UMS Concert Program, Thursday Mar. 23 To 30: University Musical Society: Winter 2006 - Thursday Mar. 23 To 30 --
Season: Winter 2006
Winter 2006 Season
127th Annual Season
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Event Program Book
Thursday, March 23 through Thursday, March 30, 2006
Children of Uganda 3
Thursday, March 23, 7:00 pm Friday, March 24, 8:00 pm Power Center
Saturday, March 25, 8:00 pm Hill Auditorium
The Tallis Scholars 23
Thursday, March 30, 8:00 pm
St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church
ums University Musical Society
Children of Uganda
Peter Kasuie, Artistic Director and Master of Ceremonies
David Kasata, Assistant
to the Artistic Director Simon Peter Kiranda Jacob Kiwanuka Rose Kokumbya Francis Lubuulwa Peter Mugga, Lead Drummer
Jengo Munawiru Noeline Nabesezi Dorothy Nabuule Geofrey Nakalanga Betty Nakato Zainabu Nakato Veronica Nakatudde Prossy Namaganda
Miriam Namala Teddy Namuddu Zaam Nandyose Lukia Nantale Patrick Nyakojo Brian Odong Bernard Sserwanga
Produced by Uganda Children's Charity Foundation Alexis Hefley, Executive Director & Founder
Thursday Evening, March 23, 2006 at 7:00 Friday Evening, March 24, 2006 at 8:00 Power Center, Ann Arbor
This program will contain one intermission.
43rd and 44th Performances of the 127th Annual Season
Global Series: Africa
The photographing or sound recording of this concert or possession of any device for such pho?tographing or sound recording is prohibited.
The Children of Uganda residency is presented with support from JPMorgan Chase. Thursday's performance is sponsored by Toyota Technical Center.
Friday's performance is sponsored by Pfizer Global Research and Development: Ann Arbor Laboratories. Special thanks to David Canter, Senior Vice President of Pfizer, for his continued and generous support of the University Musical Society.
Funded in part by the University of Michigan Office of the Senior Vice Provost for Academic Affairs.
Funded in part by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts, which believes that a great nation deserves great art.
Funded in part by Heartland Arts Fund, a program of Arts Midwest, funded by the National Endowment for the Arts with additional contributions from General Mills Foundation, Land 0' Lakes Foundation, Sprint Corporation, and Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs.
Educational programs funded in part by the Whitney Fund.
Media partnership for these performances is provided by WEMU 89.1 FM and Metro Times.
Special thanks to Bishop Nkenge Abi, Cardinal Mbiyu Chui, Shrine of the Black Madonna of the Pan-African Orthodox Christian Church, Angela Jaworski, Kathy Hentschel, Catherine C. Blackwell Institute of International Studies, Commerce, and Technology, Wilma Taylor Costen, Malcolm X Academy, Baba Victor Gibson, Aisha ShuleW.E.B. DuBois Preparatory Academy, Hasina Murphy, Timbuktu Academy of Science S Technology, Aaron Williams, Maat Imhotep Academy, Dr. Elena Anderson, Nsoroma Institute, and Baba Malik Yakini for their participation in this residency.
Children of Uganda appear by arrangement with Lisa Booth Management, Inc.
The Children of Uganda 2006 tour is supported through a generous grant from the Monua Janah Memorial Foundation, in memory of Ms. Monua Janah who was deeply touched by the Children of Uganda, and sought to help them, and children everywhere, in her life.
Large print programs are available upon request.
During colonization and civil war, despite poverty and other calamities, the arts have survived in Uganda and throughout all of Africa, though borders may have moved and country names changed. Dance, music, and storytelling record our histories and instill values. They help raise our children, observe milestones, provide assurance, dispense justice, proclaim beliefs, and sustain our societies. They are a teacher and tool of survival.
Twenty years ago Uganda emerged from decades of brutal repression to face an even greater challenge--HIVAIDS. Hundreds of thou?sands of our mothers and our fathers died; our sisters and brothers scattered and lost. Uganda's peoples, comprising some 52 ethnic groups, were isolated from one another politically, cul?turally, socially, and economically.
I was born into a family where music was all around me; it was used to educate, to praise good deeds, and express our joy and sadness. When my parents died, it gave us--it still gives us--courage and comfort. And when Children of Uganda first toured 10 years ago, I was among them
Today, thanks to a measure of stability and development in a region still torn by conflict, Uganda's culture grows thicker and richer, and also more diverse and contemporary. From across our borders with Rwanda, Sudan, Repub?lic of Congo, Tanzania, and Kenya, and around the globe, ideas and experiences flow into and around our country, especially in this period of technology.
The dances and songs that are performed here reflect the history, legends, and beliefs of East Africa and introduce some of the new and dynamic forms that we are creating today. The music and dance we preserve, adapt, and create is integral to Uganda's renewal and will help shape tomorrow's generations.
Imagine yourself standing by Lake Victoria watching the strong tide of river Nile flow through our country and out into Africa. We children of Uganda invite you to journey with us to our home.
Notes on the Program
Music and dance in Uganda today embrace a shifting mix of traditions and new forms, celebrating the coun?try's rich and multiple heritages and the increas?ing contact with other cultures. Children of Uganda presents a glimpse of this dynamism. The songs are performed in a number of Ugan?dan languages as well as English and Swahili-the lingua franca of East Africa. Some of the pieces are named for drum rhythms ("Bakisim-ba," "Ekitaguriro," and "Larakaraka"); others are named for the featured instrument ("Embaire" and "Engoma")The order of the program is subject to change.
AmaggunjuSkia Ngoma Long ago a Bugandan king died without a male heir. A pregnant woman from the court was seated on the throne in anticipation that her son might be the next king. An heir was indeed born, and as a king should never cry, "Amag-gunju" was sung and danced to entertain the infant. Here it is fused with a Swahili song "Skia Ngoma." "Listen to our drums," the lyrics pro?claim. "This is the sound of Uganda, presented for you here today."
This piece comes from the Acholi people in the northern part of Uganda who are highly regard?ed for their dark complexions and tall statures. Girls developing into young women perform this high-energy dance, with its engaging melodies and intense, syncopated rhythms. "Ding Ding" features drums, adungu, xylophone, okalele, and a whistle.
This large xylophone originated with the Abanore peoples of Northeast Uganda near the border with Kenya, and was adopted by the Basoga in the southeast of Uganda. Due to its full range of pitches and great resonance, the Embaire is often played by itself, without the accompaniment of drums, by six people divided
into a rhythm section and a melody section. The Embaire is played at all types of occasions.
Mothers urge their children to heed the lessons they impart, for as one phrase cautions, when their parents have died, they will be "like cows feeding on the grass"--that is, they will need to look after themselves. This is a traditional song of the Ankole people of western Uganda.
AnjolinayeWatoto-Bamagala "Anjolinaye" praises the beauty of an African girl, admiring her gleaming eyes, long neck, and great teeth. The "Watoto-Bamagala" proclaims "We the Children of Uganda are happy to be who we are and to be awakened by such singing birds to do our chores." "Kanyonza" (pot dance) is set to these songs, highlighting the grace and talent of the performers and showing appreciation for women of three dif?ferent Ugandan regions: Ankole in the West, the Swahili-speaking people of the East, and the Acholi of the North.
Drums are emblematic of African culture and are an ever-present link from the past to the pres?ent. Performed by the girls of the troupe, this work combines patterns and sequences from many regions of Uganda, showcasing a diversity of rhythms and celebrating their adoption and adaptation by musicians around the world today.
The Bunyoro-Kitara people celebrate one of the many extraordinary birds found in eastern Ugan?da in this song whose lyrics say that the titi kati?tila always sleeps better after seeing a friend. It features six-year-old Miriam Namala.
