UMS Concert Program, May 15, 16, 17, 18, 1912: Nineteenth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan -- The Theodore Thomas Orchestra
Complete Series: CCLXIII
University Hall, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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ANNUAL MAY FESTIVAL
University of Michigan
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UNIVERSITY HALL, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
MA Y 15, 16, 17, 18, 1912
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
FRANCIS W. KELSEY, President ALBERT A. STANLEY, Director
LEVI D. WINES, Treasurer DURAND W. SPRINGER, Secretary
The Choral Union
THIRTY-THIRD SEASON 1911-1912
ALBERT A. STANLEY
CHARLES A. SINK
NELLIE GOUCHER, Pianist LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK, Organist
Franz Liszt Frederick Stock Albert A. Stanley . Nevada van DER VEER Reed Miller Herbert Witherspoon Florence Hinkle Johannes Brahms Alma Gluck Llewellyn L. Renwick Ellison van Hoose ' . Florence Mulford Marion Green .
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List of Concerts and Soloists
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 15, 8:00 O'CLOCK
Miss Florence Hinkle, Soprano Mme. Nevada van der Veer, Contralto
Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 16, 8:00 O'CLOCK
"THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS"
soloists Mme. Nevada van der Veer, Contralto
Mr. Reed Miller, Tenor Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass
The Choral Union
Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 17, 2:30 O'CLOCK
Miss Florence Hinkle, Soprano Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 17, 8 O'CLOCK
Mme. Alma Gluck, Soprano . Mr. Reed Miller, Tenor
Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 18, 3:00 O'CLOCK
COMPLIMENTARY ORGAN .RECITAL
Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 18, 7:30 O'CLOCK
"SAMSON AND DELILAH"
DELILAH SAMSON HIGH PRIEST ABIMELECH ) OLD HEBREW j FIRST PHILISTINE SECOND PHILISTINE
Miss Florence Mulfoed
Mr. Ellison van Hoose
Mr. Marion Green
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon
Mr. Fred Kill'een Â¦Mr. Louis Cogswell
The Choral Union Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
FOUNDED BY THEODORE THOMAS
FREDERICK A. STOCK Conductor
LETZ, H. ESSER, F. ZUKOWSKY, A. CULP, S. HILLMANN, C. Van der VOORT, A. NURNBERGER, h. ITTE.F.
ROEHRBORN, O. BRAUN, H. WOOLLETT, W. BUSSE, A. RABE, H. ULRICH, A. NOVAK, L. WOELFEL, P.
VIOLAS DASCH, G. MEYER, G. SCHROETER, R. HESSELBACH, O. MITTELSTAEDT, F.
STEINDEL, B. UNGER, W. CORELL, L. FELBER, H.
JISKRA, V. PARBS, H. WOLF, O. GATTERFELD, E.
QUENSEL, A. BAUMBACH, C. FURMAN, J.
BARTHEL, A. HESSELBACH, O.
SCHREURS, J. BUSSE, A.
KRUSE, P. RABE, H.
CONTRA BASSOON KRIEGLSTEIN, W.
De MARE, L. POTTAG, M. FRANK, W. ALBRECHT, C.
HARTL, J. HANDKE, P.
ULRICH, A. FELBER, H.
STANGE, G. ZELLER, W. GUNTHER, A.
TUBA OTTE, F.
TIMPANI ZETTELMANN, J.
PERCUSSIONS WINTRICH, M. WAGNER, E.
LIBRARIAN McNICOL, T.
THE THEODORE THOMAS ORCHESTRA TAKES PART IN AH FESTIVAL CONCERTS.
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1911-1912
No. CCLVIII. COMPLETE SERIES
First May Festival Concert
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 15, 8 O'CLOCK
Miss Florence Hinkle, Soprano Mme. Nevada van der Veer, Contralto
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, ) r . , Mr. Frederick A. Stock! Conductors
"CHORUS TRIOMPHALIS" VORSPIEL to "Hansel and Gretel"
ARIA--" O Harp Immortal," from "Saplio"
Mme. van der Veer
ARIA, Uncaela's Aria from "Carmen"
SYMPHONY NO. 5, E minor, Op. 64
Andante--Allegro con anima
Andante Cantabile con alcuna licenza
Finale--Andante maestoso--Allegro--Allegro vivace
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1911-1912
Second May Festival Concert
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 16, 8 O'CLOCK
Oratorio "THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS"
CAST PART I
CERONTIUS THE PRIEST ASSISTANTS
Mr. Reed Miller
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon
SOUL OF GERONTIUS
ANGEL OF THE AGONY
DEMONS, ANGELICALS AND SOULS
Mr. Reed Miller
Madame van der Veer
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
SYNOPSIS PART I
Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Jesu, Maria,
-am near to death." Chorus (Assistants).--"Kyrie Eleison." Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Rouse thee,
my fainting soul." Chorus (Assistants).--"Be merciful, be
gracious; spare him. Lord." Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--"Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus."
Tenor Solo (Gerontius).--" can no
more." Chorus (Assistants).--"Rescue him, O
Lord, in this his evil hour." Tenor Solo (Gerontius). -"Novissima
hora est." Bass Solo (The Priest).--"Proficiscere
anima Christiana." Chorus (Assistants).--"Go, in the name
of Angels and Archangels."
Tenor Solo (Soul of Gerontius).--"
ment to sleep; and now I am refreshed." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).---"My
work is done, My task is o'er." Dialogue, Mezzo-Soprano and Tenor
(Angel and Soul).--"All hail, My
child and brother, hail!" Chorus (Demons).---"Lowborn clods of
brute earth." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"It is
the restless panting of their being." Chorus (Demons).---"The mind bold
and independent." Dialogue, Tenor and Mezzo-Soprano
(Soul and Angel).--" sec not those
false spirits." Chorus (Angelicals).--"Praise to the
Holiest in the height." Tenor Solo (Soul).--"The sound is like
the rushing of the wind." Chorus (Angelicals).---"Glory to Him." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). --"They
sing of thy approaching agony."
Tenor Solo (Soul).--"But hark! a grand
mysterious harmony." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). -"And
now the threshold as we traverse it." Chorus (Tutti).--"Praise to the holiest
in the height." Dialogue, Mezzo-Soprano and Tenor
(Angel and Soul).--"Thy judgment
now is near." Bass Solo (Angel of the Agony).-"Jcsu! by that shuddering dread
which fell on Thee." Chorus (Voices on Earth).--"Be merciful, be gracious, spare him, Lord." Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).--"Praise
to His Name."
Tenor Solo (Soul).--"Take me away." Chorus (Souls in Purgatory).--"Lord,
Thou hast been our refuge." Mezzo-Soprano Soto(Angel).--"Softly and gently, dearly-ransomed
soul." Chorus (Souls).--"Lord, Thou hast
been our refuge." Chorus (Angelicals).--"Praise to the
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1911-1912
No. CCLX. COMPLETE SERIES
Third May Festival Concert
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 17, 2:30 O'CLOCK
Miss Florence Hinkle, Soprano Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
ARIA, "Wie nahte mir der Sehlummer"
SYMPHONY NO. 4, E minor, Op. 98 Allegro; Andante Moderato-Allegro Giocoso;--Allegro Energico e Passionate
SYMPHONIC POEM NO. 3, "Les Preludes"
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1911-1912
No. CCLXI. COMPLETE SERIES
Fourth May Festival Concert
FRIDAY EVENING' MAY 17, 8:00 O'CLOCK
Mme. Alma Gluck, Soprano Mr. Reed Miller, Tenor
Mr. Llewellyn Renwick, Organist Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
ARIA, "II re pastore"
Mme. Alma Gluck
SYMPHONIC POEM NO. 2, "Le Chasseur Maudit"
ARIA from "Louise"
Mme. Alma Gluck
ANDANTE (Margaret) from a Faust Symphony
SUITE, "Die Koenigskinder" Prelude HeHafest and Children's Dance
"La Lac Enchantee" "Kikomora"
DUET, from "Romeo and Juliet"
Mme. Gluck, and Mr. Miller
MARCHE-FANTASIE. Op. 44
Mr. Llewellyn Renwick
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1911-1912
No. CCLXII. COMPLETE SERIES
Complimentary Organ Recital
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY, 18, 2:30 O'CLOCK
LLEWELLYN RENWICK Organist
CHORALE, "Wacht auf, rttft uns die Stimme"
THE SHEPHERDS IN THE FIELD
MARCH (Queen of Sheba)
' buxtehude Mailing Schumann-Gounod
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 19 11-19 12
No. CCLXIII. COMPLETE SERIES,
Fifth May Festival Concert
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 18, 7:30 O'CLOCK
"SAMSON AND DELILAH
Saint-Saens Opera in Three Acts
SAMSON DELILAH HIGH PRIEST
AN OLD HEBREW f
FIRST PHILISTINE SECOND PHILISTINE
Mr. Ellison Van Hoose
Miss Florence Mulford
Mr. Marion Green
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon
Mr. Fred Killeen Mr. Louis Cogswell
The Choral Union
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
(A public square in Gaza, Palestine; Temple of Dagon in background.)
Scene I. Hebrew Men and Women-Samson in their midst.
Scene II. Abimelech, Philistine Soldiers, Samson and Israelites.
Scene III. The same as above, with the High Priest, Guards, First and Second Philistines.
Scene IV. Messenger, High Priest and Philistines.
Scene V. Hebrew Old Men; Samson and Victorious Hebrews. (The Gates of Dagon's Temple swing open.)
Scene VI. Samson, Delilah, the Old Hebrew, Philistines, and Hebrews. Dance of the Priestesses of Dagon.
(The Valley of Soreck, in Palestine.) Prhlude.
Scene I. Deliilah alone.
Scene II. Delilah and the High Priest.
Scene III. Samson and Delilah.
Scene I. (A Prison at Gaza.) Samson and Captive Hebrews.
Scene II. Interiorof Dagon's Temple. Delilah, Young Philistine Women and Dancers. Ballet.
Scene III. High Priest, Delilah, Samson, Philistine Men and Women.
ALBERT A. STANLEY
All Concerts Will Begin on Time
ALBERT A. STANLEY
Wednesday Evening, May 15
CHORUS TRIOMPHALIS. March-Fantasie (Orchestra. Chorus and Organ). Op. 14.
Albebt A Stani-ky
For obvious reasons this work will ueither be the subject of extended musical analysis, which its form does not warrant, nor of explanations not demanded by its content. It may be of interest to know that it was written as a contribution to a celebration of great significance -the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Presidency of James Burrill Angell, and that it was dedicated to Sarah Caswell Angoll. For these reasons it may serve to recall sacred memories and associations never to be forgotten.
YOR SPIEL " Hansel and Gretel," Humperdinck
Engelbert Humperdinck was born September 1, 1855, at Siegeburg, near Bonn; still living, in Berlin.
This composer -one of a very restricted group --has succeeded in so vitalizing legend as to give to the improbable convincing verisimilitude, and stands alone in his power of appealing to the mind and fancy of the child through avenues which the adult traverses with equal joy. " Hansel and Gretel " enforces this statement and, to a lesser degree, " The Children of the King." In each a simple subject is treated in terms of thematic interrelationship created by the great master, Richard Wagner, of whom he was a protGge, and with whom he came into touch in connection with the preparation of the Bayreuth Festivals. Possibly no one has more thoroughly proven the far reaching import of the underlying principles of the art which is no longer called " The Music of the Future " than he. He showed, even more convincingly than Wagner himself in the " JSIeistersinger," that the practice which even the master's enemies admitted might serve for the expression of the unreal and extra-human, was of equal value when it touched humanity, for his appeal was directed to the most logical and fundamental critics in the world -children. No one can appreciate the wealth of the composer's musical treatment who has not studied the score with care. Failing this the only recourse is to read the story, which, freely adapted by the composer's sister, Adelheid de Wette, from one of Grimm's fairy tales, forms the text of the opera.
