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The Daily Newspapers and Their Contemporaries

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The Ann Arbor Daily Times appeared on the streets of Ann Arbor on December 6, 1877. It was a daily news sheet with advertising and was published by H. E. H. Bower. 1 "Having baited the public with the Daily Times five days free," said the Argus, "the price was put at 2 cents a copy on Wednesday [December 12, 1877] and the boys made the streets musical in sounding its praises to the public." 2 The Daily Times did not last very long, for in the middle of January we are told that the paper was "taking a rest" but would soon appear again with Francis Stoffiet as one of the proprietors. 3 A hint of trouble, although we do not know what it was, is to be found in a line in the Argus of February 1, 1878, which stated that Mr. Foster of the Daily Times was suing the Register. 4 At any rate, the Times was being published again in March. 5 By the end of April it had become the Ann Arbor Times and Advertiser, and appeared semi-weekly instead of daily, and A. C. Perrin was associated with Francis Stoffiet. 6 The paper ran until August 1878, when Stoffiet, according to the Argus, "struck a richer lead, namely, a school job at $75 a month." 7 Soon after this the paper was discontinued permanently. 8

There were at least two separate ventures under the name Daily News. It was a common advertising stunt to get out a daily paper for a week or two, and the first Daily News seems to have been started for that purpose. 9 The Courier was probably referring to it when it stated that "this city has been blessed with short-lived daily papers. One has been running since the fair." 10 No doubt the same paper was meant when the Argus said on December 6, 1878: "The Daily News has suspended. On its tombstone is written, 'Since I'm so quickly done for, I wonder what I was begun for.'" The Reform Club, a religio-temperance manifestation, published a daily newspaper for a short while in the last days of February and the first days of March 1880. 11

The next Daily News appeared on November 23, 1880, under the editorship of Roscup and Tanner. 12 It was reported in April 1881 that E. O. Lease had purchased a one-third interest in the paper, and the firm therefore became Roscup, Tanner, and Lease. 13 Another change took place in June 1881, when C. A. Tanner acquired the share belonging to his brother, F. G. Tanner. 14 About this time there were rumors of another daily paper, but either the information was incorrect or the project fell through, for none seems to have been started. 15 The News, in fact, was getting along so well that we are told it enlarged to six columns sometime early in July 1881. 16 The paper continued to prosper, for in October a printing press was purchased from J. A. Polhemus and J. W. Hamilton. 17 This seems to have been the last advance made by the Daily News, for no more is heard about it until January 1883, when Polhemus and Hamilton seized the press on chattel mortgage foreclosure. The press was bid in by Hamilton. 18 Tanner bought the Toledo American in February, and a Mr. Halford, whose name appears for the first time as editor of the Daily Times, moved to Toledo, also. 19

The bad luck of the Daily News did not prevent a large crop of rumors from springing up about the establishment of new daily papers. In May it was announced that H. E. H. Bower and B. Frank Bower were going to run a daily paper in conjunction with the Democrat. 20 In the autumn of 1883 another rumor was noted by two newspapers. The Register said, "Another daily paper is in incubation. It is called the Evening Cajoler, and it's to start about October 1. Two men who don't want their names published as yet." 21 The Argus proved entirely correct in its guess that "the. project of a new daily meets with so little encouragement it is liable to die a'bornin." 22 In August of the following year, 1884, it was reported that S. W. Beakes was canvassing Ann Arbor to determine the possibility of starting a daily paper, since he had sold his Adrian newspaper. He must have been convinced that it was not a good prospect, for he waited and bought the weekly Argus in 1886. 23

Any plans or attempts to start a daily newspaper seem to have entirely stopped for the next six years. In November 1890, a company was organized consisting of Fred C. Brown, Eugene K. Freauff, Will S. Carpenter, and George S. Hill for the purpose of publishing a daily paper.24 It was called the Washtenaw Evening Times and appeared on November 24, 1890. It was a frail six-column four-page paper with headlines and datelines on its principal news items, which were on the first page. It was to serve both Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti. This is really the first daily that stayed. In the early stages of its career it was entirely non-partisan; it had only an occasional editorial. It remained substantially a four-page paper, but it frequently changed from four to six or eight pages in size and back again; it also changed frequently from six to eight columns and back again.