Originally a courtship dance of the Banyoro and Batoro people of southeast Uganda, this exu?berant and demanding dance gives everyone a chance to show their individual talents. In the
past, young men and women would be brought together in front of the community to choose their future mates. This ceremony was a critical event, especially for the boys, since poor dancers risked remaining bachelors. The girls were expected to dance well in return exhibiting spunk, kindness, style, and grace.
This original song (by Peter Mugga, rearranged by Peter Kasule) is dedicated to those resisting the violence of civil war in northern Uganda. Men and women are exhorted to fight for their rights, land, lives, and the welfare of the chil?dren. The second section welcomes back the survivors from their battles and praises them for their bravery and heroism.
In northern Uganda near the Sudanese border, this has become a rallying cry and therapeutic dance for those that have been abducted by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army. Originally a courtship dance of the Acholi people, this fierce piece is accompanied by rhythms pounded out on gourds struck with bike spokes to attract attention. Gourds or calabashes are multi-pur?pose vessels--used to fetch water, as places to sit, as umbrellas to limit the effects of the hot sun, and by mothers who tap out rhythms when babies cry to help them fall asleep.
This dance belongs to the nomadic Banyankole of western Uganda who cherish the cattle they tend for a living, to the point of being teased by their country-men for their great devotion. This dance praises the long-horned cows of Ankole and Rwanda--found nowhere else on earth. The dancers imitate the sounds, rhythms, and the movements of the graceful cows. This piece features the omukuri, a flute used to herd the cattle.
"Greetings to you friends, lovers, children, and supporters of Children of Uganda. We thank and respect you." This dance is dedicated to our audiences as Children of Uganda celebrates its 10th anniversary. Adungu (plucked bow harps) are featured here.
Otwenge & Oseke
"Otwenge" means "elbow" in Lugbara and this dance, like the language shared across national borders, is performed in both Uganda and in its western neighbor, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Congolese are known throughout Africa for their sensual dancing and music. "Oseke," a contemporary dance that fuses Ugandan and Congolese forms, changes and evolves as our peoples continue to interact with one another.
Ngoma Ya Ukaguzi
The boys showcase their drumming skills in this piece from northern Tanzania. This rhythm is played every Monday towards the end of school-wide assemblies as teachers walk through the lines of students checking on their appearance and cleanliness.
Uganda is bordered to the southwest by Rwan?da and this piece is named for the language spo?ken there. It features Rwemeza, drums of the Banyarwanda royalty played to announce the king's entrance to the court. As here, following this procession, the dance "Amaraaba" was performed.
This is a traditional dance of the court of Bugan-da, the largest ethnic group of Uganda. Origi?nally performed only by women, it celebrates the creation of banana wine for the King. The drummers' rhythms and the dancers' move?ments mirror the king's words of thanks, "speaking" for him and reflecting his increas?ingly celebratory mood.
Children of Uganda celebrates its 10th anniversary with this 2006 US tour, which begins in California in January and visits 31 communities in 20 states before ending in Minnesota in June. Ranging in age from 6 to 20, the performers live in several homes and board?ing schools supported by the Uganda Children's Charity Foundation (UCCF). Through their per?formances, educational programs and commu?nity exchanges, Children of Uganda serve as goodwill ambassadors for the 2.4 million orphans living in the Uganda today.
Hailed as "first-rate" and "inspiring" by The New York Times, Children of Uganda have toured the USA biennially since 1996. They have also appeared at the White House, on the David Letterman show, at the Grammy Awards' salute to U-2's Bono, for (former) US Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill during his trip to Africa, for the World Bank, MTVNickelodeon, Nike, Morgan Stanley, and other corporations.
The dual crises of civil war and AIDS in Ugan?da pose a serious threat to the complex fabric of family and village life that previously nurtured and depended on a rich and varied oral culture. Children of Uganda was originally founded to teach orphaned children the songs, dances and stories that were in danger of being lost. At home, the ensemble performs at weddings, diplomatic events, and other celebrations. Children of Uganda gives 22 of the most talented of these performers an opportunity to share their stories in the US, promoting East African culture and increasing awareness of the HIVAIDS crisis in their homeland.
77iese performances mark the Children of Uganda's fifth and sixth appearances under UMS auspices. They made their UMS debut at the Power Center in February 2002.
Peter Kasule (Artistic Director) is a musician and composer. He is an original member of Chil?dren of Uganda, performing in the group's first tours to the USA in 1996 and 1998. In 2000 and 2002 he toured as the group's production and rehearsal assistant. In 2004 he assumed leader?ship of the tour.
Mr. Kasule was born in Kampala, Uganda in 1981 and after the death of his parents, lived at the Daughters of Charity Orphanage from 1989-96. In 1994, he traveled to Germany for the International Children's Festival where his dance troupe was awarded "Best Performers." In 1996, he accepted an invitation from UCCF to join the US Scholarship Program as one of its first participants. From 1998-2001 he was the lead drummer for the African Dance Ensemble at Dallas' prestigious Booker T. Washington High School for the Visual and Performing Arts. Mr. Kasule won "Best Percussionist" at the 2000 International Jazz Festival in New Orleans and "Best Performer" at the Collin County Jazz Fes?tival in 1998, 1999, and 2000. He is currently completing his undergraduate degree at the College of Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he studies Music Technology with a focus on com?position, recording, and blending African and Western music.
Alexis Hefley, the President and Executive Director of the Uganda Children's Charity Foun?dation (UCCF) initially traveled to Uganda at the invitation of First Lady, Janet Museveni in June of 1993. Ms. Hefley lived and worked with AIDS orphans for 18 months in Kampala. It was then that she saw the overwhelming need for inter?national humanitarian assistance to address the AIDS and orphan crisis in Uganda. She returned to the US in 1994 having organized the first national tour of the Children of Uganda. Upon completion of this tour, Ms. Hefley founded UCCF, to continue her efforts to assist these chil?dren. Ms. Hefley graduated from Texas A&M University and worked in the banking industry for 10 years. In search of a calling and to learn the meaning of passion, she left the financial world and moved to Washington D.C. Through a volunteer commitment with the International Foundation she had the opportunity to meet Congressman Tony Hall and his wife Janet Hall. Their commitment to God and their personal and political commitment to third world coun?tries sparked Ms. Hefley's interest in Uganda. Since 1994, Ms. Hefley has traveled regularly to Uganda and continues to devote her life to AIDS-related orphans.
The producer of Children of Uganda, the Uganda Children's Charity Foundation (UCCF), is a
not-for-profit corporation founded in 1995, based in Dallas, Texas and in Kampala, Uganda. UCCF is dedicated to providing an education, food, shelter, clothing, and medical care to more than 700 orphaned Ugandan children. In this way, UCCF is furnishing the tools these children need to become self-reliant members of society, with the capacity to contribute to Uganda's social welfare and economic recovery. Children under the age of 12 live in two homes run by UCCF which also provide primary schooling. A third facility provides care for children with mental and physical disabilities. UCCF continues to sup?port the majority of these children at secondary boarding schools and in UCCF-sponsored voca?tional programs. Through its community out?reach program, UCCF also supports and educates 100 children living with widowed HIV-positive women who are caring for at least five children.
Limited opportunities exist in Uganda for high-achieving students. UCCF's US Scholarship Program enables some of the most talented stu?dents to deepen their education, supporting stu?dents pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees in fields ranging from nursing to inter?national conflict resolution.
UCCF's programs are funded with grants from foundations, corporations, faith-based institutions; with individual contributions and sponsorships; and through its biannual national performance tours by the Children of Uganda. UCCF has set a goal of $1.5 million dollars for the 2006 tour in order to strengthen its educa?tion and regional development programs. This integrated strategy will improve the quality of life for the children UCCF supports and the com?munities in which they live.
