Complete Series: 3644
Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
The University Musical Society
The University of Michigan
HELMUT MULLERBRUHL, Music Director
Saturday Evening, February 22, 1969, at 8:30 Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 6, No. 5.......Handel
Larghetto, allegro Presto Largo Allegro Menuet
Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra in D major......Torelli
Helmut Schneidewind, Trumpet
Concerto for Two Violins in D minor (S. 1043)......Bach
Largo ma non tanto Allegro
Ernest MayerSchierning and Tomotada Son, Violinists
Rondo in A major.............Schubert
Tomotada Soh, Violinist
"Eine kleine Nachtmusik"--Serenade for String Orchestra (K. 525) . Mozart
Romanza: andante Menuetto: allegretto Rondo: allegro
Sixth Concert Sixth Annual Chamber Arts Series Complete Programs 3644
by Paul Affelder
Concerto Grosso for Strings in D major, Op. 6, No. 5 . George Frederick Handel
Handel's Twelve Concerti Grossi, Op. 6, constitute some of his finest instrumental music. They were composed in London in the remarkably short span of one month, between September 29 and October 30, 1739, and were published the following year. These "Grand Concertos," as they were usually referred to in the programs and newspaper announcements in Handel's time, were intended primarily to be performed as instrumental interludes between the sections of his oratorios. They were not long in finding general acceptance on their own merits, however, and were played with great success in England and on the Continent.
In Handel's day, the term "concerto" was used rather loosely. It was used to signify any instrumental composition in which two bodies of players were pitted against each other. Thus, there was the concerto without solo instruments, wherein two fairly large groups of instruments were heard in opposition. Then there was the concerto grosso, developed by two Italian violinistcomposers, Giuseppe Torelli and Arcangelo Corelli; this was constructed so that a small group of instruments--usually two violins and a cello--known as the concertino, played passages to contrast with those by the rest of the orchestra--strings and basso continuo (harpsichord reinforced by a cello or doublebass)--known as the concerto grosso or ripieno. Finally, late in the seventeenth century, there evolved the solo concerto--the concerto most generally in use today--with one instrument alternating, contrasting and blending with the orchestra.
In the concerto grosso, there was a great deal of latitude regarding the number and style of the movements. No two of Handel's Concerti Grossi are laid out according to the same plan, many of their movements corresponding to those of the baroque dance suite. The freedom with which Handel treated the concerto grosso form permitted him to pour into these twelve works an infinite variety of mood and expression.
The Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major is in six movements. It begins with a broad introductory Larghetto e staccato that is ushered in in unorthodox fashion by a trumpetlike flourish on the first solo violin, playing without accompaniment. The second movement, which follows without pause, is a fugal Allegro in which the larger body of strings assumes more importance than the soloists. The roles of soloists and orchestra are more evenly divided in the third movement, a giguelike Presto, where the melodic lines are tossed back and forth with great abandon. For contrast, the fourth movement is a stately Largo in B minor, with the two solo violins and solo cello set off in bold relief against the other instruments. This modulates into the ensuing, rather vigorous and animated Allegro for full strings. The final movement, again stately and without solo passages, is a Minuet, Un poco larghctlo, with variations.
Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra in D major . . . Giuseppe Torelli
Giuseppe Torelli is remembered today chiefly as having been probably the originator of the solo violin concerto and, after Alessandro Stradella, one of the first to compose in the concerto grosso form, wherein a small group of solo instruments--usually two violins and cello--is pitted against the larger body of strings.
Torelli was educated in Bologna, where for nine years he was solo violist at the church of San Petronio. In 1965 he left Bologna for a concert tour of Germany, displaying his prowess as one of the foremost violinists of his time. From 1697 to 1699 he served as Kapellmeister to the Margrave of Brandenburg, for whom Johann Sebastian Bach was to write his famous Brandenburg Concerti. The next two years were spent in Vienna, after which Torelli returned to Bologna.
In addition to composing and performing many works for strings, Torelli appears to have been the most prolific among baroque creators of concerti for one or more trumpets with string orchestra, of which the work on this program is a prime example. Unlike our trumpets of today, which have valves and extra tubing that make it possible to play any note in the scale, the baroque trumpet was valveless, the player being required to produce all the notes with his lips. Since consecutive scale tones could be produced only in the upper register, all baroque trumpet music was high and brilliant. And since most baroque instruments of this type seemed to sound best when they were constructed to produce their tones in the key of D, most trumpet concerti of this
period were written in D. This concerto, then, is typical of many by Torelli, in that it is in D major, also that it is in the customary form of the baroque concerto: three contrasting movements that follow the pattern of fastslowfast.
Concerto for Two Violins in D minor (S. 1043) . . Johann Sebastian Bach
The two violins are treated as a unit that vie "in friendly rivalry" with the accompanying group. The work stands midway between concerto grosso and solo concerto. Each follows the tradition of the Italian school in exploiting the violin's capacity for melody and brilliant figuration.
The entire ensemble announces the spirited theme that generates the opening movement. There is continuous flowering and expansion of motives. The solo passages are set off against the tutti that furnish the architectural frame. They are written in a virtuoso style demanding nimble leaps from low to high register. The writing is tuneful, relaxed, and springs from the nature of the instrument.
The Largo ma non tanto presents the two violins as soloists against an orchestral background. The movement has the quality of a lofty duet out of baroque opera, the passages in vocal style being interspersed with others of instrumental character.