When the Times first appeared, Fred C. Brown was managing editor and George S. Hill was business manager. 25 On January 22, 1891, the Washtenaw Evening Times Publishing Company was organized with a capitalization of $10,000, or 400 shares with a valuation of $25 each. Henry P. Glover held 160 shares; Fred C. Brown, 39; and Horace C. Stillwell, 1. 26 The ownership of the other 200 shares is not known. The Times at the same time announced that Glover was now the owner of the majority of the stock, although the change of ownership was not noticed by any other newspaper until June. 27 S. W. Beakes said that Glover eventually sunk $25,000 in the venture. 28 The name of the new company did not appear on the editorial head of the Times until October 29, 1891.

The first evidence of any political leaning was given on November 23, 1892, when the editor announced that the paper, although independent in politics, was in favor of a low tariff and sound money. The paper did not, however, campaign actively for either. The first half-tone reproduction in the new paper appeared on January 23, 1894, and half-tones were frequent thereafter.

Ann Arbor's first press club was organized on Friday, November 19, 1891. It was originally started to entertain the Michigan Press Association on the occasion of its meeting in Ann Arbor, 29 but afterwards the members decided to make the organization permanent. How long it lasted or what it accomplished is not known.

In an editorial on February 18, 1891, the Times surveyed its three months' career with satisfaction. It told how it feared competition with the Detroit daily papers and with Ann Arbor's six established weeklies, the Argus, the Register, the Courier, the Democrat, and the two German papers. The Times aspired to fill a need not met by any of these. Because of the easy and rapid communication between Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti, it was thought that the Times had a better chance of survival, neither of the two cities alone being large enough to support a daily. The editorial went on to state that there were twelve hundred subscribers and that by the end of the month they would probably increase to two thousand. The original subscription price had been thirty cents a month; it was now raised to forty. In the same issue it was announced that Mr. StoRlet was going to take charge of the circulation.

By a year later the paper had made great strides. Sometime in February 1892, a new press and folder had been purchased from the Campbell Press and Manufacturing Company; the editorial offices and the press had been installed in a building of their own on Main Street in the Duffy Block. We are also told that the Times was successful in every way except financially, and it was expected that revenue would soon equal expenditure. 30

The first serious local competition for the Times was the Courier. The Detroit newspapers were anxious to extend their influence and subscription list to Ann Arbor, so a combination was effected by which the Courier became a daily paper with the assistance of the Detroit Daily Journal. The Times felt that the Courier was trying to drive it out of business, but readers were assured that less than a dozen subscribers were lost to the Courier and Detroit Daily Journal. 31 To protect itself, however, the Times was forced into an arrangement with the Detroit News. In this case both papers kept their own identity, but they were offered to Times subscribers for a very low price. The Courier and Detroit Daily Journal ceased publication on September 28, 1895, evidently having found the arrangement unsatisfactory. The Times followed suit on January 6, 1896, by discontinuing its combination with the News. 32

The names of Glover and Brown came off the editorial page on March 4, 1896, and until April 18 it was impossible to tell who was responsible for the paper; on the latter date, the names of H. P. Glover, Louis J. Liesemer, and F. N. Belser appeared as directors. On June 19, Liesemer's name appeared for the first time as editor, with Alvick A. Pearson as Ann Arbor editor and Seward Cramer as Ypsilanti editor. In the political campaign the Times was an advocate of free silver. This campaign was no hotter than the local issue over the University of Michigan's acceptance of a plaster cast of the Apollo Belvedere. On October 2 it was announced that the University had definitely decided to hide the shocking nudity of the statue behind the decency of cloth drapes. 33

On January 24, 1898, Belser's name was removed from the list of directors, indicating that he had disposed of his interests. On August 3 of the same year, the title was changed by the omission of the word Washtenaw. At the close of 1899, the Evening Times was planning a weekly edition to be known as the Washtenaw Weekly Times, 34 but this was given up in favor of a tri-weekly Times to be published at the subscription price of one dollar per year. It was to come out on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of one week and on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday of the next. Sample copies were distributed by the last day of the year, and the plan soon after this went into operation. It was discontinued on the following April 12.

We hear again of newspaper carriers for the first time since 1877 when boys "made the streets musical" while singing the praises of the Ann Arbor Daily Times. On December 26, 1899, the Evening Times published a picture of its newsboys. They were hired to deliver the papers only, and the customer was billed from the office. These accounts accumulated very easily and were correspondingly harder to collect, so the manager devised a new system: the newsboys were to become "capitalists." The new method went into effect on July 19, 1900; each carrier bought his papers and collected weekly. The system used today is substantially the same.