Children of Uganda 2006 National Tour
Uganda Children's Charity Foundation, Inc. (UCCF)
Alexis Hefley, President and Founder
Abel Mwebembezi, Country DirectorUganda
Tim Allen, Chief Operating Officer
Trish Langley, Development Associate
Peter Kasule, Artistic Director
Darren W. McCroom, Lighting Designer and
Production Manager Gayle Jeffery, Production Manager Pat Kirby, Company Manager David Kasata, Assistant to the Artistic Director Talitha Phillips, Tour Volunteer Deborah Nakiduuli, Tour Volunteer, Director Sabina
Primary Boarding School
Lisa Booth Management, Inc.
Lisa Booth, President & Deirdre Valente, Wee President
Uganda Children's Charity Foundation (UCCF) is a registered 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Your interest and support is welcome. For additional information, please visit: www.childrenofuganda.org
ums University Musical Society
the Charles H.
Composed by Gioachino Rossini Libretto by Gaetano Rossi
Detroit Symphony Orchestra Alberto Zedda, Conductor
Ewa Podles, Contralto (Tancredi) Lawrence Brownlee, Tenor (Argirio) Mariola Cantarero, Soprano (Amenaide)
Malin Fritz, Mezzo-Soprano (Isaura)
Eric Owens, Bass (Orbazzano)
Peiyi Wang, Mezzo-Soprano (Roggiero)
Men of the UMS Choral Union Jerry Blackstone, Director
Saturday Evening, March 25, 2006 at 8:00 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor
Tonight's production will contain one intermission, following Act I.
45th Performance of the 127th Annual Season
127th Annual Choral Union Series
The photographing or sound recording of this performance or possession of any device for such photographing or sound recording is prohibited.
Tonight's performance is supported by the Charles H. Gershenson Trust, Maurice Binkow, Trustee, and by Linda and Maurice Binkow.
Tonight's pre-concert Prelude Dinner was sponsored by TIAA-CREF.
Special thanks to Alan Aldworth and ProQuest Company for their support of the UMS Classical Kids Club.
Media partnership for this performance is provided by WGTE 91.3 FM, Michigan RadioMichigan Television, and Observer & Eccentric Newspapers.
Special thanks to Richard LeSueur and the Ann Arbor District Library for their participation in this residency.
Special thanks to Steven Ball for coordinating tonight's pre-concert music on the Charles Baird Carillon.
Special thanks to Tom Thompson of Tom Thompson Flowers, Ann Arbor, for his generous contribution of floral art for tonight's performance.
Mme. Podles appears by arrangement with Matthew Sprizzo.
Mr. Brownlee appears by arrangement with Mirshak Artists Management, New York, NY.
Ms. Cantarero appears by arrangement with Miguel Lerin, Barcelona, Spain. Mr. Owens appears by arrangement with IMG Artists, New York, NY. Ms. Fritz appears by arrangement with Herbert Barrett Management, Inc.
Large print programs are available upon request.
Syracuse, A.D. 1005
The scene is a gallery in the palace of Argirio, leader of the senate. Everyone celebrates the peace between the two formerly rival factions of Argirio and Orbazzano. To seal the treaty between the two houses, Argirio decides to give his daughter Amenaide's hand to his former opponent, now the leader of his army. Due to upcoming battles with Solamir, the enemy of Syracuse, the wedding has to take place this very day! Meanwhile, Orbazzano warns against treachery from the exiled Tancredi, perceived as another threat to the city. Amenaide, secretly in love with Tancredi, has sent him a message invit?ing him back to Syracuse.
Unbeknownst to her, Tancredi is already in town. Since he has been in exile since child?hood, he is not recognized. He sends his faith?ful squire Roggiero to find Amenaide and tell her that an unknown knight wishes to speak with her.
Argirio and Amenaide appear. Amenaide begs her father to postpone the wedding by one day, but Argirio won't listen. He leaves, and Tan?credi steps forward. Amenaide warns him that he is in danger and must make his escape, though at this point she can't bring herself to tell him about her imminent forced marriage.
Yet preparations for the wedding are under?way: warriors and knights make their entry. Argirio addresses the assembly, assuring them that this marriage will confirm the peace in Syra?cuse. Tancredi, as an unknown knight, offers his services to Argirio in defense of the city, promis?ing loyalty and honor as he looks at Amenaide, who he thinks has betrayed him by accepting marriage to Orbazzano. Amenaide now refuses to obey her father, even if the cost of disobedi?ence is her life.
Orbazzano enters, with Amenaide's letter which has been intercepted. All believe that the letter was addressed to Solamir, the leader of the Saracens, which would make Amenaide
guilty of high treason, punishable by death. Amenaide protests her innocence to no avail. Her father disowns her, and Tancredi repudiates her. Only her close friend Isaura is convinced that Amenaide is not guilty. Amenaide is dragged off to prison.
We return to the palace of Argirio. Orbazzano is angry at Amenaide's contempt for him and her apparent treachery. Isaura pities Amenaide's fate at the command of her own father. Argirio is torn between his political duty and his love for his daughter. With great reluctance, he yields to Orbazzano's demands and signs Amenaide's death warrant. Isaura reproaches Orbazzano for his cruelty, and invokes divine aid for Amenaide.
The scene changes to -Amenaide's prison, where she prays that Tancredi will one day real?ize she died faithful to him. Orbazzano, with guards and knights, comes to carry out her sen?tence, unless there is a knight who will fight to defend her honor. Tancredi accepts the chal?lenge, even though he still believes Amenaide is guilty. Argirio embraces the unknown knight, hoping that his daughter's life will be saved. Tan?credi leaves for the contest, and Amenaide prays for divine protection for her champion.
News comes of Tancredi's victory and Orbaz?zano's death. Despite the triumph, Tancredi (his identity still unrevealed) has resolved to leave Syracuse to die in some distant country. Ame?naide approaches him, but he again doubts her loyalty. Syracusan knights come in search of their champion against Solamir, who is on the attack again. Argirio and Amenaide are with them, and Tancredi's identity is finally revealed to all. Tancredi, however, while willing to fight and die for Syracuse, still does not believe Ame?naide's innocence. He seeks death in combat. Yet he once more emerges victorious, killing Solamir. He returns with the news that while dying, Solamir confirmed the innocence of Ame?naide. The lovers are reunited and everyone cel?ebrates their hard-won happiness in a scene of general rejoicing.
Born February 29, 1792 in Pesaro, Italy
Died November 13, 1868 in Paris
Rossini was 21 when he composed Tancredi for the Teatro La Fenice in Venice; it was this opera that first made him famous all over Europe, three years before The Barber of Seville. The pro?tagonist's first aria--known as Di tanti palpiti, after the opening line of its last section-became one of the biggest "hits" of its time. Paganini was only one of several composers who made brilliant instrumental arrangements of it. The cavatina was mentioned specifically in Byron's Don Juan and Balzac's Peau de chagrin, and in his biography of Rossini, the great French novelist Stendhal claimed that all of Venice, from gondoliers to members of the nobility,
were repeating its most famous phrase: "mi rivedrai, ti rivedro" (you will see me again, I will see you again). The tailors' song in Act III of Wagner's Meistersinger quotes the melody of Di tanti palpiti as an exquisite parody. (Stendhal also tells us that this aria was known as the "rice aria," since Rossini apparently composed it in four minutes, the time it took to make rice, which Italians liked rather under-cooked. The extraordinary haste was due to the fact that the prima donna had told Rossini, the night before the premiere, that she didn't like her entrance cavatina and demanded a new one.)
Of course, there is much more to Tancredi than this one phrase or this one aria. The music is gorgeous from the first bar to the last; and it breathed new life into the genre of the opera seria at a time when it had already entered a period of decline, opening the door to spectac?ular new developments in 19th-century Italian opera. The main novelty, in the words of leading Rossini expert, Philip Gossett, is the fusion of "the urge for lyrical expression and the needs of the drama." Rossini achieved this by moving beyond the conventional succession of isolated arias and creating larger dramatic units, with complex, multi-sectional arias and duets. The role of the chorus, which represents many dif?ferent groups of characters, is particularly impor?tant. There are some extremely fine touches of orchestration, as in the introduction to Di tanti palpiti.
