweet! Zuniga.--Well, Carmen, as you will not
come,
I shall come back.
Carmen.--That will do you no good! Zuniga.--Bah ! I'll try a new tack!
{Exit Bscamillo.)
Don Jose (.behind the scenes).--Have a care! who goes there; Man of Alcala! Where are you going there Man of
Alcala! Ever true and tender, Faithfully I
wander
To my sweet-heart yonder! If that is your end, pass the line my
friend! When 'tis honor calls, or love that
enthralls,
Comrades all we are, Men of Alcala! (.Enter Don lose.) Carmen.--'Tis you at last! Don Jose.--Carmen! Carmen.--And out of jail to-day Don Jose.--In jail for two months past! Carmen.--Do you care Don Jose.--No, not I! And, if it were
for you,
I'd be there still, with pleasure. Carmen.--You love me, then Don Jose.--I out of measure! Carmen.--Some of your officers were
here just now; We had to dance for them. Don Jose.--For them! You
Carmen.--You are jealous, I'd swear
you can't deny it.
Don Jose.--What then What if I am Carmen.--Be quiet, sir, be quiet!
(Gaily.)
Now I shall dance for your reward, And you shall see, my lord, The song that I shall sing is of my
own invention! Sit you down here, Don Jose.
(Making Don Jose sit down.) Now, attention! La la la la la la la, etc,
(Bugles behind the scenes.) Don Jose (stopping Carmen.) Stop for a moment, Carmen, only a
moment! Carmen (surprised).--And what for,
if you please
Don Jose.--Do I hear below Yes, I hear them, our bugles, sounding
in retreat:
Do you not hear them now Carmen (gaily).--Bravo! bravo! My pains are wasted! He's tired of seeing dances To the tunes I supply So welcome this, that chances To fall down from the sky!
(Dancing, and rattling the castaLa la la la, etc. nets.)
Don Jose (again stopping Carmen).-You do not understand, Carmen; 'tis
the retreat! It means that I must go back to camp
for the night! Carmen (stupified).--Back to camp
for the night (with an outburst) Ah! how could I be so stupid! Here I've been working hard, And tried with all my might To make you smile, my lord! How I danced! How I sang! How I, Lord save us all, Might have loved you ere long! Ta ra tata--It is the bugle call! Ta ra ta ta--He's off! now he is gone! Go along, simpleton!
(in a rage, throwing his shako at
him) Wait! here is your cap, your saber,
here's your pill-box! Now be gone, silly boy, be gone! And go home to your barracks! Don Jose (sadly).--How cruel 'tis, Carmen, for you to treat me so! 'Tis hard for me to go, No woman yet has ever, No woman yet, but you, No, no, not one, No woman yet but you,
Fifth Concert. 41
Has moved my heart as you have done
without endeavor! Carmen.--Ta ra ta ta--Good Lord! it's
the retreat!
Ta ra ta ta--And I shall be too late! So off he runs--he raves! Now you see how he loves! Don Jose.--And so, you think I do not
love you then Carmen.--Why, no! Don Jose.--You don't Then wait and
hear!
Carmen.--I'll neither fiear, nor wait! Don Jose.--Now you shall hear! Carmen.--You will surely be late! Don Jose.--Yes, now you shall hear! Carmen.--No, no! Don Jose.---But you must, Carmen, I say you must!
(He draws, from the vest of his uniform the flozver which Carmen threw at him in Act I and shows it to Carmen.)
This flower that you threw to me, I kept it still while in the jail, And still the flow'r tho' dead and dry, A sweet perfume did e'er exhale And, thro' many a silent hour, On mine eye-lids closed, lay the flow'r, This rare perfume was my delight; I saw your face at dead of night! Then I began to curse your name, And e'en to detest you, and t' exclaim: Why must it be, that in my way She should be set by Destiny! Then I'd call myself a blasphemer, And within my heart thrilled a tremor, I only knew a sole desire, A sole desire, one hope alone: Carmen, 'twas to see you, see you, my
own!
For hardly had you met my vision, Or cast a single glance at me, Of all my soul you took possession, O, my Carmen! And I liv'd only
yours to be! Carmen. I love you! Carmen.--No! not for me you care! Don Jose.--What do you say Carmen.--No, not for me you care! For, if you loved me, up there, up
there"
You'd follow me!