On April 12, 1900, the Evening Times was sold to the Ann Arbor Printing and Publishing Company, an organization consisting of Junius E. Beal and Fred C. Brown. The title was changed to Washtenaw Times, and it became a morning paper. The Daily Argus was giving stiff opposition, and it was felt better to avoid it by means of the change. 35 When Liesemer left the Times, he leased the German Hausfreund und Post from Belser and took it over on May 19, 1900. Beal and Brown had purchased the Times for $5,000, and part of the sales agreement was a promise on the part of Liesemer not to engage in newspaper work for five years from date of sale. The owners of the Times apparently did not object to Liesemer's operation of an established German newspaper, but they were concerned when he began to publish an English edition some time in April or May 1901, and a suit, already described, was brought by Beal and L. A. Pratt, who had taken the place of Fred C. Brown. 36 Brown had died in New Orleans on October 22, 1900. 37

Hugh Brown purchased Pratt's interest, and on January 1, 1902, the Ann Arbor Printing and Publishing Company consisted of Beal and Hugh Brown. This arrangement lasted only a little over three months, for the company went into receivership in early April. It should be noted here that the company at the beginning of the year published the Courier-Register, the Times, the Argus-Democrat, and the Ann Arbor Daily Argus, the latter two being held only on contract and not by outright ownership. The receivership went into effect on April 6, 1902, with Charles J. Johnson, the receiver, as publisher, and James H. Junkin as editor. The Times became an evening newspaper again with the title Washtenaw Daily Times. The moderate Republican policy of Beal and Brown was continued.

About two months before the company went into receivership, the Argus-Democrat and the Ann Arbor Daily Argus reverted to the control of Hammond, Beakes, and Ward of the Democrat Publishing Company. Johnson and Beal brought suit to retain control of the Daily Argus but in this they were not successful. 38

In the meantime other events were taking place. Carrie Nation came to town during the week end of May 3-5, 1902, and was received with marks of disrespect by some of the citizenry and student body. This is hardly surprising when one considers that at this time and for several years afterwards Washtenaw County was one of the wettest spots in the state. For an account of her visit, see Appendix C.

In August 1902, a stock company was organized to publish a periodical called the American Real Estate Exchange Journal, but whether anything appeared under this formidable title is not known. 39 In September Frank P. Glazier won the Republican state senatorial nomination.

From about this time the affairs of the paper became more complicated. In September 1902, the Detroit Trust Company was appointed trustee in bankruptcy for the Ann Arbor Printing Company. 40 Charles J. Johnson continued as manager of the paper, but Otto H. Hans became editor. In October George F. Kenny bought the Times and the Courier-Register on behalf of the Richmond and Backus Company of Detroit. Kenny became editor of the Times, but Hans remained editor of the Courier-Register under Kenney's management. Within a month the name of the controlling company was changed twice: for a short time it was known as the University Press, and then later as the Ann Arbor Plant of the Richmond and Backus Company. 41 This lasted until July 17, 1903, when the Ann Arbor Times Company, owned mostly by Robert L. Warren, bought both the Times and the Courier-Register.

At this point it is necessary to interrupt the career of the Times to take notice of two contemporaries, one daily and one weekly. The Ann Arbor Daily Argus appeared on November 16, 1898. It was under the control of the Democrat Publishing Company, which had been organized on the previous August 1. There was a capitalization of $6,500, or 650 shares at $10 each. Paid-in capital was $5,300, and the shareholders were given as Rose C. Ward, 290 shares; Charles A. Ward, 190; and M. J. Cavanaugh, 50. 42 The company was reorganized on October 5, 1898, and called the Ann Arbor Publishing Company. The board of directors was given as D. A. Hammond, president, Samuel W. Beakes, secretary, and Charles A. Ward. 43 The company was still generally known as the Democrat Publishing Company throughout its career in order to avoid confusion. The Daily Argus was a moderately Democratic paper, and its conservative tone evidently gained considerable influence, for the Times was forced to become a morning paper in 1900 to avoid competition. It was probably after this date that the Ann Arbor Printing Company leased the Daily Argus, although the exact date is not known. The lease expired in January 1902, and when the Ann Arbor Printing Company went into bankruptcy three months later, the receiver of the company brought unsuccessful suit to retain the Argus. The Democrat Publishing Company resumed its control over the Daily Argus. On October 3, 1905, the company became the Argus Publishing Company; at that time Beakes and Ward had turned over their interests to Hugh L. Brown and D. A. Hammond. 44 The Argus papers, both the daily and the weekly, went into receivership sometime in 1907 and were sold by receiver Belser to the Ann Arbor News Publishing Company and absorbed into the News on June 24, 1907.