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Hansel and Gretel were not models of obedience -which is a point in their favor to those of us who remember our own childhood days -and took advantage of the absence of both parents to indulge in all sorts of pranks, ending in the destruction of a cream-jug, but not before they had made way with its contents. The mother, returning, reprimands them severely and sends them out into the woods to gather berries for supper. They lose their way, are put to sleep by the Sandman, dream of fairies and have other charming visions of the land in which imaginative children spend much of their time. But in this wood there lives an old hag, who entices them to her house, which is constructed of sugar and gingerbread and --how could the hungry children resist such an appeal The witch looks with favor on Hansel's well-rounded form and discovers in him a welcome addition to her larder. Gretel is to assist her in preparing Hansel for his farewell appearance. When the old witch proceeds to investigate the condition of the oven in which she is to bake Hansel, the quick-witted girl releases her brother and together they thrust the old hag in the oven into which she had poked her head to test the temperature. While she gradually develops into tough gingerbread, the children,-together with, many others who have been turned into that delectable food by the magic of the witch, but who are released by Gretel's action,-dance with joy. The parents appearing at this juncture, all ends well and they live happily ever afterwards -after the manner of fairy tales.
A slow introduction -C major, Rithige, nicht zu langsamc Beicegung, 4-4 time -leads to a freely constructed movement in which the themes are taken from various episodes of the opera. First appears " The Prayer "-four horns and bassoon -n theme which plays an important part in the following sections. This is followed by a theme for trumpet -E major, Kraftig mid bestimmt, 2-2 time -which leads through a logical thematic sequence to a charming section for strings and wood winds--in which a delightful alternation of dream and action combines with the introductory motives. The Yorspiel is brought to a close -pianissimo -by reminiscences of the beautiful preluding measures.
" MICAELA'S ARIA" from " Carmen," Bizet
Miss Flokence Hinexe.
Georges Alexandra Cesar Leopold Bizet was born, October 25, 1838, sit Paris; died June 3, 1875, at Bougival.
In spite of the vogue of Gounod, there are many who feel that Bizet was a greater genius. It is difficult for some to realize that in many respects " Carmen " is a greater work than " Faust.'' Bizet was broader in his musical outlook than the majority of his countrymen, and his wonderful power of delineation is demonstrated by the fact that no Spaniard has been as successful as he in illustrating Spanish liffi and exploiting to the full the potentialities of its music.
The aria on our program is one of the most beautiful in the opera, and is one of the most popular selections in the concert repertoire.
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Micaela.--Here is the usual place for the smugglers to gather. I shall see him, he will be here! The duty laid upon me by his mother Shall be done, and'without a fear. I say that nothing shall deter me, I say, alas! I'm strong to play my part; But tho' undaunted I declare me, I feel dismay within my heart! Alone in this dismal place, All alone, I'm afraid, altho' 'tis wrong to fear: Thou wilt aid me now with thy grace, For thou, O Lord, art ever near! I shall see this woman in time, Whose wanton, treacherous art Has achieved the shame of the man Whom once I loved with all my heart! She's wily and false, she's a beauty! But I will never yield to fear! No, no! I will never yield to fear!
I'll speak in her face of my duty. Ah! _
I'm not mistaken now, 'tis he yonder I see! Come down! Josg! and reach your hand to me. But what is that He's taking aim -he fires -Ah! all my strength is gone, and my courage expires!
LEGENDE, for Orchestra -" Zorabayda," Op. 11, Svendsen
Johan Severin Svendsen was born September 30, 1840, at Christiania; died June 14, 1911, at Copenhagen.
Every composer of real distinction has some period in his creative activity in which he seems to attain the zenith of his power. To some this comes at an early period -although this is rather unusual -while to others it comes at the end of a constant evolution of creative ability reaching its climax during the closing years of life. In the case of the composer -one of whose most important compositions is on this evening's program -it came midway in his career and five years (1872-1877) cover his most significant period. In " Zorahayda " Svendsen forsook Scandinavian subjects and was inspired by a tale in Washington Irving's "Alhambra." Omitting the lengthy quotation which he put forth as explanatory of this frankly acknowledged " program music," we append the " program " in the condensed form in which the composer gave it at the beginning of his score, presuming that the story from which it was taken --" The Rose of the Alhambra "-is reasonably familiar.
" Solitude and melancholy of Jacinta --Appearance of Zorahayda -She predicts for Jacinta the end of his troubles and tells of her own unhappiness -Baptism
16 Official Program Book
alone will bring her repose -Jacinta sprinkles the sacred water over her head -Disappearance of Zorahayda-Joy of Jacinta over the remembrances of the prediction."
Whether the composition fits the text or not must be left to the fancy of the listener, which in many cases refuses to contribute its part if held in leash by a proclamation of the bounds within which it must display itself. At all events Svendsen, while in no sense a composer of the highest rank, always had something to say and said it well, which in the end is the main thing.
" Zorahayda " is written in one of the many modern forms which are designedly so free and elastic in structure as to cover almost any conceivable combination of events or moods, and is scored for an orchestra which includes no unusual instruments.
ARIA " O Harp Immortal " from " Sapho," Gounod
Miie. Nevada van dee Veer. Charles Gounod was born June 17, 1818, in Paris; died there October 17, 1893.
" Sapho," from which this aria is taken, was produced April 16, 1851, eight years before Gounod's masterpiece, " Faust," received its first hearing. It was his first opera, and although it contained much that was very beautiful it was unsuccessful, nor when, after extensive revision, it was rehabilitated in 18S4, was the verdict reversed. In all probability he was not fully master of himself when he put it forth the first time, but the fault must have been fundamental else why the second failure The text is given herewith:
Sapho.-Where am I
Ah! yes, I now remember.
All which e'er now to life hath bound me is no more.
For me there now remaineth naught but night and darlmess,
To grant my heart relief from its grief.
0 harp immortal consoling! Days full of woe abound; By thee my grief controlling When thy sweet notes resound. In vain thy voice, soft sighing, Strives to comfort my pain; Ah! it will aye remain:
Of this last wound I'm dying! 'T is a wound of the heart! Grief I must know till from life
Adieu! thou moonlight tender, Shine on with radiance blest! Cold wave, I now surrender;
NEVADA VAN DER VEER
First Concert 17
Grant me eternal rest. The day which soon is dawning, Phaon shall light for thee, Think not, I pray, of me. For thee returns the morning. Open then, wat'ry grave. I soon shall sleep evermore 'Neath the wave.
SYMPHONY E Minor, No. 5, Op. 64, Tchaikovsky
Andante--Allegro con anima; Andante cantabile; Valse; Finale.
Peter Ujitsch Tchaikovsky was born May 7, 1840, at Wotkinsk; died November 6, 1893, at St. Petersburg.
The modern world of music has known no more striking personality than Peter Iljitsch Tchaikovsky. In the letters contained in the admirable autobiography by his brother Modeste, which has been made available through the masterly English translation by Rosa Newmarch, we have as full a revelation of his inner self as has ever been vouchsafed by any genius.
Tchaikovsky must have subjected his works to the severest criticism based on the dictum of Richard Wagner --" The day of unconscious productivity is long since passed and a work to enlist the attention of a discriminating public must be founded on reason and reflection." The singularly clear and penetrating analysis to which he subjected the themes he chose for operatic and symphonic treatment--and his equally inclusive psychological dissection of character -might have led him to emphasize purely intellectual phases of his art had he not been a typical Russian, consequently a creature of Impulse. He was easily wounded to the quick by auy reflections on his creations, but always ready to acknowledge the force of honest criticism -be it never so severe -providing reflection and proving showed him the strictures were correct. Moreover he was always desirous of profiting by them. After the unsuccessful performance of one of his operas he tore the score into tatters, and it was only by reason of the fact that, anticipating such an action, a friend had hidden the parts, that a future rehabilitation of the work was made possible, which, by the way, resulted in a complete reversal of the judgment of the public, and grudging concessions on the part of the critics who, unfortunately in his case, were rival composers. In many instances he felt that his critics were wrong. Then he held fast to his own opinions, and always had the satisfaction of seeing his judgment vindicated.
His letters reveal an essentially noble character, and in one of them we have evidence that his life was regulated by a singularly pure and simple religious faith, entirely unhampered by the tenets of the Greek Church. In another he writes of
" The Life and Letters of Peter Iljitsch Tchaikovsky, by his Brother, Modeste Tchaikovsky." Translated by Rosa Newmarch. John Lane & Co.
Official Program Book
passing through a season of profound discouragement in which his " only comfort was prayer," for he adds, " God does not need our prayers, but we do." Thia accounts for the fact that, although he was an omnivorous reader of French literature, he had the utmost contempt for Zola, Daudet and other writers of fiction who, from his point of view, degraded their talents by surrounding vice with a halo and making virtue stupid and uninteresting. This is cited as a statement of his personal feelings and accounts for the fact that he always tried to bring out all that was best in his characters, as in Tatjania (Eugen Onegin) her sense of duty prevented her yielding to her passion for Onegin. He had nothing but contempt for composers who passed by Shakespeare, Milton, Dante and Schiller and set subjects by men whom he felt exerted an evil influence by pandering to decadent tastes. A Russian to the core, although his countrymen have been prone to call him Deutschgesinnt, he viewed the political system of his country with a keen realization of its deficiencies. Its shortcomings -which h'e looked upon as well-nigh irremediable, as thoughtful Russians generally do -did not make him less patriotic, and he looked forward with eagerness to the time when the people should have a part in the guidance of their country's affairs. He had no sympathy with Nihilistic methods nor had the remotest interest in democracy. He admired many of Tolstoi's points of view, but as a means of awakening the people's consciousness he considered them too remote and illusive. His personality did not appeal to him; and, although the great novelist courted his friendship, his advances were not responded to. The composer could not be attracted by an author whose deliverances on music were so puerile and unsound, and there was no common ground on which they might stand as men. He looked with disfavor on the work of the group made up of Cesar Cui, Borodin, Moussorgosky, Rirnsky-Korsakov and Balakirev. The end they sought had his hearty approval, but in his judgment the means they employed were not adapted to secure the desired results. He found much to admire iu the music of these men with the single exception of Cui, whom he considered a mere amateur, and was very enthusiastic in his praise of Rimsky-Korsakov and Balakirev, but he resented their assumption of superiority and their canons of judgment to the end. Among the Russian composers he awarded incontestable superiority to Glinka, and regretted that the outward circumstances of the author of "A Life for the Czar " removed him from the necessity of writing and favored the indolence which was in his case a sin. He admired, or rather stood somewhat in awe of Beethoven, saw in Richard Wagner a great but perverted genius whose contributions were negative rather than positive, did not admit Bach's superiority, held Handel as a fourth or fifth-rate genius, and Brahms he considered a man of high ideals and noble aims but utterly lacking in the equipment of a great composer. Mozart he worshipped with a passionate devotion. With no touch of sacrilege he compared Beethoven and Mozart as follows: "Beethoven is to me like Jehovah, but Mozart like Christ. The one deals with the universe, the other finds his home in the human heart." He glorified Bizet, whose " Carmen" he considered one of the greatest operas ever written. Indeed he did not hesitate to place modern French music far in advance of the contemporary German school. The early Italian music appealed to him very favorably by reason of its melodic charm, although he deprecated its lack of scholarship and its superficial use of the orchestra. Verdi he described as " somewhat coarse." Anton Rubinstein threw over him an hypnotic spell, but musically they were
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mutually uncongenial. He had more real sympathy with Anton's brother Nicholas -his most unsparing and frequently violently denunciatory critic -who was a true friend though occasionally a rather burdensone one. As all of this friend's criticisms were later retracted we cannot look upon his critical acumen as impeccable. The truth of it is they were both as much under the sway of irregulated impulse as children and frequently acted without reflection. Tchaikovsky worshipped his family devotedly and nothing could exceed the reverence in which he held the memory of his mother, a rare and noble woman. His brothers and sisters were ever sharers of the secrets of his inmost heart. He suffered from alternate fits of despair and moods of rare exaltation, and might have made shipwreck of his musical career had he not at a critical period of his life come under the influence of one of the strangest passions ever recorded and possible only to such a bundle of contradictions as he. Shortly before this he had married a woman whom he did not love, because he felt it his duty as she worshipped him blindly. Although his short married life was not a tragedy, as some writers have erroneously stated, but an entirely negligible episode in his career, it left him more misanthropic than ever, in spite of the fact that indications were not lacking to sustain the assumption that he would eventually be looked upon as Russia's greatest composer. This was counterbalanced in his mind, not by the pronounced antagonism of his enemies, for that only spurred him on, but by the indifference of his friends, which crushed him to earth. At this time he received a letter from Nadejda von Mech, a wealthy widow, containing such discriminating appreciation of his works, that it elicited from him a reply in which the expressions of gratitude were somewhat superlative. This led to a correspondence covering thirteen years. These kindred souls, who opened their hearts unreservedly to each other, held their unique friendship, which -if we may trust the correspondence -grew into love, at so high a valuation, that they agreed that they should never see eacb. other. They met but once, by accident, when they were both so confused that it was only by the exercise of the most admirable self-control that he saved the situation by raising his hat, making a slight bow, and passing on. All this time he was the recipient of a yearly pension of 6,000 roubles from her, was living in one of her houses, while she paid princely fees to Colonne and other conductors to produce the master's works. This peculiar friendship was finally broken off through an unfortunate misunderstanding resting in causes honorable to both. Tchaikovsky's only recognizable words during his last hours were " Nadejda Filaretovna von Mech," which he constantly repeated, while the news of his death came to her on her death-bed from which, two months later, she also journeyed forth into the Unknown.