In addition, it was here that Rossini created the prototype of the imbroglio (entanglement) finale in Act I, to which he would return so often in his later operas: this is the famous moment when all the characters onstage collectively declare that they are losing their minds over the hopeless and incomprehensible situation that has arisen. The main characters in this opera are complex and we are allowed a glimpse into their inner conflicts and contradictions; a father con?demning his daughter to death, lovers who are willing to die for each other despite doubt and mistrust--Rossini brought all these extreme situ-
The music is gorgeous from the first bar to the last; and it breathed new life into the genre of the opera seria at a time when it had already entered a period of decline, opening the door to spectacular new developments in 19th-century Italian opera.
ations to life in his music. But to him, when all was said and done, opera was still first and fore?most about beautiful singing and lavish col?oratura; it is within that framework that all the drama must unfold.
The name Tancredi belongs to one of the protagonists of Torquato Tasso's celebrated 16th-century epic, La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered), and was borrowed by Voltaire in the 18th century for the tragedy that served as the source for Rossi's libretto. The action is set in Syracuse on the island of Sicily, a city threatened by the Saracen army of the infi?del Solamir and torn by a long-standing strife between two native clans. The idea of the patria (fatherland) thus looms large in the opera, and there is no doubt that this fact contributed sig?nificantly to its impact and success. Italy was just entering its era of risorgimento (resurgence) with a rise of patriotic sentiment that would eventually lead to the creation of a unified and independent Italy in 1870. For all their conflicts and differences, everyone in the opera is united by their love of the patria. The arch-enemy Solamir never appears in person; his Saracen sol?diers sang one chorus in the original Venetian version of the opera, but even this was later re?written as a Sicilian patriotic chorus.
In fact, Tancredi went through many other changes as it moved from Venice to Ferrara and then to Milan (all within a year of the 1813 pre?miere). These versions differ most strikingly at the end, where a happy ending in the Venetian version was replaced by Tancredi's death in Fer?rara, only to be changed back to the original form in Milan. The Milan version, which com?bines elements from the other two, has been generally accepted as the standard form of the opera.
In classical opera seria, the male protagonist's roles were traditionally given to castrati. By Rossini's time, the barbarous practice of castrat?ing young boys destined for theatrical careers was practically extinct, but the composer was still holding on to the idea of having his primo uomo sing in the treble register. Therefore, he wrote Tancredi as a trouser role, to be sung by a
woman. His faithful attendant Roggiero was likewise represented by a female singer. Argirio, the father, is cast for a high tenor, and "bad guy" Orbazzano sings in a dark bass-baritone.
To touch briefly on the music at the very beginning and the very end of the opera: The overture, as is often the case in Rossini, was "recycled" from an earlier opera, La pietra del paragone (The Touchstone). The final scene (in the Venetian and Milanese versions) is a lively polonaise, a dance that had originated in Poland but had taken Europe by storm and was partic?ularly appropriate for joyful operatic celebra?tions, regardless of when or where the action of the opera was set. Tancredi was set in a hypo?thetical year exactly 1001 years ago, but it real?ly has little to do with the Middle Ages and certainly doesn't require medieval costumes. The real heroes of this opera are the singers--the original casts for whose abilities the music was originally tailored, and the many subsequent generations who have kept it alive for the last 193 years.
Program note by Peter Laki.
Alberto Zedda (Conductor) was born in Milan, Italy, where he completed his education in music and the human?ities. In 1957 he won the International Italian Radio and Television Competition for Young
Conductors and there?after was invited to appear with important musical institutions in Italy (including La Scala, Santa Cecilia, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Scar?latti, the Radio Orchestras of Rome, Torino, and Milan) and internation?ally (in England, Russia, Germany, Israel, France,
Switzerland, Portugal, and the US).
Besides his activity in the field of symphonic music, Maestro Zedda has developed an out-
standing career in opera. He has conducted in the most renowned Opera Houses in Italy (including La Scala, Opera di Roma, San Carlo di Napoli, Massimo di Palermo, Comunale di Bologna, Genova, and Trieste) and abroad (Covent Garden, London, The Vienna Opera, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Amsterdam, Lisbon, Prague, Varsovia, Madrid, Barcelona, Saint Petersburg, Tokio, and Shanghai)
He has always dedicated part of his time to musicology, editing widely successful critical versions of operas, oratorios, and cantatas, fundamentally from the first half of the 19th century (Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Verdi). His latest work in the musicological field was the scoring of Monteverdi's Incoronazione di Poppea, which he conducted at La Scala, pub?lished by Ricordi.
In the past, Maestro Zedda has served as principal guest conductor for Italian Repertoire at the Neue Deutsche Oper Berlin (1961-63) and at the New York City Opera (1967-69); Musical Director at the Festival della Valle d'ltria of Martina Franca; member of the Editorial Board of the Fondazione Rossini from its found?ing until 1992; and Artistic Director of the Teatro Carlo Felice di Genova, La Scala, and the Barok Festival of Fano. He is currently the Artistic Direc?tor of the Rossini Opera Festival, Director of the Accademia Rossiniana in Pesaro, and Artistic Advisor of the Festival Mozart of La Coruiia, Spain.
He is also a dedicated educator, working at the Urbino University (History of Music), the Osimo Academy (Musical Philology), and the Accademia Rossiniana in Pesaro.
With her distinctive, dramatic voice of staggering range, agility and ampli?tude, Ewa Podles (Tancredi) is widely regarded as the world's foremost contral?to. Her opera engagements include roles with the Seattle Opera, San Diego Opera, San Fran?cisco Opera, Canadian Opera Company, Hous?ton Grand Opera, Dallas Opera, Milwaukee's
Florentine Opera, and Michigan Opera Theatre. Appearances at New York's Carnegie Hall include Gluck's Orphee et Eurydice with the Ora?torio Society of New York, Ulrica with the Colle?giate Chorale, baroque and Rossini programs with the Moscow Chamber Orchestra, Das Lied von der Erde with the Philadelphia Orchestra, and Szymanowski's Three Hymns with Sinfonia Varsovia. The current season includes recitals at Boston's Jordan Hall, Vancouver's Chan Centre, and on the Philadelphia Chamber Music Society series; performances of Rossini's cantata Giovan-na d'Arco with the Moscow Chamber Orchestra (in Pittsburgh and at Lincoln Center's Avery Fish?er Hall) and Toronto Symphony; and Tancredi in concert with the Detroit Symphony under the auspices of the University Musical Society in Ann Arbor, Michigan, which previously presented her in recital as well as in an acclaimed, semistaged version of Orfeo. She has sung principal roles at the Metropolitan Opera, Vancouver Opera, Deutsche Staatsoper Berlin and Deutsche Oper Berlin, Frankfurt Alte Oper, Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Bellini, La Scala, La Fenice, Teatro San Carlo, Warsaw's National Theatre, Theatre Chatelet, and Opera Bastille.
In addition to her rigorous operatic calendar, Mme. Podles is one of the most acclaimed recital and concert performers in the world. She has been guest soloist with the Saint Paul
Chamber Orchestra under Nicholas McGegan, San Francisco Symphony with Donald Runnicles and Libor Pesek, Detroit Symphony with Neeme Jarvi, Seattle Symphony under Gerard Schwarz, and Montreal Symphony with Charles Dutoit and Antonin Wit. Other orchestral credits include the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and National Arts Centre Orchestras; National Orchestra of Spain; Pittsburgh, American, Toron?to, NHK Tokyo, and New World Symphonies; and Hong Kong and Dresden Philharmonics under such conductors as David Atherton, Leon Botstein, Myung-Whun Chung, Armin Jordan, Lorin Maazel, Constantine Orbelian, Alberto Zedda, and Pinchas Zukerman. A particularly acclaimed recitalist, she has been on the major art-song series of Cleveland, Atlanta, St. Paul, Chicago, Paris, Amsterdam, London, Toronto, Moscow, Warsaw, Montreal, San Juan, Quebec and New York (Alice Tully Hall and the 92nd Street Y). Her many collaborations with Marc Minkowski and Les Musiciens du Louvre include two Deutsche Grammophon recordings: Han?del's Ariodante and Gluck's Armide. Other recent discs include two acclaimed Delos record?ings: Handel Arias and Russian Arias and an Arabesque recording of Chopin songs with pianist Garrick Ohlsson, with whom she often appears in recital.