The Washtenaw Republican appeared on Friday, September 21, 1900. It was owned and edited by Alvick A. Pearson, and it was a four page, seven column paper. Since a Presidential campaign was on, it had four more pages of six column Republican boiler-plate. It was a weekly throughout its whole career and was Republican in tone, although it made frequent aspersions on what it called the "newspaper monopoly" of Beal and company.

On March 14, 1901, the paper was sold to Horatio J. Abbott and a Mr. Hanselman, who changed the title to the Ann Arbor Record. The leading editorial of the first issue under their control has been tom out of the only existing set, so what they said about change of policy is not known. But after that the Record supported Democratic candidates for office and Democratic policies. Abbott and Hanselman continued publishing together until the issue of July 18, when Abbott bought out Hanselman's interest and controlled the paper alone. On August 29, 1902, the size of the paper was reduced from seven to six columns and the pages increased to eight. Important local news from this time on was given fuller coverage and put on the front page. In the autumn of 1902, the Record opposed the William Judson element in the Republican convention and sympathized with Selby A. Moran. It also printed an attack on Frank P. Glazier by his bitter enemy, William Bacon. 45 The Record was sold to Louis J. Liesemer, who stated in a first page article his intention of continuing the paper, but none after that date is extant.

Although Robert L. Warren took over the Times on July 17, 1903, the date of incorporation of the Ann Arbor Times Company is August 22. There were to be 1200 shares of the value of $10 each, and $8,000 capital was subscribed. Robert L. Warren held 798 shares while Charles E. Ward and Charles B. Warren each held one. 46 On September 1 the Ypsilanti date line was dropped, and it became solely an Ann Arbor newspaper with the title Ann Arbor Daily Times. It was Republican in politics and supported the national and state tickets of that party, including Frank P. Glazier, the candidate for state treasurer.

5. Frank P. Glazier, Chelsea business man, founder of the Ann Arbor News in 1905, who came to grief as State Treasurer by unwise handling of the state's money.

Glazier was a Chelsea man who took over his father's small iron foundry and in about a decade built it up into one of the largest and most prosperous stove companies in the United States. At its height it was worth a million and a quarter dollars and did an annual business of half a million. Glazier also organized the Chelsea State Bank to handle his business. He had a lust for power. Everyone in contact with him had to take his orders; he could and would tolerate no opposition. He carried these methods over from his family and his business, where they were successful, into politics where in the long run they were disastrous. He found it expedient to get political control of the Village of Chelsea, and from about 1891 until his collapse in 1907 he ran the village as he did his stove business and his bank. From this he jumped to state politics, and in 1902 was nominated state senator and elected in the autumn of that year. He seems to have used his position as senator mostly to observe affairs and find out the best possible berth. He chose the state treasurership for the time being, although he undoubtedly had the governorship in mind as his eventual goal.

Glazier had Chelsea in his pocket and had great influence in state Republican circles, where his money had the power that his domineering personality had not. He was chagrinned at the fact that he did not control the Washtenaw County Republican machine; in that he was constantly balked. In order to get control, however, he decided to start a daily paper backed with all his resources.

The Ann Arbor News Publishing Company was organized on October 11, 1905, with a capitalization of $20,000, or 2,000 shares at $10 each, of which half were paid in. The stockholders were Saxe C. Stimson, 1,000 shares; Glen C. Stimson, 700 shares; and William W. Wedemeyer, 300. 47 Glazier's name was carefully kept out of the affair, but everyone knew of his connection, for the Stimsons were cousins of his, and Wedemeyer was a prominent lawyer, occasionally employed by Glazier. At any rate, the Ann Arbor News made its appearance on December 18, 1905.