Looking at Tchaikovsky's life up to its last decade, we find nought but a record of disappointment, only made endurable by occasional successes, and his constant dependence on his firm religious faith. None of his symphonies brought him great joy, with the exception of the No. 4 (f minor) and the "Pathetic," which title, by the way, was suggested by his brother Modeste with no inkling of the interpretation to be put upon it later, for the work was not xcrittcn because the composer felt that he was entering the Shadow of the Valley of Death. On the contrary, he was full of life and optimism and looking forward to still greater achievements, for he felt that he at last was free to express himself to the full. The " No. 4 " was written under the inspiration of Nadejda Filaretovna and in his letters to her he always
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referred to it as " our symphony." But his greatest joy was " Eugen Onegin," which he lived to see Russia's favorite opera.
Preliminary to our interpretation of the symphony the following historical facts must be stated: The date frequently given (1886-7) is incorrect according to Tchaikovsky's letters, for in one to his brother Modeste (May 15, 1888), he writes: "I am hoping to collect the materials for a symphony." On June 10, 1888, he says in a letter to Frau von Mech : " Have I told you that I intend to write a symphony The beginning was difficult; now, however, inspiration seems to have come. We shall see!'1 Again he writes (Aug. 26, 1888), "I am so glad that I have finished my symphony (No. 5) that I can forget all physical ailments." This would seem to establish the date of its composition. It now only remains to submit the following brief analysis:
A "motto" theme -E minor--Andante -4-4 time -is the foundation of a very intensely dramatic introduction, and its pathetic suggestions underlie the structure of the succeeding movements.
Andante. Clar. I
Through a masterly process of elaboration, in which clarity of statement conditions the whole section, the principal theme of the first movement -E minor --Â¦ Allegro con anima -6-8 time -is given out by the clarinets and bassoons.
Typically Tchaikovsky-ian is the beautiful contrast afforded by the introduction of the exquisite and compelling second theme, through a superb climax.
This theme, first started by the strings and later clothed in beautiful orchestral dress, is treated with great fulness of detail which, inasmuch as the first theme ia also thoroughly exploited, makes the comparatively short development section thoroughly justified. This because the themes are treated with dramatic intensity, rather than subjected to the extensive treatment held by those who know no guide other than the fixed maxims of the text-books -which always lag behind the great concepts, which are not yet in the books -to be a sine qua non in the symphonic form. Tchaikovsky had a rare sense of formal values, and consequently this
First Concert 21
d parture from the region of Zopf is justified. If iu no other way this justification is supported by the surety with which he works up a final climax followed by a rather extensive coda which lapses into the mood of the introductory section.
The second movement -D major--Andante cantabile con alcuna --12-8 time -is introduced by gloomy chords for the strings -like lowering clouds over the landscape through which breaks the sun, in the form of this wondrously beautiful theme for horn.
A sudden change of key (F sharp minor), introduces a new theme for oboe, afterwards transferred to the first violins and violas in the original key, accompanied by wind instruments.
The clarinet now enters with still another theme -F sharp minor -Moderato con anima -4-4 time -which leads into a great climax, in which the " motto" j
Moderate) con amtna.
theme is stated, as though Tchaikovsky would say " Lest we forget." The movement then continues in melodic terms already stated but varied in orchestral color, and, after another statement of the "motto," ends in a coda -conditioned by the second theme.
The third movement --A major, Allegro moderato, 3-4 time -is a waltz, a form always used by the composer with a full realization of its possibilities of idealization, wherein it differs from most dance-forms. The themes given herewith are
very simple and enforced as befits the form. But the merry-making is not without its ominous suggestions, for again attention is directed to the implication of the motto theme and joy rests on pathos.
The fourth movement -E major, Andante, 4-4 time -in the long introduction of which we are again brought lace to face with the motto, treated with full appre22 Official Program Book
ciation of all for which it stands, and E minor --Allegro vivace, 2-2 time -in the main movement, brings the symphony to a close. The impetuous first subject, thorAllegro vivace.
oughly developed through the processes which the composer used but never abused, leads eventually to the second subject in the development of which the motto theme
figures. These themes repeated lead to a section full of storm and stress, the meanj ing of which is clearly apparent to those who knew the man, as well as the com-1 poser. The frequent appearance of the " motto " theme gives one an inkling of the j composer's mood, while the triumphant ending of the movement points to certainty ' of conviction that "All's well with the world."
In conclusion it may be added that in making a final decision as to Tchaikovsky's i position in the ranks of modern composers, this symphony, the No. 4, the " Pathetic," and " Eugen Onegin," will incline the open minded critic to assign him a position ; much higher than many will admit ';
Thursday Evening, May 16
" THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS," Op. 38, Elgab
PABT I. Gebontitjs, -----------Reed Miller
The Pbiebt, .-.._...Heebebx Withebspoon Assistants,...........Chobal Union
Sotjl or Gebontids,.....----Reed Milleb
Angel, -.......--Nevada van deb Veeb
Angel of the Agony, ------Hebbebt Withebspoon
Demons, Angelicals, and Souls, ------Chobal Union
Albeet A. Stanley, Conductor.
Edward William Elgar, born at Broadheath (near Worcester), England, June 2. 1857; still living.
We have come to associate with the products of English composers characteristics for which Handel, more than any other great composer, seems to stand. There has always been in English music a directness of purpose, a certain blunt, sometimes rough, honesty of statement, and a contempt for any over-accentuation of the emotions that comports perfectly with the genius of the Anglo-Saxon race. Such admirable qualities are not to be despised, but, unfortunately, English composers were so fully dominated by Handel and Mendelssohn that the originality and fervor seen in Purcell's music seemed to have been forever lost, and they drifted into a conventionality that made freedom of utterance impossible. But now that Italy seems to have exhausted herself, and Germany is unproductive -despite Richard Strauss,-England seems to have entered upon a new artistic era, and in the person of Edward William Elgar we find the embodiment of a reaction against the " ways of the fathers " that is fraught with hope and laden with prophecy.
The unusual prominence given to Elgar in the programs of our great concert institutes, in reviews and in musical journals, would seem to indicate that in him we have a composer of more than ordinary significance, one of real originality.
Whether the superlative admiration expressed by some will be justified by the verdict of time we may not determine but there can be no doubt -in view of the fact that he seems to be an artistic storm center -that he really has something to say.
24 Official Program Book
His artistic equipment is superb, and, when we consider that he is almost entirely self-taught, the mastery he displays in every direction -especially in his control of the resources of the orchestra, in which he is only equalled by Richard Strauss -is nothing short of marvelous. His career seems to emphasize ultra-modern art not as the work of individual genius alone, but as an expression of tremendous energy and complex forces conditioning modern life -and in the highest sense cosmopolitan. This view seems to be enforced by the fact that the art of the two composers to whom we have referred -while it seems to be a real necessity of expression and permeated by this Zeitgeist -has technically but comparatively little in common. The query so often put as to the permanence of this movement cannot be definitely answered, but if the foregoing suggestions are correct, there can be no doubt of it sincerity -and sincerity is a condition of enduring art. His life has been singularly lacking in incident, quite unlike the career of hs younger contemporary, Richard Strauss, but his works display a versatility, a fine sense of values, and an intellectual appreciation, indicative of a wide acquaintance with literature, art, and life. None but a man to whom the highest concepts of life appeal could have written such a work as " The Dream of Gerontius," " the greatest choral work of the nineteenth century -not excepting Brahms' ' Requiem'."
Elgar is a devout Roman Catholic. Almost ascetic in his devotion to the teachings of the Mother Church, in " Gerontius " he has blazed a new path. Attracted by subjects often but of touch with the modern point of view, he clothes these subjects in ultra-modern dress, and, more than any other, seesm to have solved the problem of the relation of dramatic form to religious content. Living in the Malvern Hills, it was not strange that he should have given us his noble " Caractacus," which reflects England's glory and tells the story of one of the noblest of her early heroes. It may be that in the partial seclusion of Bis environment we may see the reason for his present tendencies, so admirably illustrated in the " Dream of Gerontius " and his latest work, " The Apostles." Whether, as Ernest Newman fears, this absorption in mediaeval thought and early Christian history will react unfavorably on his work, by substituting introspection for action, and mysticism for clear cut realistic statement, time alone will tell. At all events, we must rejoice that Cardinal Newman's poem inspired him to write such a work as the one now under construction.
Space forbids an extended analysis of the work, but certain characteristics must be pointed out, in the interest of such an appreciation of the significance of the subject, as the nobility of the poetry, and the ultra-modern dramatic texture of the virile, fervid, and beautiful musical setting demand. First of all stress must be laid upon the fact that it is organic in structure. It is so closely knit together by a complicated system of typical motives, in some instances expanded into broad melodies; it is so compact in form, so entirely imlike the typical oratorio, with its solos, choruses and orchestral episodes standing unrelated side by side, that it can not come under any conventional definition of the form. It is the poem set to music in such a manner as to emphasize the unity of the idea rather than to display the variety of its utterance in single numbers, or, in other words, it is a religious work composed among the inusico-dramatic lines first laid down by Richard Wagner. All the musical factors exist in combination, and no one part is subordinated to another for the sake of specific, purely musical effects. The orchestra is delineative, and fills with subtle light and shade the more mystical parts, while in the intense dramatic
Second Concert 25
episodes it is all that Wagner proclaimed it to be, both in his writings and in his practice.
