Complete Series: 3288
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
19S9 Eightyfirst Season 1960
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Charles A. Sink, President Gail W. Rector, Executive Director Lester McCoy, Conductor
Fourteenth Annual Extra Concert Series
Complete Series 3288
THE LAMOUREUX ORCHESTRA
IGOR MARKEVITCH, Conductor
Thursday Evening, March 24, i960, at 8:30 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Symphony No. 2 in Eflat major
Introduction; allegro agitato Larghetto Scherzo Finale
Hymne pour grand orchestre .
"Daphnis et Chloe" Ballet Suite No. 2 Lever du jour; Pantomime; Danse generate
Olivier Messiaen Ravel
Symphonie fantastique in C major, Op. 14
Reveries: Passion A Ball
Scenes in the Country March to the Scaffold Dream of a Witches' Sabbath
The Steinway is the official piano of the University Musical Society
A R S
L O N G A
B R E V I S
PROGRAM NOTES by Bernice Feinstein
Symphony No. 2 in Eflat major.....Charles Gounod
Charles Gounod (181893), the composer of Faust, is seldom associated with the creation of purely instrumental music. In addition to twelve operas, however, he com?posed four symphonies. Curiously enough, after lying dormant for nearly a century, the first two symphonies have recently been revived successfully. The First is now popular as a ballet in The New York City Ballet repertory; the Second was performed in New York by the Little Orchestra Society under Thomas Scherman in 1955. In 1957, Igor Markevitch reintroduced Paris to the work in a performance with the Lamoureux Orchestra.
In 1855, Gounod sought a different medium from the operatic, after consistent failures with Sappho, Ulysse, and La Nonne Sanglante. He ventured into his first symphony, which was hailed enthusiastically and followed it in 1856 with the Symphony No. 2 in Eflat major, establishing him as a successful composer of instrumental music in the 186O's.
In the second symphony, Gounod shows his allegiance to the HaydnDittersdorfMozart circle, although there are traces of the French ballet music of his day, as repre?sented by Auber, Halevy, Meyerbeer, and Offenbach. It is scored for two flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, French horns, trumpets, tympani, and strings. A slow introduction is followed by an allegro agitato directly related to the ideal established by Haydn. The larghetlo non troppo is typical of Gounod in its suggestion of religious themes. Strings supported by bassoons introduce the scherzo theme and the gay rhythmic finale reveals, without a shadow of a doubt, that the composer was a Frenchman.
Hymne pour grand orchestre......Olivier Messiaen
The Hymne pour grand orchestre was composed in 1932 when Messiaen was twenty years old. It received its first performance in New York by Leopold Stokowski with the Philharmonic in 1947. At the time of its premiere, Robert Bagar, writing in the New York Philharmonic Program Notes, quoted the composer as follows:
"The work is based on two themes, with a middle and final development. The first theme ends with a burst of winds on the chords of the dominant (sic) appoggiatura. The second theme, more dreamy and very singing, built on the 'modes a transposition limitees,' utilizes only violins and violas soli. The middle development is polymodal, alternating with and opposing the more belligerent first theme and the more passionate second theme. The final development resumes the martial character and 'the polymodality' of the first development, and concludes on a joyous fanfare of brass, surrounded by a brilliant shimmering of all the instruments of the orchestra in the tonality of B major."
The Hymne is scored for three flutes, two oboes, and English horn, two clarinets and bass clarinet, three bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, kettle?drums, triangle, cymbals, bass drum, and strings.
Messiaen described his musical technique as "depending principally on two pro?cedures, 'nonretrogradable rhythms' and 'modes of limited transposition.' These modes realize in the vertical sense (transposition) that which the rhythms realize in the hori?zontal sense (retrogradation). In effect, these modes may not transpose beyond a certain number of transpositions under penalty of falling back into the same notes (speaking enharmonically) ; likewise, these rhythms may not be retrograded without returning to the same order of values."
Before the current American tour of the Lamoureux Orchestra, M. Messiaen com?mented that the Hymne was "revolutionary enough at the time" of its composition. Today, he feels "it still runs against the spirit of the twentieth century because of its melodic lines, its vehemence, its colors. Two developments are undertaken. They employ modal sonorities, which are colored so that they are either opposed or allied to each other: orange to blue, violet to purple and gold. The dominant color: orange."