The first number of the News carried the slogan "The first real daily Ann Arbor ever had." The staff was introduced as Glen Cove Stimson, editor, with Seward Cramer, Susanna Richardson, H. H. Andrews, P. C. O'Brien, and Wirt S. McLaren on the staff. The slogan was a slap at both the Times and the Argus, but only the former took notice of it. In a box on the first page of the December 19 issue, the Times had a half-tone cut of a man laughing surrounded by these lines: "Wouldn't it jar you? The only real daily the county ever had! Adequate capital! Brainy editorials! Brainy mechanics! Such modesty makes me smile." The News did not reply, but the Times kept up a daily attack on the News. In the issue of December 22, the Times ran an article informing the public that Glazier's money was behind the enterprise.
Everyone familiar with conditions knows that the two Stimsons and Mr. Wedemeyer, who appeared as the only stockholders at the time of organization, are not able to assume such a responsibility, and it is equally well known that their relations with Glazier are such as to justify the conclusion that he is back of it. More than that, the matter of a paper here has been the subject of conversation between Glazier and various gentlemen here and elsewhere, and while he proposed to furnish the money for the enterprise, the advisability of the move was seriously questioned ....

The News still paid no attention to the attacks of the Times. There was little that was unusual at first about the new paper except that it was well supplied with local items, and the news of Chelsea received more than twice the space that other localities received. In a short time, however, the News became a very up-to-date paper and a very good one except for its raucous pro-Glazier attitude. Colored comics appeared for the first time on Friday, May 11, 1906.

On January 1, 1806, the News began its paid subscriptions. The price was to be twenty-five cents a month. The Times met the challenge with the following announcement:
After eleven days of disappointing experience the men representing Frank P. Glazier's newspaper here have put the sheet on the bargain counter. This move was the result of compulsion, not choice. It is humiliating to follow such a lead, but the Times desires to help the public put the stamp of disapproval on Glazier's personal organ and therefore drops to where the organ was compelled to go, to the penny class. The Times, a clean, bright, wholesome paper, beginning with January 1st, will be delivered in the city at 25 cents a month.

On January 5, 1906, the Times announced that Glazier had purchased the Chelsea Herald from Tom Mingay and had merged it with the Chelsea Standard. Mingay was retained as foreman of the mechanical department of the News. On January 9 the Times began a special Chelsea department with R. L. Hamilton as editor and Arthur Foster as manager. The purpose of this was to extend into Glazier's territory and to publicize as much of Glazier's shady dealings as could be found. Attention was called to his dealings with the village over electric power whereby Glazier as president of the village leased the power to himself as presid~nt of the stove company for a fraction of its true value. The Times pointed out irregularities in the management of the village funds and in voting procedure. Candidates opposing Glazier were supported and encouraged. 48

The News continued on its way without the slightest notice of the hostility of the Times. It was announced on January 29 that Glazier had purchased the property on the southwest corner of Main and Huron Streets and would probably build a new building to house the News. The paid circulation of the paper was certified by McLaren, the circulation manager, to be over 2,000 on February 3; 2,451 on March 3; 2,951 on April 2; and 3,303 on May 7. The hostility of the Times went officially unnoticed until February 5, when the News published a few lines under the heading, "The Warning Sounded," ordering the Times to stop its attacks or suffer the consequences.

The Times paid no attention to the warning. Attacks continued on Glazier's handling of Chelsea's tax money and on the light plant scandal. The Times called attention to the way the News manufactured news on dull days: a News reporter was sent to the mayor of Ann Arbor to ask if the gambling law would be enforced against university students as well as against high school students. The mayor casually answered yes. The result was a scare head in the News: MAYOR TO WAR ON STUDENTS' GAMBLING. On March 3 the Times reported friction in the News plant. Stimson fired Mingay, but Mingay said he was hired by Glazier himself and could only be fired by Glazier. Mingay stayed, which shows the difficulty of managing a plant on another man's money and in another man's interest.

The annual Chelsea village election of March 13, 1906, was a very bitter campaign. The anti-Glazier forces received the limit of support from the Times. 49 The News, of course, was violently pro-Glazier. When the latter won the election, the News did not refrain from gloating over the victory. It carried malicious personal articles about R. L. Warren and William Bacon, Glazier's chief opponent in Chelsea. A picture of the coal storage shed at the Chelsea power plant was printed with the caption: "Vindicated." 50