In the current season, Lawrence Brownlee (Argirio) returns to La Scala for Almaviva in barbiere di Siviglia and debuts with the Vien?na Staatoper and San Diego Opera in the same role. This same season Mr. Brownlee debuts with La Monnaie in Brussels as Count Liebenskof in Viaggio, Ramiro in La Cenerentola with the Teatro Comunale Giuseppe Verdi in Trieste, Tonio in La Fille du Regiment with the Hambur-gische Staatsoper, and returns to Washington Concert Opera as Argirio in Tancredi, a role he also sings with Maestro Zedda and the Detroit Symphony with the University Musical Society in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mr. Brownlee also sings a solo recital at the Kennedy Center with the Vocal Arts Society of Washington DC and is the
tenor soloist in Messiah with the Baltimore Symphony.
In future seasons, Mr. Brownlee will make impor?tant debuts and return engagements with The Metropolitan Opera, Houston Grand Opera, Opera Com?pany of Philadelphia, Sem-peroper in Dresden, Seattle Opera, Staatsoper Dresden,
and the New National Theatre in Tokyo, Japan.
The 0405 season marked several important debuts for Mr. Brownlee including his debut at Covent Garden in Lorin Maazel's new opera 1984, Almaviva in barbiere di Siviglia with Teatro Real in Madrid and the Munich Radio Orchestra, and Messiah with the Detroit Sym?phony. This same season Mr. Brownlee returned to La Scala as Ramiro in La Cenerentola, Boston Lyric Opera as Lindoro in L'ltaliana in Algeri, and Seattle Opera as Arcadio in Florencia En ElAmo-zonas. Mr. Brownlee sang Carmina Burana with the Berlin Philharmonic under Sir Simon Rattle which was recorded by EMI Classics. With SONY Mr. Brownlee records Almaviva in barbiere di Siviglia with the Munich Radio Orchestra. Mr. Brownlee's first solo CD of Italian Songs was released in 2005 with Martin Katz at the piano.
Lawrence Brownlee is a winner of the 2003 ARIA Award, a 2003 Career Grant from the Richard Tucker Foundation, and has recently been featured in both Opera News and Classical Singer Magazine. Mr. Brownlee received a Bach?elor of Arts from Anderson University and a Master of Music from Indiana University. He was a participant in the young artist programs at both Seattle Opera and Wolf Trap Opera.
Born in Granada, Mariola Cantarero (Amenaide) studied at the Granada Con?servatory and sang in the Presentation Choir of her town. She has won several interna?tional singing competitions: Francisco Vinas in Barcelona, Pedro Lavirgen in Cordoba, Operalia 1999 (founded by Placido Domingo) in San Juan
of Puerto Rico, and Aslico 2000 in Milan. She has appeared as soloist with the major orches?tras of Granada, C6rdoba, Oporto, and Andalucia, conducted by Josep Pons, Sanchez Ruzafa, Enrique Garcia Asensio, and Luis Izquierdo. She has sung recitals in Cordoba, Sevilla, La Coruiia, Barcelona, Lyon, San Juan of Puerto Rico, and Granada. In the 0102 season she made her debut at the Teatro Carlo Felice of Genoa as Adele in Le Comte Ory, and continued her success at the same venue with Puritani.
Since then she has appeared in Un Ballo in Maschera at Teatro San Carlos of Lisbon; Ari-adane auf Naxos, II Viaggio a Reims, and L'Elisir d'Amore at the Liceo of Barcelona; Pan y Toms and Doha Fran-cisqulta at the Teatro de la Zarzuela in Madrid; Viaggio a Reims in Stras-
bourg, La Coruna, Madrid, and San Sebastian; La Sonnambula in Pavia, Como and Cremona; Petite Messe Solennelle and Viaggio a Reims in Genova; tre mariti, Gli inganni della somiglian-za, and Elisabetta, Regina d'Inghilterra at the Rossini Opera Festival of Pesaro; and has sung Tancredi in Trieste, Florence, and Oviedo. Future appearances include a concert with
Juan Diego FI6rez in Puerto Rico, L'Elisir d'amore, Luisa Fernanda, and Tancredi at the Teatro Real of Madrid, Capuletti ed i Montecchi and Don Pasquale in Trieste, and Lucia di Lam-mermoor at the Teatro del Liceo of Barcelona and in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
Malin Fritz (Isaura) has been praised by Opera News for her "dignity and excellent vocalism." Ms. Fritz joins the Metropolitan Opera for its 0506 tour of Japan as Schwertleite in Die Walkure and onstage in New York as the Third Lady in Die Zauberflote. This season she also sings performances of Mozart's Requiem with
the Tucson Symphony.
Her engagements in the 0405 season includ?ed Rossweisse in Die Walkure and the title role in Carmen with Opera San Jose. Other recent engagements included performances of Moses undAron with the Metro?politan Opera, Azucena in
Trovatore with Monterey Opera and with Opera San Jose, Amneris in Aida with Syracuse Opera and the Brevard Music Festival, and the title role in Carmen in open air performances across Belgium.
Tonight's performance includes both the return of many familiar artists to our stages as well as three notable debuts, that of Maestro Alberto Zedda, Lawrence Brownlee, and Mariola Cantarero. Ewa Podles returns in her seventh UMS appearance, after her UMS debut in 1997 replacing an ailing Cecilia Bartoli in a Choral Union recital at Hill Auditorium. This is the third UMS appearance for both Malin Fritz and Eric Owens, after performing in Handel's Messiah in 1996 and 2001, respectively. Peiyi Wang was the understudy for Ewa Podles in the UMS 2001 presentation of Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice and sang the title role in one performance. Tonight marks her second UMS appearance. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra also returns to Hill Auditorium in their 79th appearance under UMS auspices, and the UMS Choral Union makes its 402nd UMS appearance.
UMS ARCHIVES Operas in Concert at UMS
It is hard to decide whether tonight's concert-opera performance of Tancredi and the UMS presentation of Daphne last October are "forward-looking" programmatic innovations for the UMS Choral Union Series or backward-looking regressions. Let's say they are both. UMS's recent history shows little, if any, inclusion of opera-in-concert. The early years of programming, however, are a regular treasure trove of concerts featuring operatic scores performed on stage in Hill Auditorium and in Hill's precursor, University Hall (located where Angell Hall now stands).
Listed below is a sampling of the operas-in-concert presented as part of annual UMS seasons:
1896 Samson and Delilah (Saint-Saens); 1899; 1907, starring Ernestine Schumann-Heink; 1912; 1916; 1923; 1929; 1940
1896 "Wagner Nights"; 1903, 1909, 1913 (full acts from Lohengrin, Ootterdammerung and Die Meistersinger von Aumberg);1933; 1938, full excerpts from 77e Ring; 1942 featuring Helen Traubel; 1949 featuring Set Svanholm; 1952
1898 The Flying Dutchman (Wagner)
1902 Orfeo ed Euridice (Gluck), starring Louis Homer
1902 Faust (Gounod); 1908; 1919
1902 Tannhauser (Wagner); 1922
1903 A'ida (Verdi), starring Anita Rio and Louise Homer; 1906; 1921; 1928; 1937 with Elizabeth Rethberg and Ezio Pinza; 1957 starring Leontyne Price in her first public performance of the title role (pictured below)
1904 Carmen (Bizet), starring Louise Homer and Giuseppi Campanari; 1918 with Giovanni Martinelli singing Don Jose; 1927 with Lawrence Tibbett singing Escamillo; 1938
1911 Eugene Onegin (Tchaikovsky)
1925 La Gioconda (Ponchielli)
1926 Lohengrin (Wagner)
1931 Boris Godunov (Mussorgsky) with Nelson Eddy in the cast; 1935, 1941
1932 The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh (Rimsky-Korsakov) with Nelson Eddy in the cast
1933 Merry Mount (Howard Hanson), world premiere performance with Nelson Eddy in the cast
1939 Otello (Verdi)
'Listed in chronological order starting with the first time an opera was performed. If applicable, subsequent performances of the opera are listed after each title.