Yes! Away, away to yonder mountain, Away, away you'd follow me! Upon your horse we hence would flee, You as a brave man, onward like the
wind
O'er hill and dale with me behind! Up yonder you'd be as free as air, Officer there is none whose command you obey,
Nor any retreat sounding there, Telling fond lovers, Now you must up and away! Roaming at will beneath the skies, All the world for you and me; And for law, what e'er you please! And the best, the dearest boon we
prize:
We all are free! we all are free! Don Jose {wresting himself azvay from
Carmen's embrace).-No! I will not hear what you say! Desert my flag--run away-That is shame! that is dishonor! It cannot be!
Carmen {harshly).--Indeed! go! Don Jose.--Carmen, I implore you! Carmen.--No! I love you no more!
Go ! I hate you!
Don Jose.--O hear me! Carmen ! Carmen.--Good-bye! But good-bye for
ever! Don Jose {grievingly).-Good-bye, then ! farewell! farewell for
ever!
{Don Jose goes toward the door; as he is about to open it, someone knocks. Silence.) Zuniga {outside).--Holla, Carmen,
holla, holla!
Don Jose.--Who's knocking I will go. Carmen.--Be still, be still! Zuniga {entering after forcing the
door).-As no one answers, I'll enter!
{He perceives Don Jose.) {To Carmen.)
Oh, fie, oh, fie, my charmer! Your taste is not the best! The match is surely bad To take a plain dragoon when a
captain's to be had! {To Don Jose.) And you be off, sir! Don Jose {calmly but resolutely).--No! Zuniga {sternly).--You will! Off with
you now!
Don Jose.--I say I will not go! Zuniga {menacing Don Jose).--Fellow! Don Jose {seizing his saber).--The devil! You'll try a bout with me! Carmen {throwing herself between them).--You're mad with jealousy ! Come on! Come on! {The Gypsies appear from every side; at a sign from Carmen, they seize Zuniga and disarm, him.) Gypsies.--Come with us, Captain, without more ado!
{Exit Zuniga, escorted by the Gypsies.)
42 Official Program Book.
Carmen (to Don Jose").--Will you not
be one of us now
Don Jose (sighing).--What can I do! Carmen.--Ah! You're not polite, I vow!
But, no matter!
Aye, you will agree
When you shall be
Roaming at will beneath blue skies,
All the world for you and me,
And for law, whate'er you please!
And the best, the dearest boon we prize:
We all are free! we all are free! All.--Follow us, friend, over the plains,
Follow us now into the mountains,
You will agree
When you shall be
So free, so free,
Roaming at will beneath blue skies,
All the world for you and me,
And the best, the dearest boon we prize:
Aye! We all are free!
Entr'acte. ACT III.
A zvild spot in the mountains. As the curtain rises, a fezv of the smugglers are seen lying here and there, enveloped in their cloaks.
Gypsies.--Attention! attention, comrades, all together! Fortunes waits us in the plains below,
But be careful while on the way there, Be wary as you onward go! Frasquita, Mercedes, Carmen, and Don Jose.--Our chosen trade, our chosen, trade is good, but every man must have
A heart, a heart that never fears! For danger lurks, for danger lurks
around,
It is below, it is above, "Tis ev'rywhere; who cares! We go on, straight ahead, without
heed of the night, Without heed of the storm, without
heed of the torrent! With no heed of the troops down below, out of sight, Down below, out of sight, But awake, that I warrant! All.--Attention! attention, comrades,
all together!
Fortune waits us in the plains below, But be careful while on the way there, Be wary as you onward go!
Carmen.--What do you see, below Don Jose.--I was thinking that yonder is living a good, industrious old woman, who thinks me a man of honor.
But she is wrong, alas! Carmen.--Who is this good old woman Don Jose.--Ah, Carmen! If you love
me, do not speak thus: For 'tis my mother! Carmen.--Indeed Then you should go
back in a hurry, For, as you see, our trade never will
do, And if you do not go, you are sure to
be sorry.
Don Jose.--Go back leave you behind Carmen.--I said so. Don Jose.--Leave you behind, Carmen!
be careful!
If you repeat that word-Carmen.--Why, then perhaps you'll kill
me!
What a look! You do not reply. What of that after all, it is Fate, live
or die! {Frasquita and Mercedes spread
cards before them.) Frasquita and Mercedes.--Shuffle! Cut
them!