On March 23, the News copied an editorial from the Washtenaw Post entitled "Let us have peace." But no peace was to be had. The Times continued the fight by publishing a letter from William Bacon attacking Glazier in bitter words; there was an article ridiculing the News for claiming a scoop on some news published in the Times the day before. The News replied by sending men to Charlotte to investigate Warren's past and to publish the results. Some cryptic remarks about Charlotte's water tower were the only result. 51 The News also obtained the Ann Arbor city and school printing by underbidding both the Times and the Argus. 52 The Times said the News took the city bidding at less than cost in order to take it away from the other papers, and that in the school printing, the News bid fourteen cents a folio but sent in a bill for twenty-seven cents. 53

Glazier would stop at nothing but surrender. One day he walked into the office of the Probate Court and told Judge Leland to send the probate advertising to the News. Judge Leland informed Glazier that the parties concerned in probate matters determined for themselves where the advertising was to be sent. Such had always been the case during his term, and the practice could not and would not be changed. Glazier was infuriated. ''I'll get you!" he cried as he stomped angrily out of the probate court, shaking his fist at the judge. 54

The editor of the Times successfully balked Glazier's control of the Republican county convention. 55 He also balked Glazier's proposals to lease the sixth and seventh floors of the new Glazier Building to the city for offices. 56 When Glazier saw that his methods were not getting him the results he wished, he subsided and tried to take everything with apparent good grace.

The political campaign of 1906 was one of ordinary calm in state politics, but in Washtenaw County it was very bitter. The News supported all the Republican candidates in state and county, but the day before the election the News suddenly filled its columns with abuse of Frank Newton, sheriff of Washtenaw County, a Republican running for re-election. It was too late to counteract this, and the result was that Newton was the only Republican candidate not to win office. The Times called this a "base betrayal," and it was indeed the result of personal spite, as Newton had helped Warren balk Glazier in the county convention. Glazier himself was re-elected state treasurer, but he did not carry Washtenaw County and ran far behind his ticket locally. In the state campaign, the Democrats charged that Glazier had made his own bank a depository of state funds to an amount in excess of the legal allowance and was then borrowing these funds himself. Glazier only partially answered these charges, but the electorate was satisfied and he was re-elected.

The News had made it difficult for both the Times and the Argus. The Argus was forced into receivership sometime in 1907 and sold by receiver Belser to the News on June 24, 1907. The next day the paper became the Ann Arbor News-Argus. The Times was no doubt in great difficulties, the extent of which are unknown, and probably would have passed into Glazier's hands except for Glazier's financial collapse.

Sweet revenge fell to the lot of Robert L. Warren. He undoubtedly knew of Glazier's impending collapse late in November 1907, but he held his peace until the issue of December 2, 1907, when there appeared without comment a box on the first page of the Times with the words: "The mills of the gods grind slowly, but they grind both great and small." The next day, the whole story of Glazier's financial collapse was spread before the readers of the Times. The News-Argus did not favor its readers with that information, but a few days later began to carry defensive articles. The Times continued to pursue Glazier with unrelenting hatred.

Glazier had built up a large and prosperous stove company. To accommodate it, he had constructed large and, for his time, advanced factory buildings. Not satisfied with this, he built a handsome cut fieldstone office building as well as another to house his bank. He undoubtedly had a passion for building, an expensive taste. He even went beyond the ordinary needs of his business and constructed an expensive "welfare building" with swimming pool and other recreation facilities for his workers. He contributed heavily to the construction of a new church for his denomination and an old people's home which is still in operation. All this added to his reputation throughout the state and helped his political career. He also built the seven story Glazier Building, "Ann Arbor's first sky-scraper," now the Ann Arbor Trust Building, to house his newspaper and for business rentals. In addition, he had a couple of large income properties in Detroit which he bought but did not build on.