"Daphnis and Chloe," Ballet, Suite No. 2 ... Maurice Ravel
Around Serge Diaghilev, who founded the Ballet Russe in 1909, were gathered the greatest musicians, painters, dancers, and choreographers. He was an animateur, a catalyst, an innovator, a reformer. His mark on twentieth century culture is reflected in music, art, ballet, and theater.
Diaghilev commissioned Maurice Ravel (18751937) to compose a ballet based on the early Greek romance of Daphnis and Chloe as described by the fourth century poet, Langus. It was composed at a villa near Fontainebleau. Ravel's concentration on his work was so intense, his biographer, Madeleine Goss, writes that in the spring of 1910,
when the Seine overflowed, Ravel was completely unaware of the flood, until friends came to rescue him.
Ravishingly orchestrated, it is scored for two flutes and piccolo, a flute in G, two oboes, English horn, clarinet in Eflat, two clarinets in Bflat, bass clarinet in Bflat, three bassoons, contrabassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, two side drums, castanets, celesta, glockenspiel, two harps, strings (doublebasses with low C), chorus of mixed voices (which can be replaced by instruments).
The ballet was first produced in Paris on June 8, 1912, by the Ballet Russe, con?ducted by Pierre Monteux. Fokine was choreographer; Bakst, the designer. Karsavina, Nijinsky, and Bolm were the principal dancers. Two orchestral suites were subsequently arranged. The second includes Daybreak, Pantomime, and General Dance.
The story of the ballet is included in the score:
"No sound but the murmur of rivulets fed by the dew that trickles from the rocks. Daphnis lies stretched before the grotto of the nymphs. Slowly, day dawns. Birds are heard singing. Afar off a shepherd leads his flock . . . herdsmen enter seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and awaken him. In anguish he looks for Chloe. She at last appears, encircled by shepherdesses. The two rush into each other's arms. Daphnis observes Chloe's crown. His dream was a prophetic vision. The intervention of Pan is manifest. The old shepherd, Lamman, explains that Pan saved Chloe in remembrance of the nymph Syrinx, whom the god loved.
"Daphnis and Chloe mime the story of Pan and Syrinx. Chloe impersonates the young nymph wandering over the meadow. Daphnis, as Pan, appears and declares his love for her. The nymph repulses him. The god becomes more insistent. She disappears among the rocks. In desperation, he plucks some stalks, fashions a flute, and on it plays a melancholy tune. Chloe comes out and imitates by her dance the accents of the flute.
"The dance grows more and more animated. In mad whirlings, Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. Before the altar of nymphs, he swears on two sheep, his fidelity. Young girls enter. They are dressed as Baccantes and shake their tambourines. Daphnis and Chloe embrace tenderly. A group of young men comes on the stage. Joyous tumult ... a general dance . . ."
This score makes one understand a remark Ravel made to David Ewen in an inter?view on contemporary music: "I do not understand the arguments of those composers who tell me that music of our time must be ugly because it gives expression to an ugly age. What is left of music if it is denuded of beauty . . . The composer . . . should create musical beauty directly from the heart, and he should feel intensely what he is composing."
Symphonie fantastique in C major, Op. 14 ... Hector Berlioz
The Symphonie fantastique was first performed in Paris on December 5, 1830. It is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, two clarinets and Eflat clarinet, four bassoons, four horns, two cornetsapistons, two trumpets, three trom?bones, two tubas, two pair of kettledrums, bells, snaredrum, bass drum, cymbals, two harps and strings.
Berlioz himself wrote a preface to the symphony which is incorporated in the score:
The composer imagines a young musician of morbid sensibility and vivid imagina?tion who takes opium in a paroxysm of lovesick despair and dreams of his Beloved who has become for him a musical thought, a melody, like a fixed idea (idie fixe) which accompanies him always.
First Movement: Dreams and Passions. He fluctuates between spells of uneasiness, sombre longings, depression and joyous elation inspired by thoughts of his Beloved.