Good! that will do! Three cards over here, Four to you!
My pretty toys, now here you're lying,
To all we ask be truthful in replying,
Now tell us who our love will slight!
And who with love our hearts delight!
Frasquita.--I a gay young lover behold,
Who tries of his love to persuade me.
Mercedes.--And mine's very wealthy
and old,
But he says he's willing to wed me! Frasquita.--On his horse behind him
I sit,
And off to the mountains he takes me! Mercedes.--A castle for royal fit,
The present my lover now makes me! Frasquita.--Love is mine, as much as
I care,
Ev'ry day new pleasures invite me! Mercedes.--Of gold I've enough and to
spare, Diamonds and rings, all to delight
me! Frasquita.--My lover becomes a great
chief,
A hundred men wait on his pleasure! Mercedes.--And mine--and mine-Oh, it passes belief! Yes--he dies I
Ah! I've his title and treasure!
Fifth Concert. 43
Frasquita.--My pretty toys, now here
you're lying,
To all we ask be truthful in replying, Now tell us who our love will slight! And who with love our hearts delight !
Mercedes.--A fortune! Frasquita.--A heart! Carmen.--Let's see! I will try for my
part! (Carmen turns up the cards on her
side.)
Diamonds! Spades! To die! So it is. First come I, afterwards he-Both of us are to die!
In vain, to shun the answer that we
dread to hear, To mix the cards we try, 'Tis all of no avail, they still remain
sincere,
An.d they can never lie! If in the Book of Fate you have a
shining page, Serenely cut and deal; The card that you will turn will nothing ill presage, And future joy reveal! But if you are to die, If that so dreadful word Be writ by Fate on high, You may try twenty times, Unpitiful the card Will but repeat: "You die !"
(Turning up the cards.) Again! Again! All hope is vain!
Carmen.--Then let each man shoulder
his bale;
We have to pass, and pass we shall! Gypsies.--As for the guard, be easy,
brothers,
They like to please, as well as others, They like to be gallant, and more!
Ah!
Let us go on a while before! '
There is no danger to be fae'd, Nothing at all for one to do, But let him put his arm 'round your
waist,
And hear him talk nonsense to you. And if a smile can gain, your end, What would you have Then we
shall smile!
And in advance, you may depend, That you can pass in the meanwhile! (Bxuent omnes.) MicaEla.--Here is the usual place for
the smugglers to gather. I shall see him, he will be here!
The duty laid upon me by his mother Shall be done, and without a fear. I say that nothing shall deter me, I say, alas! I'm strong to play my
part;
But tho' undaunted I declare me, I feel dismay within my heart! Alone in this dismal place, All alone, I'm afraid, altho' 'tis wrong
to fear:
Thou wilt aid me now with thy grace, For thou, O Lord, art ever near! I shall see this woman in time, Whose wanton, treacherous art Has achieved the shame of the man Whom once I loved with all ni3'
heart!
She's wily and false, she's a beauty! But I will never yield to fear! No, no! I will never yield to fear! I'll speak in her face of my duty. Ah!
I'm not mistaken now, 'tis he yonder
I see! Come down! Jose! and reach your
hand to me. But what is that; He's taking aim--he fires-Ah! all my strength is gone, and my courage expires!
(She disappears behind the rocks.) Escamillo.--A few lines lower down,
and 't would have been my end! Don Jose.'--Who are you give your
name! Escamillo.--Eh! fair and soft, my
friend!
I am Escamillo, Toreador of Granada!
Don Jose.--Well I know you by name. I bid you welcome, but hark you, brave Espada, you ran a fearful risk.
Escamillo.--Well, that is all the same. But you see, I'm in love, my friend,
that makes me giddy! And any man would be unworthy of
the name, Who would not risk his life to see
his chosen lady! Don Jose.--She, the lady you love, she
is here Escamillo.--She is here; it is a Gypsy,
my dear.
Don Jose.--What is her name Escamillo.--Carmen! Don Jose (aside).--Carmen. Escamillo.--Carmen, yes, my dear; She had a lover here, A soldier who deserted from his troop to join her.
44 Official Program Book.
How fond the}' were! but that is
past, I hear; The amours of Carmen do n.ot last
half a year.