The concluding movement is an Allegro of the same motoric type as the first. The solo instru?ments are presented in animated opposition to the group. There are some difficult triplet figures and double stops that allow fiddlers to show the stuff they're made of. One can see why the twentieth century turned to this wholesome and welltempered music after the grandiose emotion?alism of the late romantics.
Rondo in A major...........Franz Schubert
Although Schubert's fame rests chiefly on his songs, his instrumental works should not be overshadowed by these, for he proved himself to be a master in writing for instruments. His instrumental compositions are full of melody and harmonic charm. In poetic content they point the way toward the romanticism of Mendelssohn and Schumann.
Schubert's early death at thirtyone may be considered one of the greatest losses to the music world. However, in that short span he wrote over a thousand pieces, including several operas and symphonies. His music is filled with charming gaiety, tenderness, robust good humor, and the spontaneous flow of melody with its great warmth of feeling, distinguishes all compositions of this genius.
"Eine kleine Nachtmusik"--Serenade for
String Orchestra, (K. 525) .... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mozart's Serenade, Eine kleine Nachtmusik, is a charming and lighthearted piece of pure entertainment music for string ensemble. The exposition presents three contrasting themes--the first begins as a vigorous statement outlining the tonic triad, the second has a lighter, almost breathless quality, and the closing theme, centering around a scaleline is the most lyric of the three. A brief, compact development and a full recapitulation are followed by several flourishing measure in lieu of a Coda.
The utter simplicity of the theme of the Romanze: Andante prompted Einstein to suggest that this movement could lie called Andante innocente. In this extremely exposed instrumentation, the delicacy and poise in each individual line enhance the exquisite balance of the whole. A short, agitated B section creates the contrast in this threepart song form, but the greatest delight lies in the subtle variants of the lovely principal theme.
An energetic, decisive theme opens the Menuetto. The ensemble works as one here, adding to the forceful drive and rhythmic surety. The lilting Trio is characterized by an eight measure span. The first violins carry the melody accompanied by the rest of the ensemble--a distinct contrast to the instrumental handling of the Menuetto.
Delicate scoring, constant eighth note motion, and an unerringly directed theme make the lighthearted Rondo: Allegro a sprightly conclusion. Abrupt changes from piano to forte, tasteful modulations, and lilting contrasting themes all add to its considerable charm.
1968 -INTERNATIONAL PRESENTATIONS -1969
Hill Auditorium BALLET FOLKLORICO OF MEXICO . . . 8:30, Wednesday, February 26
RUDOLF SERKIN, Pianist......8:30, Wednesday, March 5
MOSCOW STATE SYMPHONY.....8:30, Thursday, March 13
ORCHESTRA MICHELANGELO DI FIRENZE . 8:30, Sunday, March 23
Program: Sinfonia in C major............Pugnani
Sinfonia Concertante in G major.........Cambini
La Musica notturna delle strade di Madrid......Boccherini
Concertone in Eflat major...........Sarti
Riccrcarc a sei "Dall'offerta musicale".........Bach
Sinfonia in D major............Dittersdorf
Souvenir de Florence...........Tchaikovsky
ANN ARBOR MAY FESTIVALApril 24, 25, 26, 27, 1969
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA AT ALL CONCERTS PROGRAMS
THURSDAY, APRIL 24, 8:30
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor.
RICHARD TUCKER, Tenor, will sing arias by Mozart, Handel, Meyerbeer, and Puccini. "Classical" Symphony (Prokofieff); "Iberia" (Debussy) and the Symphonic Poem "Pines of Rome" (Respighi).
FRIDAY, APRIL 25, 8:30
THOR JOHNSON, Conductor.
JOANNA SIMON, Mezzosoprano, will sing Pantasileas's aria from Bomarzo (Ginastera). HANS RICHTERHAASER, Pianist, will perform Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11 (Chopin). UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION performs Psalm ISO, Op. 5 (Ginastera) and the choral work "Fern Hill" by John Corigliano, with Joanna Simon.
SATURDAY, APRIL 26, 8:30
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor.
All orchestral program: Overture to Die Meistersinger (Wagner); Symphony No. 3 (Charles
Ives); and Symphony No. 1 (Mahler).
SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 2:30
THOR JOHNSON, Conductor.
UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION performs Schubert's Mass in Aflat, with soloists: MARIA
STADER, Soprano; JOANNA SIMON, Mezzosoprano; JOHN McCOLLUM, Tenor; WILLIS
ZARA NELSOVA, Cellist, performs the Elgar Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra.
SUNDAY, APRIL 27, 8:30
EUGENE ORMANDY, Conductor.
REGINE CRESPIN, Soprano, will sing "Scheherazade" (Ravel); and the aria, "Ah Perfido,"
Op. 65 (Beethoven). Symphony No. 31 in D major--"Paris" (Mozart), and "LaMer" (Debussy).
Series Tickets: $30.00--$25.00--$20.00--$15.00--$10.00 Single Concerts: $7.00--$6.50--$6.00--$5.00--$3.50--$2.50 --On sale March 3.
RETURNED TICKETS have been gratefully received by the Musical Society for resale--this season already in the amount of $964--to help reduce the annual deficit. Subscribers who find they cannot attend a performance for which they hold tickets are encouraged to return their tickets (or phone in locations at 6653717), to allow resale. Receipts are provided for full tax deductions.
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Gail W. Rector, President James R. Breakey, Jr. Paul G. Kauper
Roscoe O. Bonisteel, VicePresident Douglas D. Crary Wilbur K. Pierpont
Erich A. Walter, Secretary Robben W. Fleming Daniel H. Schurz
E. Thurston Thieme, Treasurer Harlan Hatcher Stephen H. Spurr