Daring in conception,--the choice of subject enforces this--powerful, logical and original in the portrayal of scenes generally more effective when left to the imagination, his touch is tender when he gives such pictures as the death of Gerontius, and the 12-voiced chorus " Go on thy course." which concludes Part I. When, in Part II, the Soul of Gerontius is led by an Ange. past the place where he hears the " sour and uncouth dissonances " of the Demons; and when, in response to his query, " Shall I see my dearest Master" come the ethereal harmonies of the Chorus of Angelicals,. " Praise to the Holiest," which develops into a chorus in which climax succeeds climax in soul-compelling sequence, the composer rises to greatness. The queries of the Soul and the auswers of the Angels are touching in their humanity, and the-music often recalls the mysticism of Wagner's " Parsifal." Then the Judgment, the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for Souls " who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee"; the beautiful Semi-Chorus of Voices on Earth, who sing "Spare him, Lord," when he goes before his Judge, and the subdued glory of the ending, for,, as though awed by the awful mystery of it all, the three choruses sing the final Amens--pianissimo,--ending in a long sustained unison which vanishes as we listen.
Having now gained a general impression of the scope of the work, it may be-helpful to examine details somewhat closely. The very first motive of the prelude, D-minor, Lento, common time, given by clarionets, bassoons and violas, in prophetic of the pathetic aspects of the text. Elgar has marked it mistico. As it is developed the English horn contributes fitting color. At the completion of this theme, a sustained chord of D-rnajor, introduces another motive of dramatic texture, which, alternating with a broad choral-like theme, leads into a wonderfully beautiful section, con molto espressivo, 3-4 time. This broadens into passionate utterance, only to die-away in harmonies which are heard later as the soul of Gerontius takes its flight. A sustained motive, twice repeated, leads into a triumphant burst for full orchestra through which rings out the choral, which is here so important a factor that we-must seek its fuller meaning in the text, "Lover of Souls I Look to Thee! " When first heard the theme may be associated with the words "Jesus have mercy; Mary pray for rile! " This strong, decisive movement gives way to a repetition of the-theme which led up to it, after which comes a fine treatment of the theme of thfr chorus, " Go forth in the name of Patriarchs and Prophets." With an echo of No. 3, and a repetition of the initial motive, the prelude, through a suggestive motive, merges into the introductory recitative for Gerontius, " Jesu Maria." This motive is constantly in evidence in this whole scene, and by reason of its plasticity stands for contrasting phases of thought. After the words "And Thou are calling me " we hear a motive which is full of significance, especially as used later in the development of the chorus, " Be merciful." The chromatic motive at the words " Not by the token of this failing breath " is delineative and suggestive. The choral theme is heard, and through this and other masterly motives, some new, and some suggested by the-developments of the scene, we realize the feelings of Gerontius as he faces death, and much of the mystery of dying is brought home to us as we listen. The scene-is interrupted by a lovely Kyrie, medireval in spirit, although the harmonies occasionally betray modern usage -not to the disadvantage of the effect, and, strangely enough, with no tinge of incongruity -then, after a short recitative, "Rouse thee
26 Official Program Book
and play the man," introduced by the rhythmic pulse of the basses in the orchestra, comes the chorus, " Be merciful," whose principal theme has in it much of the flavor of " Parsifal." And why not Suffering is the message of each. In this chorus the first motive mentioned in connection with the opening utterance of Geron-tius is developed into a broad and expressive melody by the basses, " By the birth." These words have just been given an infinitely tender cantabile motive by the sopranos. This chorus is followed by a long scene, for Gerontius, in which all the varied and subtle phases of the poem are brought out in a score eloquent with the latter-day eloquence of the orchestra. In this we have premonitions of the diabolical Chorus of Demons in Part II. Then the chorus, " Rescue him," divided into two parts, by responses between the semi-chorus, " Noe from the waters in a saving home," and the Ainens of the chorus, after which the death of Gerontius, "Novissima hora est . . . and I fain would sleep . . into thy hands --"
Part I ends with the proclamation of the Priest, Proficiscerc, etc., and the final chorus, in the second section of which the voices seem poised in air, such is the freedom with which they are used.
Part II gives us, in the opening measures of the introduction, an impression of that peace of which the Soul of Gerontius speaks, " How still it is -I hear no more the busy beat of time." A wonderful conception of the waking of a soul now ensues. Closely bound together, unity secured by the frequent introduction of motives already heard, the score is truly delineative and expressive. At the words, "Another marvel, some one has me fast within his ample palm," we hear the motive that accompanies the Angel throughout this wonderful portrayal of the after life of a soul released from the body and hastening to its Judge. Now after the calm and comfort of the assurance of the Angel, " Thou hast forestalled the agony," and the duo, " Now that the hour is come I can forward look with serenest joy," comes a " fierce hubbub." The Chorus of Demons, terrible in its depiction of the " hideous purring," " the incessant pacing to and fro," " the sullen howl of spirits who assemble by the judgment seat and gather souls for hell," is now heard by Gerontius, who says to the Angel, " I see not these false spirits, shall I see my dearest Master, when I reach His throne" "Yes for one moment thou Shalt see thy Lord!" Then as the "sour dissonances " are heard no more, the glory of the Celestial Choir steals upon his ear; ever gaining in intensity, piling climax on climax it finally ends in a long sustained chord. This chorus is symphonic in breadth of development, and with the short explanatory solos by the Angel, and illustrative orchestral episodes, comprises nearly one-sixth of the entire work. This is the climax judged by ordinary standards, and the most difficult artistic problem of the composition is now faced. " Thy judgment now is near," procaims the Angel. Then Gerontius hears " the voices that on earth, around his bed, chant the ' Subvenite' with the priest." Then the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for the soul that now is to go before the Judge. The Voices on Earth sing, "Spare him Lord." Then the one glance at the glory of God, a most intense moment, with its one tremendous climax, succeeded immediately by a pianissimo, and the cry of Gerontius, " Take me away, and fn the lowest depths there let me lie! " The Souls in Purgatory sing, " Lord, Thou hast been our refuge." The Angel, in a broad and eloquent melody, comforts the Soul: " Softly and gently, dearly ransomed soul; in my most loving arms I now enfold thee. And o'er the peaceful waters as they roll I poise thee, and I lower thee and hold thee. Thou shalt
Second Concert 27
pass the night here; and I will corne and wake thee on the morrow; farewell! Be brave and patient, brother dear." "Praise to the Holiest in the height, Amen." This by the chorus in threefold utterance. We see now that the glory of the song before the throne was but incidental. It is in this quiet ending -this suggestion of infinite peace and rest eternal that we see the real climax.
Gerontius.--Jesu, Maria--I am near to
death, And Thou are calling me; I know
it now. Not by the token of this faltering
breath, This chill at heart, this dampness
on my brow,-(Jesu, have mercy! Mary, pray for
me!) " 'Tis this new feeling, never felt
(Be with me, Lord, in my extremity!) That I am going, that I am no
'Tis this strange innermost abandonment, (Lover of souls! Great God! I
look to Thee.)
This emptying out of each constituent And natural force, by which I came
Pray for me, O my friends; a visitant Is knocking his dire summons at
my door, The like of whom, to scare me and to
Has never, never come to me before;
So pray for me, my friends, who have not strength to pray.
Assistants.--Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. Holy Mary, pray for him. All holy Angels, pray for him. Choirs of the righteous, pray for him.
All Apostles, all Evangelists, pray for
him. All holy Disciples of the Lord, pray
All holy Innocents, pray for him. All holy Martyre, all holy Confessors, All holy Hermits, all holy Virgins, All ye Saints of God, pray for him.
Gebontius. -Rouse thee, my fainting
soul, and play the man; And through such waning span
Of life and thought as still has to be
Prepare to meet thy God. And while the storm of that bewilderment
Is for a season spent, And, ere afresh the ruin on me fall,
Use well the interval. Assistants.--Be merciful, be gracious
spare him, Lord.
Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him.
From the sins that are past; Prom Thy frown and Thine ire;
From the perils of dying; From any complying With sin, or denying His God, or relying On self, at the last;
From the nethermost fire; From all that is evil; From power of the devil; Thy servant deliver, For once and for ever. By Thy birth, and by Thy Cross. Rescue him from endless loss; By Thy death and burial, Save him from a final fall; By Thy rising from the tomb, By Thy mounting up above, By the Spirit's gracious love, Save him in the day of doom. Gebontius. -Sauctus fortis, Sanctus
De profundis oro te, Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce mihi, Domine. Firmly I believe and truly
God is Three, and God is One; And I next acknowledge duly
Manhood taken by the Son. And I trust and hope most fully
In that Manhood crucified; And each thought and deed unruly
Do to death, as He has died. Simply to His grace and wholly
Light and life and strength belong, And I love, supremely, solely,
Him, the holy, Him the strong. Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus, De profundis oro te,
28 Official Program. Book
Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce mihi, Doniine. And Ihold in veneration,
For the love of Him alone, Holy Church, as His creation,
And her teachings, as His own. And I take with joy whatever
Now besets me, pain or fear, And with a strong will I sever
All the ties which bind me here. Adoration aye be given,
With and through the angelic
To the God of earth and heaven, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De profundis oro te, Miserere Judex meus,
Mortis in discrirnine. I can no more: for now it comes
again, That sense of ruin, which is worse
That masterful negation and collapse Of all that makes me man.
And, crueller still, A fierce and restless fright begins to
fill The mansion of my soul. And, worse
Some bodily form of ill Floats on the wind, with many a
loathsome curse Tainting the hallowed air, and laughs
Its hideous wings, And makes me wild with horror and
dismay. O Jesu, help! pray for me, Mary,
Some Angel, Jesu! such as came to
In Thine own agony. Mary, pray for me. Joseph, pray for
Mary, pray for me. Assistants.--Rescue him, O Lord, in
this his evil hour, As of old so many by Thy gracious
power:-Noe from the waters in a saving
@@@@Job from all his multiform and fell
Moses from the land of bondage and
David from Golia and the wrath of
--So, to show Thy power, Rescue this Thy servant in his evil hour.
Gekontius.--Novissiina hora est; and I
fain would sleep, The pain has wearied me. Into
Thy hands, O Lord, into Thy hands.
The Priest and Assistants.--Proficiscere, anima Christiana, de hoc
mundo! Go forth upon thy journey, Christian
soul! Go from this world! Go, in the Name
of God The Omnipotent Father, who created
thee! Go, in the Name of Jesus Christ, our
Lord, Son of the living God, who bled for
thee! Go, in the Name of the Holy Spirit,
who Hath been poured out on thee! Go
in the name Of Angels and Archangels; in the
name Of Thrones and Dominations; in the
name Of Princedoms and of Powers; and
in the name
Of Cherubim and Seraphim, go forth! Go, in the name of Patriarchs and
And of Apostles and Evangelists, Of Martyrs and Confessors; in the
name Of holy Monks and Hermits; in the
name Of holy Virgins; and all Saints of
God, Both men and women, go! Go on thy
course; And may thy dwelling to-day be
found in peace, And may thy dwelling be the Holy
Mount Of Sion :--through the Same, through
Christ our Lord.
Second Concert 29
Soul of Gerontitjs.--I went to sleep;
and now I am refreshed, A strange refreshment: for I feel in
An expressive lightness, and a sense Of freedom, as 1 were at length myself, And ne'er had been before. How
still it is! I hear no more the busy beat of
time, No, nor my fluttering breath, nor
struggling pulse; Nor does one moment differ from the
This silence pours a solitariness Into the very essence of my soul; And the deep rest, so soothing and so
sweet, Hath something too of sternness and
of pain. Another marvel: someone has me
Within his ample palm; A uniform And gentle pressure tells me I am
not Self-moving, but borne forward on
my way. And hark! I hear a singing: yet in
I cannot of that music rightly say Whether I hear, or touch, or taste the
Oh, what a heart-subduing melody! Angel.--My work is done, My task is o'er, And so I come, Taking it home, For the crown is won,
Alleluia, For evermore. My father gave In charge to me
This child of earth E'en from its birth, To serve and save,
And saved is be. This child of clay To me was given, To rear and train By sorrow and pain In the narrow way,
Alleluia, From earth to heaven.