Don Jose.--Yet you love her, you say Escamiixo.--I love her, yes, my friend,
I love her,
I tell you, I am giddy! Don Jose.--But, when any one takes
our Gypsy girls away, Are you aware that he must pay Escamiixo (gaily).--Good! what's to
pay Don Jose.--And that the price is paid
in knife-thrusts and slashes Escamillo (surprised).--In knife-thrusts
and slashes !
Don Jose.--You understand Escamillo.--I can hear what you say! This deserter, this bold dragoon she
fancies, Or whom, at least, she fancied, is
yourself
Don Jose.--Yes, I, myself! Escamillo.--I'm more than, pleased, my
boy!
I'm in luck, sure, to-day! This is rather tidy! I could laugh, I
vow!
To look for the lady And find the beau ! Don Jose.--My rage, hotly glowing, Finds a vent at last! His blood shall be flowing Ere this hour is past! Now be on your guard, And beware my knife! Should you fail to ward It will cost your life!
(They fight. Escamillo's knife snaps. Don Jose is about to strike him.) Carmen (arresting Don Jose's arm).-Holla, holla! Jose! Escamillo (to Carmen).--Ah, what
rapture it gave me That it was you, Carmen, who came in. time to save me!
(To Don Jose.) , As for you, sir dragoon, For this time we are even, but one
shall win the prize, Whenever you will fight again; Let it be soon!
Before I go, at least you'll allow me to
speak! And ask you all to see the bull-fight
this week, For in Sevilla you will not find me
deficient;
And they who love me will come! {gazing at Carmen--coolly to Don Jose, who makes a menacing gesture).
My friend, don't be impatient! I have done, yes I am through! And have no more to say, but bid you
all adieu!
{Exit Escamillo slowly; Don Jose tries to attack him, but is held back.)
Don Jose (to Carmen, menancingly, but rcstrainedly).--Will you be warn'd, Carmen Do not torture me so! Gypsies.--Now forward, now forward,
it's time to go!
Don Jose.--Halt! someone is yonder who's trying to hide.
(He brings Micaela forward.) Carmen.--It's a woman!
Begad! 'tis surprising indeed! Don Jose.--Micaela! Micaela.--Don Jose ! Don Jose.--Are you mad
What are you doing here Micaela.--I am looking for you! Below, down in the valley, Is a hut all alone, Where a mother, your mother, Weeps and prays for you, her son! She is weeping and waiting, Ever hoping her son to see! Oh, take pity upon her, Jose, Jose, you'll come with me! Carmen (to Don Jose).--That is the
best thing you can do, Our trade will never do for you! Don Jose.--You command me to leave
you
Carmen.--Yes, it is time you went! Don Jose.--You command me to leave
you,
So that you, with none to prevent, May pursue your Toreador! No! nevermore! Tho' death be my part, I vow, No, Carmen, I will not leave you
now !
And the chain that binds our hearts Still shall bind till death us parts! All (to Don Jose).--It will cost you
dear to stay,
Jose, your life is at stake, And the chain that binds to-day, At your death surely will break. Don JosE (seizing Carmen in a transport of passion).--Ha! now I have you, fiend that you are! Now I have you, and your will I'll
soon incline To admit the fatal power
Fifth Concert. 45
That fetters your lot with mine! Micaela.--Only one word more, I can
say nothing further: Alas, Jose, your mother is dying, and
your mother
Was not content to die without pardoning you!
Don Jose.--My mother she is dying Micaela.--Yes, Don Jose! Don Jose.--Away! let us go (he takes a few steps, then stops--to Carmen) Rest you merry! I go,-but-I'll meet you below!
(Don Jose leads Micaela away; hearing Escamillo's voice, he pauses, hesitating.)
Escamillo (behind the scenes).--Toreador, make ready! Toreador, Toreador!
(Carmen ruslies towairds hint; Don Jose threateningly bars the way). And think on her who all can see, On a dark-eyed lady, And that love waits for thee!
Entr' acte. ACT IV.
A square in Sevilla. At back, the walls of the ancient amphitheatre; the entrance to the latter is closed by a long awning.
Girls and Peddlers.--For two cuartos!
for two cuartos!
Who wants a fan to raise the wind Oranges, sweet and tender-skinn'd! Here's the program, all about the
show!