Second Movement: A Ball. The idee fixe is transformed into a waltz as he envisions his Beloved at a ball.
Third Movement: Scene in the Fields. One summer evening he hears two shepherds playing the "ranz des vaches" (the tune used by the Swiss shepherds to call their flocks). The pastoral duet produces happier thoughts. His Beloved appears once more, and painful forebodings envelop him. What if this is a snare and a delusion. One of the shepherds resumes the melody, but the other does not respond. Distant rolling of thunder . . . loneliness . . . silence.
Fourth Movement: March to the Scaffold. He dreams he murders his Beloved. Condemned to death, he witnesses his own execution. A march that is alternately sombre and wild, brilliant and solemn, accompanies the procession . . . For a moment the idie fixe returns, a last thought of love is revived . . . which is cut short by the blow of the axe.
Fifth Movement: Witches' Sabbath. He is present at a witches' revel, surrounded by spectres, sorcerers and monsters gathered for his funeral. The idie fixe returns, but it has become a vulgar, grotesque dancetune. She appears and joins the diabolical orgy. Bells toll for the dead. The Dies irae in parody.
5, 6, 7, 8,
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA AT ALL CONCERTS PROGRAMS
THURSDAY, MAY 5, 8:30 P.M.
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor RUDOLF SERKIN, Pianist
AltBeethoven Program Overture to Lconorc, No. 3, Op. 72 Symphony No. 7 in A major. Op. 92
Concerto No. 5 in Eflat major. Op. li ("Em?peror")
FRIDAY, MAY 6, 8:30 P.M.
THOR JOHNSON, Guest Conductor
UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION
ANDRES SEGOVIA, Guitarist
Symphonie de Psaumes.....Stravinsky
University Choral Union
Concerto in D major . . Castei.nuovoTedesco Andres Segovia
Choros No. 10.......VillaLobos
University Choral Union
Corrido de "El Sol".......Chavez
University Choral Union
Fantasia for Guitar and Orchestra Mr. Segovia
SATURDAY, MAY 7, 2:30 P.M.
WILLIAM SMITH, Conductor
MARILYN COSTELLO, Harpist
WILLIAM KINCAID, Flutist
"Lc Corsairc" .
Concerto in C major for Flute, Harp
and Orchestra, K. 299.....Mozart
Marilyn Costello and William Kincaid
SATURDAY, MAY 7, 8:30 P.M.
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor ANSKEL BRUSILOW, Violinist LORNE MUNROE, Violoncellist
Symphony No. 7 in C major, Op. 105
Concerto in Eflat major for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 107 ... Shostakovich
Concerto in D major for Violin and
Orchestra, Op. 77.......Brahms
SUNDAY, MAY 8, 2:30 P.M.
THOR JOHNSON, Guest Conductor THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION
LEONTYNE PRICE, Soprano
FRANCES BIBLE, Mezzosoprano
ALBERT DA COSTA, Tenor
KIM BORG, Bass
Program Requiem Mass ("Manzoni") for Soli,
Chorus, and Orchestra......Verdi
University Choral Union and Soloists
SUNDAY, MAY 8, 8:30 P.M.
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor LISA DELLA CASA, Soprano
Program Toccata and Fugue in D minor
"Mi tradi" from
"Dove sono" from Marriage of Figaro Lisa Della G
Symphony No. 2
"Till Eulenspiegel," Op. 28 ... R. Strauss
Season Tickets: $15.00--$12.00--$9.00--$8.00 Single Concerts: $3.50--$3.00--$2.50--$2.00--$l.S0
Monologue from Capriccio .
Miss Della Casa
Suite from Der Rosenkavalier .
Ihm Giovanni Fig,
Ross Lee Finney R. Strauss
Chicago Symphony Orchestra Fritz Reiner, Conductor
Program: Overture, Benvenuto Cellini Tone Poem, "Don Juan" "La Valse" .
Peacock Variations .
Monday, April 4
19601961 CHORAL UNION SERIES and EXTRA CONCERT SERIES. Orders for season tickets accepted beginning May 9. List of concerts will be announced by that date.
For tickets or information, address: University Musical Society, Burton Memorial Tower.