Soul.--It is a member of that family Of wondrous beings, who, ere the
worlds were made, Millions of ages back, have stood
around The throne of God.
@@@@I will address him.
Mighty one, my Lord,
My Guardian Spirit, all hail!
Angel.--All hail, my child! My child and brother, hail! what
wouldst thou Soul.--I would have nothing but to
speak with thee For speaking's sake. I wish to hold
with thee Conscious communion; though I fain
would know A maze of things, were it but meet to
ask, And not a curiousness.
Angel.--You cannot now Cherish a wish which ought not to be
wished. Soul.--Then I will speak. I ever had
That on the moment when the struggling soul Quitted its mortal case, forthwith it
Under the awful presence of its God, There to be judged and sent to its
own place, What lets me now from going to my
Lord Angel.--Thou art not let; but with extremest speed
Art hurrying to the Just and Holy Judge.
Soul.--Dear Angel, say, Why hare I now no fear at meeting
Him Along my earthly life, the thought of
And judgment was to me most terrible.
Angel.--It is because Then thou didst fear, that now thou
dost not fear. Thou hast forestalled the agony, and
so For thee the bitterness of death is
Also, because already iu thy soul The judgment is begun.
3Â° Official Program Book
A presage falls upon thee, as a ray
Straight from the Judge, expressive of thy lot.
That cairn and joy uprising in thy soul
Is first-born to thee of thy recompense,
And heaven begun.
Soul.--Now that the hour is come, my
fear is fled;
And at this balance of my destiny, Now close upon me, I can forward
With a serenest joy.
@@@@But hark! upon my sense Comes a fierce hubbub, which would
make me fear Could I be frighted.
Angel.--We are now arrived Close on the judgment-court; that
sullen howl Is from the demons who assemble
Hungry and wild, to claim their property,
And gather their souls for hell. Hist to their cry.
Soul.--How sour and how uncouth a dissonance!
Of brute earth,
They aspire To become gods,
By a new birth, And an extra grace, And a score of merits,
As if aught Could stand in place
Of the high thought, And the glance of fire Of the great spirits, The powers West, The lords by right, The primal owners,
Of the proud dwelling And realm of light,-Dispossessed, And thrust,
Chucked down, By the sheer might Of a despot's will,
Of a tyrant's frown, Who after expelling Their hosts, gave, Triumphant still,
And still unjust,
Each forfeit crown To psalm-droners, And canting groaners,
To every slave, And pious cheat,
And crawling knave, Who licked the dust
Under his feet. Angel.--It is the restless panting of
Like beasts of prey, who, caged within their bars, In a deep hideous purring have their
life, And an incessant pacing to and fro.
Demons.--The mind bold
The purpose free, So we are told, Must not think To have the ascendant.
What's a saint One whose breath
Doth the air taint Before his death;
A bundle of bones, Which fools adore, Ha! ha!
Â¦When life is o'er.
Virtue and vice, A knave's pretence. 'Tis all the same; Ha! ha!
Dread of hell-fire, Of the venomous flame
A coward's plea. Give him his price,
Saint though he be, Ha! ha! From shrewd good
He'll slave for hire; Ha! ha!
And does but aspire To the heaven above
With sordid aim, And not from love.
@@@@Angel.--Yes,--for one moment thou
shalt see thy Lord.
One moment; but thou knowest not,
my child, What thou dost ask; the sight of the
Second Concert 31
Will gladden thee, but it will pierce
thee too. Soul.--Thou speakest darkly, Angel!
and an awe
Falls on me, and a fear lest I be rasb. Angel.--There was a mortal, who is
now above In the mid glory: he, when near to
Was given Communion with the Crucified,-Such, that the Master's very wounds
Upon his flesh; and, from the agony Which thrilled through body and soul
in that embrace,
Learn that the flame of the Everlasting Love
Doth burn ere it transform. Choir of Anqelicals.--Praise to the
Holiest in the Height, And in the depth be praise: Angel.-Hark to those sounds! They come of tender beings angelical, Least and most childlike of the sons
of God. Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! To us His elder race He gave
To battle and to win. Without the chastisement of pain,
Without the soil of sin. The younger son He willed to be
A marvel in His birth : Spirit and flesh His parents were; His home was heaven and earth. The Eternal blessed His child, and
And sent Him hence afar, To serve as champion in the field
Of elemental war. To be His Viceroy in the world
Of matter, and of sense; Upon the frontier, towards the foe,
A resolute defence. Angel.--We now have passed the gate,
and are within
The House of Judgment. Soul.--The sound is like the rushing
of the wind-The summer wind--among the lofty
Choir of Angelicals.--Glory to Him.
who evermore By truth and justice reigns;
Who tears the soul from out its case,
And burns away its stains! Angel.--They sing of thy approaching
agony, Which thou so eagerly didst question
of. Soul.--My soul is in my hand: I have
no fear,But hark! a grand mysterious harmony :
It floods me, like the deep and solemn sound
Of many waters.
@@@@Angel.--And now the threshold, as we
traverse it, Utters aloud its glad responsive
chant. Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! O loving wisdom of our God! '
When all was sin and shame, A second Adam to the fight And to the rescue came. O wisest love! that flesh and blood
Which did in Adam fail, Should strive and should prevail; And that a higher gift than grace
Should flesh and blood refine, God's Presence and His very Self,
And Essence all divine. O generous love! that He who smote
In man for man the foe, The double agony in man
For man should undergo; And in the garden secretly, And on the cross on high, Should teach His brethren and inspire
To suffer and to die. Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! Angel.--Thy judgment now is near, for
we are come
Into the veiled presence of our God. Soul.--I hear the voices that I left on
earth. Angel.--It is the voice of friends
around thy bed, Who say the "Subvenite" with the
priest. Hither the echoes come; before the
Throne Stands the great Angel of the Agony,
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The same who strengthened Him, what time He knelt
Lone in the garden shade, bedewed with blood.
That Angel best can plead with Him for all
Tormented souls, the dying and the
Angel of the Agony.--Jesu! by that shuddering dread which fell on Thee;
Jesu ! by that cold dismay which sickened Thee;
Jesu! by that pang of heart which thrilled in Thee;
Jesu! by that mount of sins which crippled Thee;
Jesu! by that sense of guilt which stifled Thee;
Jesu ! by that innocence which girdled Thee;
Jesu! by that sanctity which reigned in Thee;
Jesu ! by that Godhead which was one with Thee;
Jesu! spare these souls which are so dear to Thee,
Souls, who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee;
Hasten, Lord, their hour, and bid them come to Thee,
To that glorious Home, where they
shall ever gaze on thee. Soul.--I go before my Judge. Voices on Eaeth.--Be merciful, be gracious ; spare him, Lord.
Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him. Angel.-Praise to His Name!
O happy, suffering soul! for it is safe, Consumed, yet quickened, by the
glance of God.
Soul.--Take me away, and in the lowest deep
There let me be,
And there in hope the lone night-watches-keep,
Told out for me.
There, motionless and happy in my pain,
Alone, not forlorn.-There will I sing my sad perpetual strain,
Until the morn,
There will I sing, and soothe my stricken breast, Which ne'er can cease
To throb, and pine, and languish, till possesst
Of its Soul Peace.
There will I sing rny absent Lord and Love:-Take me away,
That sooner I may rise, and go above, And see Him in the truth of everlasting day.
Souls in Pukgatoky.--Lord, Thou hast been our refuge: in every generation ;
Before the hills were born, and the world was: from age to age Thou art God.
Bring us not, Lord, very low: for Thou hast said, Come back again, ye sons of Adam.
Come back, O Lord! how long: and
be entreated for Thy servants.
Angel.--Softly and gently, dearly-ransomed soul,
In my most loving arms I now enfold thee, And, o'er the penal waters, as they
roll, I poise thee, aud I lower thee, and
And carefully I dip thee in the lake, And thou, without a sob or a resistance,
Dost through the flood thy rapid passage take, Sinking deeper, deeper, into the dim
distance. Angels, to whom the willing task is
given, Shall tend, and nurse, and lull thee,
as thou liest; And Masses on the earth, and prayers
in heaven, Shall aid thee at the Throne of the
Most Highest. Farewell, but not for ever! brother
dear, Be brave and patient on thy bed of
sorrow; Swiftly shall pass thy night of trial
here, And I will come and wake thee on
the morrow. Souls.--Lord, Thou hast been our
refuge, &c. Amen.
Choir or Angelicals.--Praise to the Holiest, &c. Amen.
Friday Afternoon, May 17
Ludwig von Beethoven was bom December 20, 1776, at Bonn; died March 25, 1827, at Vienna.
This overture, though less extensive in form than the " Lenore No. 3," is so replete, with the greatest qualities of Beethoven's genius, and is so surcharged with dramatic intensity, that it may well stand as an example of the composer at his very best. Its form is so lucid, its principal themes so delineative, that it provokes interest in the tragedy -by a minor German poet, Heinrich Joseph von Collin -which could inspire the composer to such a creation. The title naturally suggests Shakespeare's greater drama, and leads one to wonder why Beethoven never looked to the great English dramatist for inspiration, instead of being moved by the works of such men as Vigano, Kotzebue and von Collin. To be sure he did draw from Schiller and Goethe, but it would seem that he would have been more influenced by the greatest dramatist of them all. As to the work itself, the two themes quoted will be all-sufficient in the way of explanation.
Beginning with a unison of the strings -a favorite usage with Beethoven -ending in an incisive chord for full orchestra ff, through this device, twice repeated, the principal theme, O minor, Allegro con trio, 4-4 time -enters
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The second theme is very characteristic in its simplicity and its song-like content serves as an admirable foil to the agitated principal subject, revealing the contrast essential to tragedy.
The work ends with a powerful coda depicting the death of Coriolanus.
SCENE AND ARIA, " Wie nahte niir der Schlummer," von Weber
from " Der Freischutz."
Carl Maria von Weber was born December 18, 187G; died June 5, 1820, at London. Miss Florence IIinkle.
Cabl Mahia von Webeb, realizing the worthlessness of court intrigue and the futility of mythology as material for opera, in " Der Freischutz" turned to the legends of his native land for inspiration. The German people, full of aspiration for political freedom, which seemed near to them at this time, seized upon the work as representative of their kindled hopes. They glorified its atmosphere of Gemiith-lichkeitj they shuddered at the 'horrors of the Wolfschlucht; their ildnnergesamg-vereine sang all the male choruses mit Lust and Liebe; the young men saw in the heroine, Agatha, the embodiment of the type of maiden they loved: the maidens in turn adored the much-persecuted hero, Max, and, finally, they approved of the rehabilitation of the old form of Singspiel. For these reasons -and of course the beautiful music entered into the equation -its first production (Berlin, June 18, 1821) was a glorious triumph. It finds ardent admirers even now, in spite of the fact that musical Germany has become so sophisticated through Wagner and Strauss that many find listening to one tonality at a time somewhat irksome.
The selection on our program represents Agatha's grief and suspense as Max fails to appear, and her joy as she finally discerns him in the distance, and chronologically, as well as by Its romantic atmosphere, its position on our program is justified.
How tranquilly I slumbered Before on him I gazeu! But evermore with sorrow Love hand in hand must go. The moon reveals her silv'ry light;
Oh lovely night! (Stepping out on the balcony folds her hands in prayer.) Softly sighing, day is dying, Soar my prayer to heaven flying; Starry splendor shining yonder,
Pour on us thy radiance tender!