Her orchestral credits include Prokofiev's Alexander Nevsky with the Virginia Symphony; Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 with the Jackson?ville, Syracuse, and Cape symphony orchestras; Jancek's Glagolitic Mass, Bach's Magnificat, and Mahler's Symphony No. 3 with the Milwau?kee Symphony; and Handel's Messiah with the University Musical Society at Ann Arbor.
Ms. Fritz can be heard in the recording of Giulio Cesare on Koch International and as Vera Boronel on the Chandos recording of The Con?sul. She is a 1993 graduate of the New England Conservatory of Music, was the Shoshana Foun?dation Richard F. Gold Career Grant Award win?ner for 1996 at Chautauqua, and was a 1996 National Finalist in the Metropolitan Opera Auditions.
ric Owens (Orbazzano) is the winner of the 2003 Marian Anderson Award. His exciting 0506 season is highlighted by
starring roles in two world premieres. In October, he sang the role of General Leslie Groves in John Adams's Doctor Atomic with the San Francisco Opera, directed by Peter Sellars and conducted by Don?ald Runnicles. Later in the season, he sings the title role in Elliot Gold-
enthal's Grendel with Los Angeles Opera in a production by Julie Taymor, also seen at the Lin?coln Center Festival. In concert, he sings Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 with the Detroit Symphony, the Milwaukee Symphony, and the San Diego Symphony and returns to the San Francisco Symphony for Messiah. Also of note is the release of Mozart's Requiem with the Atlanta Symphony conducted by Donald Runni-cles on Teldec, the first recording of the Levin completion of this work. Mr. Owens has sung with many of the world's major opera companies (Royal Opera Covent Garden, Houston Grand
Opera, Los Angeles Opera, Paris Opera, Wash?ington Opera, and Glimmerglass Opera) and has performed with countless renowned conductors and symphony orchestras (the New York Phil?harmonic under Lorin Maazel, San Francisco Symphony under Michael Tilson Thomas, Cleve?land Orchestra under Yuri Temirkanov, Atlanta Symphony under Robert Spano, and the Nation?al Symphony under Leonard Slatkin).
Mr. Owens is a winner of a 1999 ARIA award. He also won the Placido Domingo Oper-alia Competition, the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, and the Luciano Pavarotti International Voice Competition. A native of Philadelphia, Eric Owens studied voice at Temple University and the Curtis Institute of Music.
Peiyi Wang, (Roggiero) originally from Beijing, China, graduated with a Bache?lor's Degree in English Language & Litera?ture from Peking University and received her Master's Degree in Voice Performance from the U-M School of Music. Ms. Wang has performed such roles as Angelina in La Cenerentola, Xerx?es in Exerxes, Carmen in La Tragedie de Car?men, Hansel in Hansel & Oretel, Orfeo in Orfeo ed Euridice, Meg in Falstaff, and Marquise in La Fille du Refiment. In 2001, she participated in Naxos' recording project of 20th-century Jew-
ish-American composers' music. She has achieved recent success in a num?ber of competitions: final?ist in the 2005 Montreal International Music Com?petition, finalist in the Metropolitan National Council Audition-Great Lakes Region, finalist in the second China Interna?tional Competition for
Singers, first prize winner of the Great Lakes Opera Competition, and first prize winner of the Harold Haugh Opera Competition. Ms. Wang was also the recipient of an Ars Gratia
Artis Foundation grant and a Rislov Foundation grant. Ms. Wang twice participated in the Inter?national Vocal Arts Institute master class in China and Japan. Ms. Wang will perform the title role in La Cenerentola with Michigan Opera Theatre in May 2006.
For over 90 years, the internationally acclaimed Detroit Symphony Orchestra (DSO) has featured unforgettable perform?ances, visionary maestros, and illustrious guest artists. The DSO is heard live by over 400,000 people annually in a year-round performance schedule that includes classical, pops, jazz, holi?day, and young people's concerts. In addition, over 75,000 metro Detroit-area students partici?pate in the DSO's educational activities, includ?ing school concerts presented at the Max M. Fisher Music Center.
The 0506 season is the first without a music director following the remarkable 15-year tenure of Neeme Jarvi, during which the DSO has become a symbol epitomizing the rebirth of Detroit. Projects completed during Jarvi's tenure include the total restoration and modernization of historic Orchestra Hall; the opening of the Max M. Fisher Music Center and the Jacob Bernard
Pincus Music Education Center in October 2003; and the revitalization of eight acres surrounding the DSO's home, including the construction of the Orchestra Place officeretail complex and the new Detroit School of Arts, a magnet public high school that is unique in the nation.
This season's programming highlights the orchestra's strong artistic profile. The musicians of the DSO, both individually and collectively, are brought to the forefront, featured as soloists throughout the season and showcased in many of the most challenging orchestral works in the repertoire. Audiences are invited to experience the superior acoustics of Orchestra Hall with such dynamic guest conductors and interna?tionally acclaimed artists as Itzhak Perlman, Kathleen Battle, Charles Dutoit, Midori, Sir Roger Norrington, and of course Neeme Jarvi, who steps into his new role as Music Director Emeritus. For more information visit www.detroitsymphony.com.
Please refer to UMS Annals, page P24 of your program, for biographical information on the UMS Choral Union
Detroit Symphony Orchestra
Neeme Jarvi, Music Director Emeritus
Music Directorship endowed by the Kresge Foundation
Thomas Wilkins, Resident Conductor
Erich Kunzel, Pops Music Advisor
Chick Corea, Fred A. and Barbara M. Erb Jazz Creative Director Chair
Members performing this evening notated in bold type.
Emmanuelle Boisvert Concertmaster Katherine Tuck Chair
Kimberly A. Kaloyanides Kennedy Associate Concertmaster Alan and Marianne Schwartz and Jean Shapero (Shapero Foundation) Chair
Assistant Concertmaster Walker L. CislerDetroit Edison Foundation Chair
Laura Rowe Assistant Concertmaster
Laurie Landers Goldman
The Devereaux Family Chair Adam 5tepniewski++ Alvin Score Lilit Danielyan Gina DiBello Elayna Duitman Ron Fischer Hui Jin Robert Murphy Eun Park Felix Resnick Yin Shen Lenore Sjoberg Bruce Smith Gregory Staples Joseph Striplin Marian TanauAA
Julie and Ed Levy, Jr. Chair James VanValkenburg++ Manchin ZhangA Caroline Coade Theresa Rudolph Glenn Mellow Shanda Lowery Hart Hollman Han Zheng
Erina Laraby-Goldwasser Catherine Compton
Robert deMaine+ James C. Gordon Chair
Marcy Chanteaux++ Dorothy and Herbert Graebner Chair
Barbara Hall Hassan
Haden McKay-Paul Wingert
Van Dusen Family Chair Stephen Molina Maxim Janowsky Linton Bodwin Stephen Edwards Craig Rifel Marshall Hutchinson Richard Robinson
Patricia Masri-Fletcher+ Winifred E. Polk Chair
the DSO Chair Sharon Wood Sparrow Philip Dikeman++ Jeffery Zook
Jack A. and Aviva Robinson
Shelley Heron Brian Ventura++ Treva Womble
Clarinets Theodore Oien+
Robert B. Semple Chair Douglas Cornelsen
PVS Chemicals, Inc.