To finance these, he deposited as treasurer of the State of Michigan in excess of half a million dollars in his own bank. This was conSiderably over the limits allowed by law, but for these deposits he put up adequate stove company stock as collateral. The stock was indeed ample, but it was only as good as the financial status of the stove company. The latter was indebted to Detroit banks for about $250,000 of short term loans for operating purposes. What happened is quite clear, even though the details are not: Glazier was caught between the panic of 1907 and the enemies he had made. It is true that the depression had shrunk the stove company's income from about $500,000 a year to about $25,000, but that was not a cause for too much alarm, for the depression was not expected to last very long, as it didn't, and the company was certainly a going concern in spite of that. But the $250,000 worth of loans seem to have been bought up by a party or parties hostile to Glazier with the intent of using them at a suitable time. The notes were all called in at once, and his failure to meet them forced the stove company into receivership. The irregularity in the Chelsea State Bank was disclosed at the same time, and the bank was closed by the Commissioner of Banks. The ruin of the stove company was inevitable under the circumstances, and the receivership could not hope to revive the lost credit of the concern. This made the stock worthless as collateral for the state's money in the Chelsea State Bank. Glazier would without doubt have come out of the financial straits safely and easily if he had been left alone and if his financial troubles had been met sympathetically. But he had made too many enemies for that. He held onto the state treasurership until Governor Warner, under irresistible pressure, threw him to the wolves to save his own political future. But before the governor could remove him, Glazier resigned on January 22, 1908. As the stove company stock had become practically worthless, the state's deposits in the Chelsea State Bank were not covered. This meant that Glazier was unable to tum over to his successor the money which had been entrusted to him. Glazier was indicted, tried, convicted, and imprisoned for two years for embezzlement. That ended not only his business career but his political aspirations as well. He never made any kind of a comeback. While this was a personal tragedy for him and his family, it was also a crippling financial blow to the community in which it occurred.

The News-Argus struggled on miserably for a few months. Testimony at Glazier's embezzlement trial late in 1908 brought out the fact that the News-Argus still owed the Chelsea State Bank in December 1907 the sum of $18,000. 57 Glazier himself said that he sunk $75,000 in the venture. 58 On May 4 the Ann Arbor Times Company purchased all the equipment of the News-Argus except two monotype machines for the sum of $6,275. The capitalization of the Ann Arbor Times Company was increased to $35,000. 59 With the issue of May 4, 1908, the title of the paper became the Ann Arbor News, Times, and Argus. The bulky title was shortened on June 6 to Ann Arbor News and changed again on June 15 to Ann Arbor Daily News. This title and ownership lasted until January 1, 1909, when R. T. Dobson became publisher. The name of the company was changed on March 11 to the Times-News Company, at which time R. L. Warren was president and R. T. Dobson was secretary, 60 but no doubt Warren was gradually relinquishing his interest in the concern to R. T. Dobson and J. A. Dobson.

On April 1, 1909, Dobson changed the name of the paper to the Daily Times-News, a title which it held for many years. The newspaper kept up a steady expansion. In May 1910, a new press was purchased and installed, a Goss Perfecting (stereotype) Press. 61 In September 1916, the Times-News moved into new and enlarged quarters on Ann Street.

When R. T. Dobson took over the News on January 1, 1909, his name appeared alone on the editorial head as manager. This lasted until October 10, when the staff was given as follows: R. T. Dobson, manager; Harlan H. Johnson, editor; Edward H. de la Court, advertising manager; and Fred W. Smith, circulation manager. This remained without change until July 21, 1911, when Cornelius Tuomy became circulation manager. Later, in 1912 S. C. Barnes replaced De la Court as advertising manager for a short time until Emil Colman replaced him. Martin J. Schaller replaced Cornelius Tuomy as circulation manager. 62 In January 1917, there was apparently some difficulty in filling the position of advertising manager, for there were three changes within a month: P. A. Speer succeeded Colman for a week, and then R. T. Dobson, Jr., succeeded him for a week, and finally R. D. Van Alstin took the position and retained it. 63 This staff remained as long as Dobson owned the paper. The Daily Times-News was sold to the Booth Publishing Company on October 31, 1919, although the latter did not take charge of it until January 1, 1920. 64

Ann Arbor's most recent newspaper venture, before 1920, was the socialist organ, the Ann Arbor Call. The only extant issues are in the Labadie Collection in the University of Michigan General Library; it is not a complete set. The earliest issue is that of Thursday, May 4, 1911, and it is volume II, number 18, or whole number 24. Counting back, this indicates that the first issue probably came out on November 24, 1910, assuming regularity of publication. The paper was published by the Michigan Socialist Publishing Company at 115 West Huron Street with Edwin R. Cornish as managing editor. It was the organ of the socialist group that looked to Eugene V. Debs for leadership. Its columns were almost entirely given up to news of the socialist movement in the United States and to anti-capitalist news in general. The only local issue that interested the Call was the purchase of the privately owned water plant by the city. The Call opposed this on the basis that the owners of the plant were asking twice as much for it as it was worth. With the issue of March 29, 1913, Edith Emma Atkins became editor. Edwin R. Cornish took up headquarters at Saginaw but still held the general management of the Call. The last extant issue is that of July 5, 1913, and how much longer it continued is not known.

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Subjects
Old News