Zuniga.--Bring some oranges, quick! Orange Girls.--Here you are; take
mine, take mine, dear Senorita! A Girl (to Zuniga, who pays her).-Senor, I thank you kindly, Sen.or. All.--But Senor! these others are
sweeter!
Who wants a fan to raise the wind, Oranges sweet and tender-skinn'd! Here's the program, all about the
show!
Good wine! Who'll buy cigarros Zuniga.--Holla! bring me some fans ! A Gypsy (to Zuniga, who repulses him).--Will you take a pair of glasses
All.--For two cuartos ! For two cuartos !
Here you are! senoras an,d caballeros! Children (entering).--Here they come! here they come!
Here comes the cuadrilla! On their lances the sunshine glances! Hats up! hats up! Hurrah for the men of Sevilla!
(The procession begins). Here he conies along at a foot pace, Slowly marching over the place, The Alguacil with his ugly snout. Clear out! clear out! clear out! clear
out! Men.--Now we'll give a cheer for the
color,
Give a cheer for the brave chulos! Bravo! viva! glory to valor! Here they are, the brave chulos! Women.--See there! the Banderilleros, See what a jaun.ty, gallant bearing! See there, what eyes they're making,
and how bright The spangles and the lace they're
wearing
Upon their costumes for the fight! Here are the Banderilleros! All.--Here come the Picadors ! A splendid rank! You will see, with those pointed
lances,
How they gall the bull on the flanks! The Espada! Escamillo!
{Escamillo enters; beside him Carmen, radiant with delight, and brilliantly dressed). It's the Espada, he's the clever blade Who comes at last to end the show, When the game to the end is played, And delivers the final blow! Viva ! Escamillo ! Bravo ! Escamillo (to Carmen).--If you love
me Carmen, Then indeed, at this moment, you
may be proud of me! Carmen.--Ah ! I do, Escamillo, May I die now, in torment, If I ever loved as I love you, my
own! Men.--Room there for his Grace, th'
Alcalde!
(The Alcalde appears at back, accompanied by guards; he enters the amphitheatre, followed by the cuadrilla, the crowd, etc.). Frasquita.--Carmen, take my advise,
and go away from here. Carmen.--And why, if you please Mercedes.--He is here! Carmen.--What he Mercedes.--See! Don Jose! in the
crowd he is hiding, look there! Carmen.--Yes, there he is. Frasquita.--Beware! Carmen.--I am not the woman to fear such as he.
46 Official Program Book.
I shall wait,
I shall speak with him here. Mercedes.--Carmen, be warned! Beware !
Carmen.--Why should I care Frasquita.--Beware!
(The crowd has entered the amphitheatre; Frasquita and Mercedes also go in. Carmen and Don Jose are left alone). Carmen.--You here Don Jose.--I'm here! Carmen.--Some friends just came to tell
me That you were near at hand, that you
would come to-day; And they wanted me to believe you
mean to kill me! But I am brave and will not run
away.
Don Jose.--I do not threaten you, I beg you, I entreat you! I will forget, Carmen, all that has pass'd since I met you ! Yes, let us go together, Far away from here, with one another
To begin our life again! Carmen.--What you ask cannot be
granted!
Carmen never tells a He! Her will has never relented: Between us two, all is gone by! Don Jose.--Carmen, let me try to move
you,
Oh, my Carmen, I try To save you still, for still I love you.
Ah,
Let me still try to save you, Save you, and myself as well! Carmen.--No! well I know you will
kill me,
Well I know the moment is nigh. But if I live, or if I die, No! no ! no! I'll never yield to your
will!
What value can that have for you, A heart that is yours no more No, this heart is yours no more! In vain you say: "I adore you !" I am deaf, howe'er you may implore, Ah ! 'tis in vain !
Don Jose.--Then you love me no more Carmen.--No! I love you no more. Don Jose.--But I, Carmen, let me implore you,
Carmen, alas ! I still adore you ! Carmen.--What good will that do
My heart you'll never move! Don Jose.--Carmen, I love you, I adore
you! Oh hear! To please you I will vow
To join the baud again, do all that
you desire:
All! do you hear All! But ah! then love me still, Carmen,
my love!
Ah! but recall that time again! We lov'd so fondly then! Do not forsake me now, Carmen! Carmen.--Ne'er will Carmen weakly
comply! Free she was born, and free will she
die!