How the golden stars are burning Thro' yon vault of ether blue! But lo! gath'ring o'er the mountains Is a cloud foreboding storm, And along yon pine woods' side, Veils of darkness slowly glide! Lord, watch o'er me, I implore thee,
Humbly bending I adore thee, Thou hast tried us,
Third Concert 35
Ne'er denied us, May thy holy angels guide us! Earth has lull'd her care to rest; Why delays my loit'ring love Fondly beats my anxious breast, Where, my sweetheart, dost thou rove Scarce the breeze among the boughs Wakes a murmur through the silence, Save the nightingale lamenting Not a sound disturbs the night. But hark! doth my ear deceive I heard a footstep! There, in the pine woods' shadow, I see a form! 'Tis he! 'tis he! Oh love, I will give thee a sign Thy maiden waits thro' storm and shine. She waves a white handkerchief to him.)
He seems not to see me yet; Heav'n! can it be that I see aright With flow'ry wreath his hat is bound! Success at last our hopes has crowned! What bliss tomorrow's dawn will bring! Oh! joyful token, hope revives my soul! How ev'ry pulse is bounding, And my heart beats loud and fast, We shall meet in joy at last! Could I dare to hope such rapture Frowning Fate at last relents, And to crown our love consents: Oh what joy for us tomorrow! Am I dreaming Is this true Bounteous heav'n, my heart shall praise
thee For this hope of rosy hue!
SYMPHONY No. 4, E minor, Op. 98, Bbahms
Allegro; Andante moderate; Presto giocoso; Allegro energico e passiouato.
Johannes Brahms was born May 7, 1833, at Hamburg; died April 3, 1897, at Vienna.
In view of Tchaikovsky's attitude towards Brahms, it would require considerable courage on the part of one who, admitting the keenness of the Russian master's critical insight, takes him for a guide, to write enthusiastically regarding the composer of the symphony on our program. But appreciation of a writer's acumen does not of necessity imply an acceptance of the results of its exercise, especially in this particular instance, for Brahms needs little or no defense in our day.
It would require more courage than most of Brahm's admirers possess to speak of him in ardent terms, for there was something in the man's personality and genius which forbade excessive fervor. This is in no sense derogatory to his genius, for his well-poised and calmly reflective nature and the scope of his ideals, as well as emotional limitations -if you will -or more properly speaking, his emotional restraint, made it a temperamental impossibility for him to arouse the fervor evoked by the more tensely strung Tchaikovsky. In these days, however,-it is a relief to turn from the nervous exaltation and fantastic experiments of the ultra-moderns to his sane and intellectually controlled scores. And it must be remembered that he wrote in a period when all that is now " troubling the face of the waters " was fermenting, through the activity of Richard Wagner and Liszt. But Tchaikovsky was decidedly in error when he denied him the possession of nearly everything but courage -of which he wrote he possessed " enough to resist the allurements of the operatic style." The majority of the operatic works of the Russian master, according to his own admission, suffered from such a superabundance of symphonic treatment of the orchestra, to the neglect of the obvious requirements of the singers on the stage, that
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the courage to which he referred may have been nothing more or less than a knowledge of himself on the part of Brahms.
To leave the past and come to the present, is must be said that Brahms is viewed by too many as an austere man--scholarly but pedantic--whose music is nothing more nor less than a series of propositions in a musical Euclid. Nothing could be further from the truth than this view. He was a congenial Stammgast -Germans, and those acquainted with German customs know just what this means -a staunch friend, an untiring worker, and in spite of a general impression to the contrary, exceedingly catholic in his tastes and generous in his criticisms. His genius was lyric rather than dramatic, and, in spite of Tchaikovsky and the rest, he was a real melodist. His introspective nature and redundant scholarship frequently led him to probe non-existent depths, and to exploit the possibilities of themes beyond their inherent suggestions. By reason of this propensity his greater works frequently appear to be confused,-especially at a first hearing. But Brahms is not a composer to be held lightly and the same works when heard repeatedly reveal much of compelling beauty that is overlooked at first. The clouded melodic structure clears and keener insight into sections that at first appeared confused places the contributing factors in their proper relations to each other so that all his treatments are justified. It is never the limpid clearness of Mozart, but that is not necessary -for our modern environment is not that of the Salzburg master; neither are our points of view. The faults just mentioned, if they are faults, extend to his use of the orchestra, in which he uses neutral tints frequently to excess. Brilliancy in orchestration, as such, had no charm for him, but he is happy in his use of legitimate instrumenta effects. As a song writer he displays to the full his reflned melodic sense and when necessary displays the vigor so wonderful an element in the Finale of his otherwise somber First Symphony (C minor). He seems to have been unresponsive to humor, in his compositions at least, for his reputation as a good comrade on mildly convivial occasions precludes an absence of this desirable quality. But at all events this avoidance of humor saved him from flippancy, which is but a door or two removed from wit. A master of form, his romantic tendencies prevented him from being mastered by conventional interpretations of this essential element in music -as in all art. He was not sufficiently removed from Schumann in point of date to escape the inevitable comparison with the master whose glowing prophecies regarding him placed him in an embarrassing situation. Because he was by nature a symphonist and a lyric composer, many refuse to take him at his real worthi because he was neither a Beethoven nor a Schubert.
Whatever one may say of Brahms, no one can assert that he was not original. He must stand as representative of the outlook of those who refused to be swept off their feet by the art of Richard Wagner. The art of the two men expressed itself in lines so distinct that there was no reason why they should not run parallel instead of crossing. Brahms followed his own path, a much more significant one than he indicated when, in speaking of certain ill-natured comments on his work by the Bayreuth master, he said, " Wagner has the broad highway--why will he not leave me my modest little lane" The "modest litte lane " has been trodden by many " worshippers at the Shrine of Music " and it must be urged that one of the greatest popular successes ever attained under this roof attended the performance of his perennial D major symphony in 1909. Von Biilow, whose critical judgment
Third Concert 37
was unerring, in naming his musical Trinity --" Bach, Beethoven and Brahms "-was nearer the truth than Tchaikovsky, who looked with restricted approval oa the first, with awe on the second and contempt on the third. The implications of von Billow's grouping are many, but possibly not immediately obvious. The only one that can be noted at this time is this : Bach in his " Well Tempered Clavichord " displayed both poetry and a dawning romanticism; Beethoven gave fulness to a form better adapted to their expression and added qualities distinctly his own; Brahms, a romanticist in feeling but a classicist in form, combined them all in a style in which romantic freedom, somewhat influenced by the dramatic intensity of his environment, was held in leash by his sense of symmetrical expression.
Brahms' life was quite uneventful when compared with the experiences of many if not most of the great composers, and there was nothiing in his career that might be noted as responsible for the development of any phase of his genius.
Such being the case, we will proceed to an analysis of this great work -placing greater dependence on the themes cited than on verbal explanations -adding, for the sake of completeness, that the work was first performed in Meiningen, October 25, 1885, under the direction of the composer, that its success was immediate, and that it was his last work in this form.
The first movement -E minor, Allegro non troppo, 2-2 time -opens with a theme in which restraint and decision mingle.
This theme, so full of possibilities, reveals its fulness of suggestion as it is given out by the violins, resting on an adequate harmonic structure -horns, woodwinds and basses -over and through which the violas and 'cellos are heard in arpeggios. Very quickly there follows the subsidiary motive -horns and woodwinds -herewith given.
The second theine, first stated by the 'cellos and horns, afterward by the violins, amply sustains Brahms' power of melodic utterance while the brief treatment of the wonderfully suggestive theme displays his self-restraint. This is also shown in
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the " development" section, in which he does not yield to the temptation to stray far afield in the exploitation of figures from the first two themes. There is ample material for study of processes of development in this section, in which the composer exhibits a surety that only comes with complete mastery of the possibilities of musical idioms. The " recapitulation " calls for no words of guidance which, in the face of its naturalness, would be an embarrassment rather than a help. The second movement, with its beautiful first theme -for clarinet and introduced by horus, is a beautiful example of the romantic style. To this beauty the following songful theme contributes no.small share.
In no way could Brahms have more completely proclaimed his freedom from convention than by the substitution of a rondo for the usual scherzo as the third movement. Its vivacious character is made clear by the opening theme-C major, Presto giocoso, 2-4 time -given out by the full orchestra fortissimo.
Following the structure of the rondo-form this theme as it reappears in changing forms, is contrasted with episodes, one of which develops into the second theme.
This movement makes no great demand on the listener, which is fortunate, and; possibly so designed -for the last movement is one calling for careful and intelli-j gent listening if its wonderful structure is to be worthily appreciated. It is in one ]
Third Concert 39
of the oldest known forms -the Passacaglia--in which Frescobaldi, Bach, Purcell and lesser composers displayed their contrapuntal dexterity. Bach gave the world two of the finest examples of the form, in the glorious C minor Passacaglia (for organ) and -note the contrast -in "Et Orucifixus," the choicest gem in his immortal B minor Mass. The formal principle of the Passacaglia consists in placing an ever-varying contrapuntal superstructure over a significant and consistently reiterated theme. In this instance the theme -E minor. Allegro, energico e passianato, 3-4 time (the Passacaglia is always in 3-4 time)--is given in the upper notes of the following quotation
and must be impressed on one's mind if the thirty-three variations leading to the concluding coda are to be thoroughly appreciated.
SYMPHONIC POEM, " Les Preludes," Liszt
Franz Liszt was born October 22, 1811; at Raiding, Hungary; died July 31, 1886, at Bayreuth.
As a lull in the great series of centenaries which will be brought to a close in 1913, with extreme brilliancy-for Giuseppi Verdi and Richard Wagner were great geniuses -comes the commemoration of but one composer of real distinction -Franz Liszt, and this, in reality, falls in the year 1911. It can only be recognized at this time by taking advantage of the fact that the musical year includes portions of two successive calendar years.
No more difficult' problem for a fair-minded man exists than to write in a discriminating vein about this fiery Magyar. He was by birth and temperament one who cared but little for convention, as shown not alone in the freedom of his compositions, but by his somewhat elastic ideas as to the value, or necessity, of marriage certificates as well. He was the creator of a new conception of piano forte playing and a virtuoso who so revealed the inherent possibilities of his instrument that it is a matter of doubt whether anything significant in pianoforte playing has appeared of which he was not the prophet. Nor is it clear that any virtuoso has appeared since his day who can be considered his superior -or equal. Were his contributions confined to the technique of the instrument it would be wonderful enough, but through his revelation of technical possibilities he prepared the way for more artistic interpretation to which he contributed more that was fundamental than any one before or since. He was generous to a fault, and none appreciated this more than his future son-in-law, Richard Wagner, whose genius he was the first to recognize, as he was the leader in Germany of that appreciation of Hector
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Berlioz which was denied him by his countrymen, until his death aroused them to a real sense of his greatness.
In attempting to estimate his creative gifts one is constantly brought face to face with contradictions which are difficult to reconcile. Any attempt to rely on ordinary sources is well-nigh useless, for, on the one hand we meet with unsparing and unjustified denunciation, and on the other with the feverish rhapsodies of those who, having come at some time under the hypnotic spell of his wonderful personality, bade farewell to sanity and all sense of proportion. No one who ever came under the potent influence of Liszt, the man, can be trusted to give a sane judgment of his creative work, nor can the verdict of those who facetiously quote " Liszt --'tis music--stealing " be given any real validity. To say that " he just escaped being a great genius," as some have done, would depend on one's definition of the term. It would be as far from the truth as to assign him a position in the first rank. In many compositions he displays wonderful invention, and profound scholarship, of a somewhat unique type. In others he revealed an astounding paucity of ideas, clothed in exuberant verbiage. The unfortunate fact is that he did not seem to know the difference, for he reeled off platitudes with the same appearance of conviction with which he enunciated profound and prophetic truths. If we knew whether to him it was " appearance " or reality, we might reverse this opinion. In his great Pianoforte sonata in B minor, he displayed rare originality, hut with the exception of this and several other genial compositions for his instrument, his claim to greatness rests on his orchestral works. No one listening to the " Dante" sonata, another titanic work with the same freedom of form as the "(B flat minor," can fail to be impressed with the fact that Wagner's indebtedness to Liszt was not entirely financial. He had a wonderful sense of orchestral values and was unerring in his appreciation of the capabilities of single instruments. The symphonic poem owes its existence to him, and the art of Richard Strauss rests on his practice and his theories.