Jim and Ann Nicholson
Laurence Liberson++ Oliver Green
Oliver Green Barbara Frankel and Ronald Michalak Chair
Robert Williams John and Marlene Boll Chair
Michael Ke Ma++
French Horns Karl Pituch+ Bryan Kennedy Corbin Wagner Denise Tryon Mark Abbott David Everson++
tee and Floy Barthel Chair Kevin Good Stephen Anderson William Lucas
Kenneth Thompkins+ Nathaniel Gurin++ Randall Hawes
Brian Jones+ Robert Pangborn++
Ruth Roby and Alfred R.
Glancy til Chair Ian Ding++
William Cody Knicely Chair
Robert Stiles+ Ethan Allen
Stephen Molina, Orchestra Personnel Manager
Nicholas Hansinger, Assistant Orchestra Personnel Manager
Stage Manager Larry Anderson
Department Head Matthew Pons
Department Head Michael Sarkissian
+ Principal ++ Assistant Principal t Acting Principal A Extended Leave AA On sabbatical
These members may voluntarily revolve seating within the section on a regular basis.
? Orchestra Fellow
Partial sponsorship provided by Warner, Norcross & Judd UP and DSOS William Ran?dolph Hearst Educational Endowment.
Chairman of the Board
James B. Nicholson
President and Executive Director
Activities of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra are made possible in part with the support of the National Endowment for the Arts, the Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs, and the city of Detroit Detroit Symphony Orchestra is an affirmative action, equal opportunity institution.
Men of the UMS Choral Union
Jerry Blackstone, Conductor and Musical Director
Jason Harris, Assistant Conductor
Steven Lorenz, Assistant Conductor
Jean Schneider, Accompanist
Kathleen Operhall, Chorus Manager
Nancy K. Paul, Librarian
Donald Bryant, Conductor Emeritus
Adam D. Bonarek Timothy J. Dombrowski Steven Fudge Dan Gotkin Arthur Gulick Jason Harris Steve Heath Eiki Isomura J. Derek Jackson Mark A. Krempski Robert MacGregor David Meitzler Nicholas J. Pharris Daniel Schad David Tang Elizabeth Sklar
Nicholas Edwin John W. Etsweiler III Roy Glover Michael J. Gordon Matthew Gray Bob Klaffke Richard A. Marsh A.T. Miller Tom Peterson Carl Smith Joshua Smith Jim Van Bochove
David Bowen Michael Coster John Dryden Kenneth A. Freeman Andrew Hartley Timothy Krohn Chris Lees Mark Latham Craig LeMoyne George Lindquist Lawrence Lohr Steven Lorenz Charles Lovelace William Malone Joseph D. McCadden Stephen Merino Michael Pratt Daniel R. Ruge David Sandusky Donald Sizemore Rodney Smith John Paul Stephens Robert Stevenson William Stevenson Steve Telian Thomas L. Trevethan Jesse Turner
Sam Baetzel William Baxter Harry Bowen Jeff Clevenger Don Faber H. Halladay Flynn James Head Rod Little Gerald Miller Edward Morris Clinton Smith Jeff Spindler Robert Stawski Michael Steelman Terril O. Tompkins John F. Van Bolt James Wessel Walker Norman Weber Donald Williams
The Tallis Scholars
Peter Phillips, Director
Tessa Bonner, Soprano Deborah Roberts, Soprano Sally Dunkley, Soprano Janet Coxwell, Soprano Patrick Craig, Alto Caroline Trevor, Alto
Nicholas Todd, Tenor Andrew Carwood, Tenor Don Greig, Bass Rob Macdonald, Bass
Program Thursday Evening, March 30, 2006 at 8:00 St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church, Ann Arbor
Mozart's Roots: A Cappella Music in Germany
Hieronymous Praetorius Magnificat 1
Praetohus Videns Dominus
Hans Leo Hassler Ad Dominum cum tribularer
Praetorius O bone Jesu
Cregor Aichinger Salve regina
Praetorius Magnificat II
Ludwig Senfl Ave Maria
Heinrich Schutz Die mit Tranen saen
Schutz Selig sind die Toten
Schutz Deutsches Magnificat
Johann Sebastian Bach Komm, Jesu, komm
46th Performance of the 127th Annual Season
A Cappella Series
The photographing or sound recording of this concert or possession of any device for such pho?tographing or sound recording is prohibited.
Media partnership for this performance provided by Observer & Eccentric Newspapers.
The Tallis Scholars appear by arrangement with Frank Solomon Associates.
In North America, The Tallis Scholars are managed by International Arts Foundation, New York, NY.
The Tallis Scholars record for Gimmell Records.
Please visit the Tallis Scholars website at www.thetallisscholars.co.uk.
Large print programs are available upon request.
Throughout the 16th century, the eyes of the cognoscenti looked towards Italy for a lead in all things cultural. Art, literature, music, dress, fashion, and manners all seemed to derive their inspiration from this remarkable collection of fractious states with their rediscov?ered awareness of their Roman past and their living Christian inheritance. Travelling to Italy for study became an essential part of education, but it would be wrong to think that only Italians were responsible for the massive outburst of cul?ture which we call the Renaissance. Certainly the roots exist in Italy, but the individuals who developed its ideas came from all over Europe. This is especially true in the case of musicians. There was a well trodden path from the Franco-Flemish lands down to the South where the musical style of the Low Countries was trans?planted, nurtured, developed, and then dissem?inated throughout Europe as composers returned to their homelands, carrying with them their honed ideas. Nowhere was this more apparent than in the German states.
Magnificat I, Videns Dominus, O bone Jesu, Magnificat II
Born August 10, 1560 in Hamburg, Germany
Died January 27, 1629 in Hamburg
It is a tribute to the spread of Italian ideas that the much neglected Praetorius, whose music forms the bulk of this program, hardly travelled away from Hamburg apart from brief sojourns in Cologne (1574-76) and Erfurt (1580-82). He succeeded his father as organist of the Church of St. Jakobi in Hamburg and remained there for the rest of his life. In his music, he transformed Hamburg into the Venice of the North, writing pieces for up 20 voices and contributing masses, motets, Magnificats, and a significant number of pieces for secular civic occasions. He was not necessarily at the forefront of musical invention (he seemed to have little use for the idea of a
basso continuo, for example), yet in his harmon?ic coloring, his imaginative use of vocal scoring, and his text setting, he is revealed to be a fine composer and worthy of much greater attention than he has received to date.
In 1599 he published a set of Magnificats, one for each of the eight tones and an extra set?ting on the fifth mode to include two Christmas carols. They are all scored for eight voices in double choir formation and share certain char?acteristics, especially in the eighth verse where the mention of "filling the hungry with good things" and "sending the rich empty away" seems always to illicit an imaginative response. Videns Dominus, also for eight voices, is a mas?terly setting of the story of the raising of Lazarus. Christ, seeing the sisters of Lazarus weeping and bemoaning the loss of their broth?er, is moved to restore him to life. Subtle chro?maticisms and imaginative flashes of vocal color invigorate the story in much the same way that Christ revives the dead man. O bone Jesu is based on an extraordinary text by an anony?mous author bemoaning the fallen state of man and recognizing that redemption is only possible through Christ. Once again his use of harmonic color is telling, especially at the poignant words "Eya dulcissime Jesu."
Ad Dominum cum tribularer
Hans Leo Hassler
Born October 26, 1564 in Nuremberg, Germany
Died June 8, 1612 in Frankfurt
By far the most popular place for composers to visit was Venice, where they might admire the work of Andrea Gabrieli. Hassler diligently went to study with the master and became a great friend of the younger Giovanni Gabrieli as well. Italian ideas were well established in the Ger?man states by this time, but it was Hassler who really brought Venice to Germany, first at Augs?burg and then later at Dresden before his death from tuberculosis. Rather curiously, Hassler's later works are rather conservative in compari?son with the music which he produced after his
study in Italy. His use of chromaticism was always sparing which is why his setting of the opening words of Psalm 120, Ad Dominum cum tribularer, stands out as an exception. Starting with an upward moving chromatic line in all voice parts, it is as if the suppliant is crying out to God from a far away place and moving towards him in hesitant, uncertain steps. The motive is repeated in reverse, with plangent, downward melodies to represent the final sad words, lingua dolosa.