{Hearing the cries of the crozvd in the amphitheatre, applauding Es-camillo, Carmen makes a gesture of delight. Don Jose keeps his eyes Axed on her. At the end of the clioms, Carmen attempts to enter the amphitheatre, but Don Jose steps in front of her). People.--Viva ! Viva ! Glorious scene!
Ah!
Viva! on the red arena How the bull, the bull madly rushes! See there ! see there ! see there ! Gall'd by many a dart, Across the ring he rushes! Stricken fair, yes, fair in the heart! Victoria!
Don Jose.--Whither now Carmen.--Let me go! Don Jose.--How they applaud the winner!
Your lover of to-day! Carmen.--Let me go ! let me go ! Don Jose.--By my honor. You shall not go in here, Carmen With me you are to go! Carmen.--Let me go, Don Jose! I will
not follow you ! Don Jose.--You hope to meet him
there!
Say,--You love him, then Carmen.--I love him!
I'd say, and were it my last breath, In the face of death, that I love him! {Carmen again tries to enter the amphitheatre, Don Jose stops her again ). People.--Viva ! viva! glorious scene!
Ah!
Viva! on the red arena, How the bull, the bull madly rushes! See there! Gall'd by many a dart, Across the ring he rushes! Don Jose.--And so, I am sold to perdition.
Have barter'd my soul, so that you Can hold me in wanton derision In the embrace of my foe! No, on my life, it shall not be! Carmen, you are going with me!
Fifth Concert. 47
Carmen.--No, no, I say!
Don Jose.--No more threats, I am tired
of them! Carmen.--Then come! Strike me at
once, or let me go to him! People.--Victoria! Don Jose.--For the very last time, you
fiend,
Will you be bent Carmen.--I Bend
(Tearing a ring from her finger,
and throwing it away). Here's the ring that you bought, the one that has your name on ! So!
Don Jose {rushing on Carmen).--You
will, you demon!
(Carmen attemps to escape, but Don lose catches up with her at the entrance of the amphitheatre; he stabs her; she falls, and dies). People.--Toreador, make ready, Toreador! Toreador! And think on her who all can see, On a dark-eyed lady, And that love waits for thee.
(The crozvd re-enters the stage). Don Jose.--Do with me what you will, 'Twas I who struck her down, Ah, Carmen, my Carmen! thou art
THE CHORAL UNION
Sopranos
Abbott, Lulu F. Avery, Mary G. Barnes, Carrie B. Ben Oliel, Lily A. Berst, Lois Blaich, Mrs. George Bradley, Blanche Brown, Nellie Burg, Mary G. Bury, Mary Caldwell, Minnie B. Caspari, Frances Clark, Harriet W. Clarke, Georgia P. Cotton, Florence M. Davis, Beulah B. Davison, Nina M. De Fries, Dorothy Dodds, Elizabeth Duensing, Minnie Duerden, Mrs. J. E. Eaton, Agnes Eberbach, Mrs. E. H. Ferguson, Mrs. A. P. Fischer, Babette Fischer, Ida Mary Fischer, May Fischer, Natalia E'lanagan, Mary Fleming, Mrs. Edith C. Follett, Ora Fouch, Mrs. Squire Galbraith, Pauline Gannett, Lucy Groat, Ethel
Gundert, Anna Hamilton, Nellie Harnden, Mabel Henry, Mrs. Flora Heywood, Mabel Howell, Nellie M. Hulett, Helen Jamieson, Grace Jenks, Caroline L. Johnson, Katherine M. Johnson, M. Marilla Jones, E. May Kaiser, Wilhelmina Keith, Mrs. E. A. Key, Mrs. G. C. Krause, Carrie P. McManus, Matilda McMichael, Lillie Marks, Mrs. Harriet Miller, Eva Lorein Mitchell, Ethel Munn, Helena B. Pattengill, Lille Peale, Marjorie Peavy Edith M. Peterson, Mrs. M. C. Potter, Susan Ptolemy, Helena Rainey, Adalina Rawson, Estelle Reyer, Amanda E. Rix, Lois Rominger, Julie Rominger, Augusta Schenk, Ella R.