He was a Balm-brecker, and the new paths he pointed out have led and are to lead to high artistic altitudes. Many of his most glaring faults as a composer, an artist, and a man, were due to racial characteristics, social distinction, excessive flattery and an amiability which may explain that " appearance of conviction " already mentioned, which is frequently as valuable an asset in art as in society, until it is put into the balance with sincerity on the other side of the scales.
" Les Preludes " on this program is the third of thirteen symphonic poems, and one of the most popular, it may be added. The poetic suggestion comes from the following passage from Lamartine's " Meditations Poetique " :
"What is life but a series of preludes to that unknown song whose initial solemn note is tolled by Death ! The enchanted dawn of every life is love; but where is the destiny on whose first delicious joys some storm does not break -a storm whose deadly blast disperses youth's illusions, whose fatal bolt consumes its altar! And what soul thus cruelly bruised, when the tempest rolls away, seeks not to rest its memories in the pleasant calm of rural life! Yet man allows himself not long to taste the kindly quiet which first attracted him to Nature's lap; but when the trumpet gives the signal he hastens to danger's post, whatever be the fight which draws him to its lists, that in the strife he may once more regain full knowledge of himself and all his strength."
Friday, Evening, May 17
OVERTURE, "Melusina," Op. 32. Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born February 3, 1809, at Hamburg; died November 4, 1847, at Leipzig.
No musician of modern times has evoked more mild controversy than genial,, simple-minded Mendelssohn, to whose generous nature envy and jealousy were unknown and whose art would seem to contain none of the essential elements of a "Storm-center." "Wherefore the controversy" one is tempted to ask, and any satisfactory answer would expose the absurdity of many of the contentions put forth by those who, while crying " Freedom! " are busy fixing the boundaries of a convention as narrow in reality as it is broad in appearance. The romanticism which in. Schumann expressed itself in storm and stress, and always in intensity of utterance, scarcely produced a surface ripple in Mendelssohn's calmer and better poised emotional nature, but the " surface ripples " were occasionally very beautiful and there is always room in music, as in other arts and in literature, for varying expressions of a fundamental concept. In any well ordered evolution there must be connecting links between points of view conditioning works which define the beginning-of such an evolution, and those in which the advances won are proclaimed. It was-Mendelssohn's misfortune, that, in an age when mighty forces were beginning to-manifest themselves, his art rested on foundations that were in danger of being undermined by the seething current tending in the direction of dramatic intensity. Mendelssohn was better equipped in every way than most of his contemporaries to assist in the development of the newer ideals, but they were antagonistic to his nature. He could therefore resist the enticemnt of that which had in it no element of temptation -as we all can -and which might have led him to be numbered among the many wrecks this boiling current swept to practical oblivion. It may be objected that the chronology of these implications is out of gear, but that Is so only on the surface: the current was running in channels less exposed to view, but was none the less powerful. It cannot be regretted that Mendelssohn in so far as this particular tendency enters into the equation -was a conservative. We are prone to underestimate the influence of the surroundings of his early years, and do not lay sufficient weight on the fact that such conditions would have hampered a more aggressive genius than he. Without doubt many of his pianoforte compositions are superficial -and we know that he never appreciated to the full the potentialities of his instrument -neither did any one before Franz Liszt. We note that while he42 Official Program Book
displayed a refinement somewhat akin to that of Chopin, his delicacy of statement lacked the charm of the exquisite traceries of the great Pole. His virility was tempered by a reserve which he occasionally threw to the winds, as in certain monumental choruses and solos in " St. Paul" and " Elijah," but which was generally in evidence. No one can fail to see the limitations of his art, but these boundaries Â¦were self-imposed and necessitated by his concept of beauty. In forms favored by his outlook, and in his inspired settings of subjects within the range of his vision, he often rises to great heights, as witness his oratorios which marked an epoch in the history of the form. The melodic beauty of his symphonies, overtures, quartettes, trios and songs -with or without words -may be characterized by some as lacking in distinction, but before we grant the force of the criticism it will be in order for them to define very closely their interpretation of " distinction." They certainly would except the E minor Violin Concerto from their sweeping condemnation -but why any discussion of the question Why not look at his music objectively, why not take it for what it is worth Why should be look at it from an alien point of view Why should we not take him at his best, welcome his spontaneous, cheery art, and give him a place in our esteem and affection even if it be not the high position accorded the Immortals. We may look upon him as one who contributed nothing but occasional novel points of view, and yet -welcome him.
In the " Melusina " overture we see the composer at his best. We may study it in the light of the French folk-tale and attach delineative significance to the various themes. On the other hand we may look upon the graceful melodic structure of the first section -F major, Allegro con moto, 6-4 time -the spirited second theme -F minor -and the fascinating melody in A flat (the third theme) as component factors in a free treatment of the sonata-form. In either case its charm compels admiration, and if one combines both interpretations, the spell is even more potent. The score is dated November 14, 1833, and it was heard for the first time at Dusseldorf, July, 1834, under the direction of the composer. Mendelssohn was a great conductor within hard and fast limitations. He had no dramatic ability whatever in this capacity -neither had he as a composer -In any of the forms fundamentally resting on that concept -although his introduction of that element in the oratorio was prophetic of possibilities in the sacred form -unknown to any great extent to any composer before his day.
ARIA, from " II re pastore, Mozabt
Mme. Alma Gluck.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born January 27, 17uG, at Salzburg; died December 5, 1791, in Vienna.
When one reads the life history of this immortal genius, and reviews its checkered aspects, reflects upon his disappointments and dwells upon the pathetic circumstance that, at a time when all Europe was ringing with his praise, he was hurriedly cast into a pauper's grave,-it is little less than a marvel that up to the last weeks of his life, when fortuitous circumstances, which lie magnified into porALMA GLUCK
Fourth Concert 43tents, led to a despondency that hastened his death, he should have faced the world and his misfortunes with a smile. This characteristic is reflected in most of his music, but there are Adagios in which we get glimpses of an appreciation of the greater depths of experience so forcibly portrayed by Beethoven, and in his operas, notably in the last act of " Don Juan," we discover a dramatic power that may have led Richard Wagner to say of him, " Had he met the proper poet he would have solved the problem of the opera." Of his work as a symphonist -into the forms of which " he poured the lava stream of his genius until it overflowed "-to quote Wagner again, space forbids more than mere mention, while the temptation to emphasize the range of his creative activity must be sternly resisted. He possessed the power -possible only to genius of the most exalted type -of making smaller forms vehicles for the expression of great thoughts. In passing it must be noted that this is an interesting phenomenon, clearly apparent to the intelligent and observant critic. In smaller forms many composers seem to have escaped from the limitations of their natures. Schubert was dramatic in his songs, but not in his symphonies; Schumann, sombre and brooding in most of his larger works, is sunshine itself in his lyrics, while Bach in his sacred songs is simple and naive as Beethoven ceases to storm the heights and probe the depths in his "An die feme Geliebte" and "Adelaide." Mozart in his unpretentious compositions was not the composer of the " Requiem " or " Don Juan," but in them he displayed the qualities that must have been in the mind of one who escaped the fate of most of those who indulge in the dangerous practice of comparing geniuses who work in different, even though they be allied, fields -when he called him " the Raphael of Music." The aria on our program is taken from one of these lesser works --" II re pastore," a dramatic cantata, the general character of which is admirably portrayed by its title and the following text:
Dein bin ich, ja dein auf ewig! Treu im Glucke und treu ini Leide, All' meln Sinnen stelit nur nach dir!
Du o Theure, du heiss Geliebte,
Mem Entziicken und all' meine FrSude,
Meinen Friedeu find' ich bei dir!
Thine am I, forever thine!
True to thee in joy and love
My soul, my life reach out for thee!
Through thee, O dear one, fondly lives All nay joys -love's fervent glow, And peace and comfort come to me
SYMPHONIC POEM No. 2, " Le Chasseur Maudit." France
C6sar Franck was born December 10, 1842, at Liege; died November 9, 1899, at Paris.
"After Mozart whom" frequently confronts one who would give a measure of unity to a miscellaneous program, and, as it frequently involves a leap of a century or thereabouts, it is by no means an easy task. For the present purpose the choice has fallen on one who, by virtue of his sincerity -the expression of one of the most
See " Official Program Book " for 1910 for a more comprehensive, account of Csar Franck.
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salient attributes of a pure-minded man -and the nobility of his artistic ideals is well fitted to follow the great German genius. The fact that the work by which he is represented has a title expressive of its contents must not be considered as antagonistic to our purpose, for it reflects the present tendency. Again it must be borne in mind, that in his art, Mozart always faced the risinig sun, and in consequence was viewed by many of his contemporaries as an iconoclast. This tendency to interpret the Present through the Past, rather than to attempt to predicate its relation to the Future, is au element in criticism not unknown in this, the year of our Lord 1912. It is an eminently safe precedure and is justified to a certain degree by the lack of success attending many would-be prophets. But in this, as in other fields, caution leads to as many mistakes as daring, and is far less stimulating.
The work is based on a ballad by Gottfried August Burger, the subject matter of which was suggested by the old German legend --" Der Wilde Jiiger." As it is perfectly free in form and presents little difficulty in its interpretation, nothing in the way of analysis will be offered further than to give the key, time, and expression marks -A major, Andantino quasi allegretto, 3-4 time, with the inevitable increase in intensity of tempo suggested to the following program given in the words of the composer:
" It is Sunday morning. In the distance is heard the joyous pealing of bells and the sacred chantings of the worshipers. What desecration! The wild Count
of the Rhine winds his hunting-horn!............
The chase goes on over grain-fields, moors and prairies. ' Hold on, Count, I pray thee; listen to the pious chants!' 'No!' and the rider rushes on like a whirlwind. Suddenly the Count is alone. His horse cannot move, nor his horn any longer give forth a sound. A grim, pitiless voice curses him: ' Desecrator,' it says, ' be thou forever pursued by the Evil One.'
"The flames blaze up on all sides. The Count, mad with terror and pursued by a pack of demons, flees ever faster and faster -across abysses by day and through, the sky by night."
ARIA, " Depuis le Jour," from " Louise," Charpentieb
Gustav Charpentier was bom Juue 25, 18G0, at Dieuze-Lorraine; still living, in Paris.