Born 1564 in Regensburg, Germany
Died January 21, 1628 in Augsburg
Composers were quite divided by the great 16th-century Reformation, though Achinger kept his Catholic faith intact. His journey to Italy took place in 1599 when he studied in Rome and became a central figure in bringing the Roman style back to Augsburg where he spent most of his working life. He produced 18 vol?umes of church music in a style which the great musicologist Proske described as being full of "warmth and tenderness of feeling, bordering on mellowness." Certainly he seems to concen?trate on clarity of structure and beauty of sound in his chant based setting of the Salve regina (the Marian antiphon for the season of Trinity to Advent).
Born 1486 in Basel, Switzerland
Died December 5, 1542 in Munich, Germany
In 1519, Senfl was appointed Court Composer to Emperor Maximillian I. Having been born in Switzerland he was already involved in the Impe?rial Chapel by 1507 and must have been influ?enced by his great predecessor, Heinrich Issac, who had made the vital journey to Italy to study at the Medici courts in Florence. Issac's mixture
of the Franco-Flemish style with new ideas from Italy was to have a major impact on music-mak?ing in the German lands and it encouraged a deep respect for the greatest of all the Flemish masters, Josquin Desprez. In his Ave Maria set?ting, Senfl himself honors Josquin. It is based on Josquin's motet of the same name, but whereas Josquin's setting is for four voices and lasts for approximately five minutes, Senfl has expanded the voice parts to six and more than doubled the length of the piece. Josquin is quoted at the start in the opening bars and then referred to throughout, but as an indication of Senfl's inge?nuity there is also a cantus firmus in the tenor part. In the Ave Maria, Senfl's innovative mixing of themes and musical ideas is such that the whole piece takes on the air of a fantasia-like Josquin tribute.
Die mit Tranen saen, Selig sind die Toten, Deutsches Magnificat
Born October 8, 1585 Kostritz, Germany
Died November 6, 1 672 in Dresden
Schutz visited Italy twice, once in 1609 and then again in 1628. After his first visit to Italy, where he met and befriended Giovanni Gabrieli (he left a signet ring to Schutz on his deathbed), he was asked to be acting Kappelmeister at the court of Dresden.
Dresden seems to have proved an agreeable and stimulating court for Schutz and the bulk of his publications must have had the resident musicians in mind. It was perhaps the uncertain?ty and nervousness caused by the ominous rum?blings of the Thirty Years War which encouraged him to think of another visit to Italy, again to Venice but this time to discover the monumen?tal genius of Claudio Monteverdi. In many ways, Schutz is the pre-eminent composer of the 17th century, saturated with Italian ideas and achiev?ing a wonderful marriage between the German language and musical imagination, tasteful and clear. The vast majority of his output was in Ger?man and in this he differed substantially from
the composers who preceded him.
His two motets Die mit Tranen saen and Selig sind die Toten were both published in the Geis-tiliche-Chor Musik of 1648, a masterly collec?tion. The first takes its text from the psalms whilst the second is a funerary motet with words from the Book of Revelation. Both use juxtapo?sition of character and style in order better to reflect their respective texts. Entirely different and much more ceremonial is the Deutsches Magnificat, a jubilant, double-choir setting of the canticle for Vespers, published in 1671.
Komm, Jesu, komm
Johann Sebastian Bach
Born March 2 7, 7 685 in Eisenach, Germany
Died July 28, 1750 in Leipzig
No matter which words are used to describe J.S. Bach, they never seem to do justice to this unique musician with his infinite variety. Like Praetorius, he travelled very little in his lifetime, never leaving the confines of the German-speaking lands. Yet his awareness of styles and his musical imagination are second to none. His music is not only full of innovation but is also the culmination of the previous centuries. He takes the word setting and imagination of Schutz and carries it one stage further, where the very form of the music is as much an expression of the sentiments of the texts as the words themselves. He fuses the styles of Italy and Germany and mixes them with France for good measure. Komm, Jesu, komm was probably written for a funeral service. It speaks of weariness with life, of being tired, and of longing for God. But the joy which breaks out in the second section and the serene self-assuredness of the final move?ment ring with the absolute belief in a God who was at the center of Bach's world.
Peter Phillips has made an impressive if unusual reputation for himself in dedicat?ing his life's work to the research and per?formance of Renaissance polyphony. Having won a scholarship to Oxford in 1972, Peter Phillips studied Renaissance music and gained experience in conducting small vocal ensembles, already experimenting with the rarer parts of the repertoire. Since then he has directed The Tallis Scholars in over 1300 concerts and made over 50 discs, encouraging interest in polyphony all over the world.
Apart from The Tallis Scholars, he continues to work with other specialist ensembles. In 2003, he made his first appearances with the Collegium Vocale of Gent, the BBC Singers, and Officium of Lisbon, while continuing his work with the Tudor Choir of Seattle. He gives numer?ous master-classes and choral workshops every
year around the world: 2005 will see him again in the US and throughout Europe and 2004 included a visit to Siberia.
In addition to conducting, Peter Phillips is well-known as a writer. For many years he has contributed a regular music column (as well as one on cricket) to The Spectator. In 1995, he became the owner and Publisher of The Musical Times, the oldest continuously published music journal in the world. His first book, English
Sacred Music 1549-1649, was published by Gimell in 1991, and his second book in 2003: What We Really Do, a hilarious account of what touring is like (alongside more sober remarks about the make-up and performance of polyphony). He also serves as an educator in his role as the Director of The Tallis Scholars Sum?mer Schools--choral courses that are dedicated to exploring the heritage of renaissance choral music and to developing a performance style appropriate to it as pioneered by The Tallis Scholars.
The Tallis Scholars were founded in 1973 by their director, Peter Phillips. Through their recordings and concert performanc?es, they have established themselves as leading exponents of Renaissance sacred music.
The Tallis Scholars perform in both sacred and secular venues, giving around 70 concerts each year. In April 1994 the group enjoyed the privilege of performing in the Sistine Chapel to mark the final stage of the complete restoration of the Michelangelo frescoes. In New York, on December 5, 1998, the group gave their 1000th concert. That same year saw them in Italy (at the invitation of Claudio Abbado) and in London for a unique 25th Anniversary concert in London's National Gallery premiering a John Tavener work written for the group and narrated by Sting. A further performance was given with Sir Paul McCartney in New York. Recent highlights include concerts at the Salzburg Festival, Bath Festival, Milan Cathedral Festival, at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, and at the BBC Proms in London. The group continues to commission liv?ing composers and recently gave world pre-
mieres of two works written for 40 voices, have thee by the hand, O Man by Robin Walker and When the wet wind sings by Errollyn Wallen. Their current season includes two celebratory programs which will be heard in the US and Canada. The first commemorates the 500th Anniversary of Thomas Tallis' birth, the second traces Mozart's roots in German a cappella music to celebrate the 250th Anniversary of his birth.
Much of The Tallis Scholars' reputation for their pioneering work has come from their asso?ciation with Gimell Records, set up by Peter
Phillips and Steve Smith in 1981 solely to record them. Their discography on Gimmell Records has received many awards, including Gramo?phone magazine's "Record of the Year" and "Early Music Award." These and other acco?lades are continuing evidence of the exception?ally high standard maintained by The Tallis Scholars, and of their dedication to one of the great repertoires in Western classical music.
Tonight's performance marks The Tallis Scholars' fifth UMS appearance. The group made their UMS debut in April of 1996.