Schenk, Rosina K. Schleede, Edith Seeley, Orel S. Seeley, Mrs. R. R. Sibley, Madge G. Smith, Ethel Smith, Mary L. Soddy, Ella Sperry, Ora Spore, Belle Staebler, Mrs. Carrie Stanger, K. Louise Starr, Clara E. Tarrant, Bertha H. Thayer, Laurel C. Tremper, Katherine Tremper, Mildred Vaughan, Estelle J. Waite, Agnes Walters, Mertrude Watts, Carrie L. Weinmann, Emma C. Weinmann, Louise P. Whedon. Sara White, Genevieve Whitman, Daisy Whitman, Lillian Wilson, Kate M. B. Wilson, Lois Wines, Olive L. Woods, Mrs. H. M. Wyman, Harriet Yakeley, Mabel
Altos
Allen, Josephine Allmendinger, Helen S. Allmendinger, Marie E. Bane, Jessie E. Barnard, Bessie Barnard, Florence A. Ben Oliel, Daisy Blanchard, Bertha Bogle, Katherine Broadbridge, Lotta B. Chandler, Dulu P. Chapman, Olive Childs, Mrs. W. K. Clark, Martha C. Clarke, Mary E.
Clarkson, Mrs. S. W. Cushman, Ruth Davis, A. L. Davis, Bertha A. Dicken, Carrie L. Dietz, Clara Dunbar, Frances Durlin, Maud M. Eberbach, Edith Fowler, Charlotte S. Hale, Mame Harner, Jessie L. Hills, Louise E. Hutzel, Charlotte Koch, Melvina
Koon, Mrs. Margaret Lang, Reine Looker, Maude A. McLaren, Violet Marschke, Emily R. Meade, Eleanor Medaris, Charlotta A. Minchin, Nydia E. Mogk, Elizabeth C. Munn, Mrs. Martha S. Newman, Goldie Perrine, Mrs. C. K. Phisterer, Mathilda Redding, Myrtle Reed, Jessie D.
Rhead, Mrs. G. B. Rice, E. Josephine Schurrer, Bertha E. Sheehan, Geraldine Smith, Marian Stellwagen, Isabelle Strain, Sara
Taylor, Frances S. Thompson, Mrs. James H. Townley, Margaret Grace Vincent, R. May Wahl, Ottilie A. Wahr, Caroline D. Wilkins, Neva L.
Wilson, Mrs. J. C. Wise, Cora M. Wise, Jessica E. Wright, Mrs. W. R. Wurster, Pauline
Tenors
Audette, Hubert Auer, Sidney M. Baker, Fred A. Barnes, Alexander J. Benbow, George L. Bird, James P. Boes, Lewis Bradley, Glenn Broomhall, Baird f
Brown, La Verne H. Butler, Frederick E. Chagrin, Carl K. Clark, B. M. Cooper, Will H. Crosby, John
Ferguson, John Fisher, Clarence A. Fouch, Squire French, Robert W. Fuller, Chal. A. Gordon, G. L-Grimm, Otto F. Ham, E. Higley, Geo. Hoxie, Joe M. Koch, August Killeen, Fred Kuhn, C. E. Lewen, Rudolph Markham, Levis
Marshall, Laurence M. Marshall, Wm. J. Murphy, Joseph E. Patterson, Paul M. Peterson, E. S. Redfield, J. A. Rhead, G. B. Ringler, Charles W. Schenk, Philip L. Snauble, V. L. Swineford, Chas. R. Wisner, Adelbert J. Wisner, William H.
Basses
Bates, B. L. Becker, Herman Berry, Otto C. Boyer, Francis D. Briggs, Chas. Orin Brooks, Dr. E. D. Bullock, A. Ernest Clark, F. E. Coe, Herbert E. Cook, Arthur O. Davis, Rice B. Deahl, Floyd De Bruyn, J. Wm. k Pont, P. R. Edwards, R. L. Ellis, Ellsworth Elmstadt, Carl Emerson, Frank O. Erickson, Fred L. Erickson, John Erwin, Henry P. Finney, Alfred C. Gass, Truman Golden, Clemens M. Haeussler, Raynor Harvey, A. A. Hendricks, C. P. Hill, Cary L. Hirschman, Jesse F.