It may seem somewhat remoto from fact to assert that the gulf between Cfisar Franck and Charpentier is greater than that which separates the first named from Mozart or the latter from his distinguished ancestor Marc Antoine Charpentier (1634-1752), but considered in the light of their tendencies and ideals it is absolutely true. Franck fixed his gaze on noble phases of life, while Charpentier has the circumscribed view of the realist, who is enthusiastic only when he ranges along paths trodden by those whose existence is spent in the midst of depravity and vice, though they both be gilded. It must be admitted that Charpentier attempts to
Fourth Concert . 45
bring out whatever of light there may be in that gloom. A sensitive nature like Franck's could not have endured the contact with the life that moves along the lower levels which is necessary for the exploitation of whatever in that life may be deemed worthy of emphasis. Giving due weight to his good intentions the composer of " Louise " must come under the condemnation of Tchaikovsky by virtue of his choice of subject. While the position assumed by the pure-minded Russian did him honor, we may seriously question whether it is justifiable to restrict ourselves to the praise of the ideally good -which needs no praise -to the virtual exclusion of sufficient study of the had to determine whether it is irremediable. To attempt to portray the struggle for the attainment of the best that is possible under oppressive environment is neither ignoble nor undesirable, but the real texture of a man is determined by the manner iu which he accentuates the conflicting moral elements which in the lowest strata are exhibited in their nakedness. It must be admitted that Charpentier revelled in the life of the Montmarte Quartier--which in itself is no sin,-and--if we can trust his music, as we must -was at his best when glorifying phases of that life which in no wise tend to the clarification of its moral atmosphere. If this seems unjust, what of the following from M. Pierre de Bre-ville, writing of " Louise" " Charpentier, who owes so much to Zola, whose romantic naturalism he practices, is himself the hero in ' L'Oeuvre,' who, wishing to glorify Paris, has created a Minoteur -a Moloch -who eats the children of nearly-all the street-sweepers. And it is before this monster, whom he places before us after the manner of sermonizers, that the lovers kneel, and in whose honor they recite their prayers. Why hind music, that universal language which never grows old, to subjects of ephemeral actuality Why attach it to the hawser of the galley that is already three-quarters sunk through naturalism " The answer is simple -the composer was purely theatrical in his outlook, not dramatic in the highest sense. But why the selection on our program Because Charpentier is an interesting figure in modern French music, a writer worthy of representation, one " who knows how to captivate though his undoubted power as a musician" -and " Louise" is a work of real distinction. The text is herewith given:
Louise.--Ever since the day when unto thee I gave me, radiant with flowers seemed
my pathway before me, I seem to dream 'neath a fairyland heaven with my soul still drunk with
the joy of thy first kiss.
Ah, how sweet is life! my dream has not been merely dreaming! Ah! 1 am so happy for love o'er me his wings is spreading! In the realm of my heart new is the joy that's singing! All nature doth rejoice with me and with me triumph! And all around I see but laughter, light and joy And I tremble with exquisite delight when I recall The charm of our first day of love. Oh! how sweet is life, ah, I am so happy, all too happy And I tremble with exquisite delight when I recall Â¦ The charm of our first day of love.
46 Â¦ Official Program Book
ANDANTE (Marguerite) from "A Faust Symphony," Liszt
The subject matter of this, the second movement of the symphony, is suggested by the title and its musical atmosphere will be appreciated through the quotations, the first of which -following an introductory section -portrays the awakening
love which is the fateful result of Marguerite's first meeting with Faust. The short and expressive motive, "He loves me -loves me not!" leading into the enthusiastic proclamation " He loves me! " is followed by a repetition of the " Marguerite
theme -No. 1. A second theme--"Abandonment to love" it may be called -embodying a reminiscence of one of the introductory motives and full of emotional
intensity prepares the way for the entrance of Faust. The section dominated by his personality, beginning with sadness, gradually changes under the influence of Mar-gueritp's preseuce to " intoxicated enthusiasm" through which they are led to abandonment -to self-forgetting love. Faust disappearing, Marguerite is now left alone with hor memories, to face a future fraught with disaster.
SUITE "Die Konigskinder" Op. Humpeedinck
As Mendelssohn in the Scheizo of his " Scotch Symphony " gives us a waft of the clear air of the Highlands, so Huinperdinek, in this apotheosis of German legend, gives us a glimpse of a land of fancy to counteract the effect of the passion-laden atmosphere of the preceding selection. As an aid to the interpretation of the music we append the story.
Fourth Concert 47
"The son of a king, having gone abroad to gather experience, finds in the Hellaforest a goose-maid, the bewitched daughter of a king. They fall in love, but as she is prevented from escaping by the witch, the prince leaves her in anger. The citizens of Hellabrunn have sent out a fiddler, a wood-chopper and a broom-maker to ask of the witch where they might find a ruler. The witch deceives all but th8 fiddler with her answer. He recognizes in the goose-girl the child of a king and takes her, saved from the witch's power by prayer, back with him to Hellabrunn. As she enters the city she finds the beloved prince disguised as a beggar. The people of Hellabrunn, who expected the new ruler to come in royal state, drive both from the city. Discord now reigns in the town. The innocent children, however, who have intuitively divined the injustice of their parents' deed, hover about the forest in search of the exiles. The prince, famished, carrying the goose-maid in his arms, reaches the hut which was formerly the witch's home. He gives to the wood-chopper who happens to be there his crown for a loaf of bread. But the loaf is a poisoned one left by the witch. When the fiddler arrives with the children, to whom he has shown the way, he finds the prince and the goose-maid clasped in eac other's arms -dead."
Two episodes will be presented this evening: I. The Prelude and II. " Hellafest."
The Prelude is a freely constructed exploitation of a motive--"The King's Son"--E flat major, Mit Feuer, 12-8 time -to which contrasting motives full of dramatic suggestion and always beautiful, give added significance. The meaning of one of these, of march-like character, is clear, while the combination of an expressive melody with the initial theme, and the lovely theme, in B flat major for violins, suggests an interpretation in which the Princess has a part.
In "Hellafest"--G major, Lebliabt, 3-2 tiem -we have a perfect picture of the gaily moving crowds who impatiently await the return of the deputation sent to find a prince to reign over them. Their anxiety, however, does not prevent them from having a good time after the manner of the pleasure-loving citizens of the provincial city. The principal theme of the first section of the excerpt -in the A-B-A form -is very vivacious and is heard after four measures introduction. After thirty-three measures this is followed by the second theme (oboe and trumpet) and the section (A) is brought to a close by a restatement of the original theme. The Trio (B), "The Children's Dance," is based on an old German folksong and illustrates the wealth of suggestion that inheres in these genuine products of inspiration -it may be of a peasant or a king. Then comes a repetition of the March (A) and a coda in which the " Children's Dance" reappears.
TWO LEGENDS FOR ORCHESTRA, . Liadow
" Le Lac Enchante," Op. G2. "Kikimora," Op. G3.
Anatole Liadow was born May 12, 1853, at St. Petersburg; still living.
The first selection -D flat major, Andante, 12-8 time -by virtue of its title needs little in the way of descriptive comment, and is largely constructed on the interesting figure for muted strings heard almost immediately. To this are added
48 Official Program Book
such other contrasting themes as serve his purpose, which is to give an impression of a placid lake bordered by forests, teeming with the wood fairies of Russian folklore, as the lake is the home of nymphs who disport themselves in its cool depths. " Kikimora " concerns itself with a youth who, brought up by a sorceress, at the age of seven is, to quote: " Shiny and black, with a head as small as a thimble
and a body as thin as a straw.....Whistling and hissing from evening until
midnight, after having made all manner of noises from morning until evening, he spends the rest of the night spinning and storing up evil for all mankind." The name is made up from a word meaning " demon " and one which stands for nightmare. This interesting imp and his sleepless activity inspired the second selection from this Russian composer, whose name appears this evening for the first time on our programs. In structure it is somewhat free and abounds with mysterious color (muted brass, etc.), chromatic progressions, and contrasting tempi. The xylophone is used avidly and in general the music favors the atmosphere of unreality conveyed not alone by the interpretation of the title given but by another version (Servian) which says that the "Kikimora are the souls of girls who have died unchristened, or who have been cursed by their parents, and so have passed under the power of evil spirits."
DUET " Night Love Invited," from " Romeo and Juliet," Gounod
Mme. Gluck and Mr. Miller.
In the estimation of certain musicians, whose standards of criticism seem to be somewhat in need of revision, "Romeo and Juliet" (Paris, April 27, 1867), is Gounod's greatest opera. No one need be disturbed by this judgment, for those who remain true to " Faust" will always be in a safe, even an overwhelming majority. Having set a text from Goethe and Shakespeare, it is strange that Gounod did not turn to Dante and Cervantes, in order that he might pay his respects to still other nationalities and make his operatic art international. Like the conductors, who accellerate from Grave, and ritard from Allegro till they strike the golden mean -Modemto,-Gounod was always the creator of " Faust."
Still this makes no particular difference, for he was not great enough to influence composers to follow in his footsteps, and his music is always agreeable, frequently fascinating. Possibly no excerpt from his opera is more characteristic than this beautiful duet, Act IV, Scene I, whose text now follows:
Juliet.--Love! thy life Tybalt sought, And I pardon thy blow: For if he were alive, I should no longer have thee! Naught of sorrow I feel, no remorse do I know. He did bear thee hate, and I love thee!
Romeo.-Ah! yet again repeat thy vows! Juliet.--I love thee, oh my own!
LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK
Fourth Concert 49
Romeo and Juliet.-Xight love invited
O tender night divine!
Fate hath invited
My heart for aye unto thine.
O, how is love so fair!
O, how is love so lavish,
Thy loving gaze doth ravish.
Thy voice my soul ensnare.
Glowing in fond emotion
The joys of heav'n are mine;
Thine is my heart's devotion,
'Tis thine -for aye--'tis thine.
MARCH FAXTASIE. Op. 44, for Organ and Orchestra. Guilmant
Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick.
Alexander Guilmant was born March 12, 1S57, at Boulogne; died March 30, 1911, at Paris.
Hector Berlioz, in his monumental "Traite d'instrunientation," declared the organ and orchestra could never be brought together, for he said, "Each is King." Since his death, however, Widor and Dubois have succeeded in casting some doubt on the truth of this statement. There is so much of truth in this dictum by one who rarely erred in his judgment of instrumental possibilities that the combination is sufficiently dangerous to be interesting. Neither of the composers mentioned have done so much as Guilrnant to remove the practice from the domain of the problematical for he stood well-nigh alone among his countrymen in his appreciation of the noblest qualities of the instrument, to the literature of which he contributed more of real importance than any of his contemporaries 011 either side of the Rhine. As he possessed a keen sense of orchestral values as well, he was qualified to cope with a problem which others failed to solve. As a proof of this contention none of his compositions are more significant than this sparkling, yet scholarly, free adaptation of the march form to his purpose..
Saturday Afternoon, May 18
LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK, ORGANIST
Concert Oveeture -.....Maitland
Choeale, " Wacht auf, ruft uns die Stimme," ... Bach
The Shepherds in the Field ----Mailing
March (Queen of Sheba) -----Oounod
In all probability this will be the last opportunity of hearing the Frieze Memorial Organ in its present position. It will be remembered that the organ was built for the Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1803), as illustrating the results which had been attained by American organ builders up to that time. It is interesting to note that many of the most notable improvements in organ building, all of which were incorporated in this instrument, were due to the artistic and mechanical ability of Hilborne G. Koosevelt, who " swung the big stick " and " threw his hat in the ring " in this arena long before another member of the family appeared above the horizon. Naturally, since the date of the erection of the Frieze Memorial Organ a great many remarkable improvements have been made -especially on the mechanical side. Whether this advance has been accompanied by a corresponding improvement in tone is a question open for discussion. Those who are fond of the old English cathedral organs feel that much of beauty has been sacrificed for the sake of brilliancy. Again, many contend that the growth in the possibilities of control of its resources haa encouraged a style of playing not absolutely in accord with the genius of the instrument.
Of the program little need be said. It is neither educational, nor has any designed sequence or arrangement been observed, other than to place together a number of interesting selections, adapted to the double purpose of displaying the resources of the organ, and to give a restful hour to those who may welcome a brief interruption of the strenuous enjoyment of a four-day Festival.
Saturday Evening, May 18
" SAMSON AND DELILAH," Opera in 3 Acts, Saint-Saens
Delilah,.......Miss Florence Mtjlfobd
The High Pbiest of Daqon, Mb. Mabion Gbeen Samson, -----Me, Ellison van Hoose
Abiuelech, Satbap of Gaza, ") Â