Hoppough, Clayton Homer, Edgell Howard, Manley J. Howell, Dr. R. B. Howes, F. J. Hutchins, L. A. Johnson, Edward Johnson, Leo H. Johnson, Thos. Katz, Louis H. Keeney, Francis B. Kerr, Joseph Keyes, Walter Killeen, Earle G. Koch, Eugene J. Lange, Carl F. A. Leonard, Louis A. Lewis, Frank E. Lindsay, George A. Mann, E. D. Mansfield, John R. Miller, Wm. J. Milligan, Carl A. Morse, Seymour D. Murdock, C. Eugene Nagelworth, Adrion Ortmeyer, Arthur O. Randolph, Vernon C. Robertson, Norman
Schmidt, August Sidener, Jay D. Smith, Earl H. Smith, Carl Smith, C. Stowell Smith, Walter C. Snell, W. Carter Solether, E. K. Stannard, Linus Stevenson, F. A. Straub, Harry Test, Ellis W. Thompson,, James H. Thompson, Richard R. Trueblood, Byram C. Turner, A. L. Vail, W. S. Van Doren, R. J. Wagner, Geo. E. Watkins, John Weeks, Walter S. Whitsit, Lyle A. Wilson, James A. Wines, L. D. Wood, F. E. Worcester, Philip A. Wormley, Harry R. Zelner, Otto
THE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MUSIC
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A. M., Director.
Offers systematic Courses of Instruction in Piano, Organ, Voice Culture, Violin, Violoncello, Orchestral Instruments, Public School Music, Ensemble and Orchestral Playing, Harmony, Counterpoint, Canon, Fugue, Composition, and History of Music. The work is organized in seven distinct Departments of Study, all being under the direct charge of Heads of Departments.
i. Introductory Course, or General Musical Instruction.
i. High-School Course. 3. Public School Music. 4. Course Leading to a Diploma.
5. Normal or Teacher's Course. 6. Church Music Course.
7. Operatic Course (including Elocution, etc.)
FACULTY.
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A.M., DIRECTOR {Leipsic, 1871-1875), Professor of Music in the University of Michigan,
Counterpoint, Orchestration, Organ.
ALBERT LOCKWOOD (Pvmil of Zwintscher, Bein-ecke, Buonamici, and Lesclwtizky), Head of Pianoforte Department,
Pianoforte.
WILLIAM A. HOWLAND (Pupil of F. E. Bristol of New York; A. Bandegger and Frederick Walker of London), Head of Vocal Department,
Singing and Voice Culture.
WILLIAM HOFMANN, Head of Orchestral Department,
Violin, Ensemble Playing, and Harmony.
RUTH I. MARTIN (Pupil of MacDowell, Moszkovo-ski, and Leschetizky),
Pianoforte.
LLEWELLYN L. REN WICK (Graduate of University Sdwol of Music, Pupil of Albert A. Stanley and Charles M. Widor),
Pianoforte, Organ, and Harmony
MRS. EMMA FISCHER-CROSS (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Leschetzsky),
Pianoforte.
VIRGINIA M. FISK (Graduate of University School of Music),
Pianoforte.
ELSA G. STANLEY (Pupil of Professor Heinrich Barth),
Pianoforte.
MINNIE M. DAVIS (Graduate of University School of Music),
Pianoforte.
EARL G. KILLEEN (Graduate, of University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
LEILA FARLIN (Graduate of University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture
ELIZABETH CAMPBELL (Graduate of University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture
FLORENCE M. GALPIN,
Elocution.
MRS. KATE M. B. WILSON,
Public School Music and Sight Singing.
ELEANOR MEAD,
Kindergarten Methods.
MELL GILLESPIE,
Mandolin and Guitar.
FRED McOMBER,
Flute.
GRIFFITH GORDON,
Band Instruments.
Among the special musical advantages of the School are the following:
The privilege of membership in the Choral Union, which competent students may enjoy upon payment of a small sum.--The Choral Union Series of Concerts, ten in number.--The Faculty Concerts, by members of the Faculty of the School of Music, one each month.--The Pupil's Recitals. --Practice in Orchestral Playing.--Use of University Library.--Lectures on Sound, History of Music, Music Analysis, and other subjects, by members of the University Faculties.--Opportunity to study the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. With the exception of the first two named above, these advantages are free to members of the School.
On application to the Director, the artists comprising the faculty may be secured, singly or together, for a limited number of concert engagements.
SUMMER SESSION, JUNE 27 to AUGUST 5, 1904.
Send for Special Announcement.
For further information address,
C. K. PERRINE, Secretary of the University School of Music,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
ANN ARBOR PLANT THl Richmond A Backus Co.

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