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Abbreviations used:
BHC Burton Historical Collection
MPHC Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections

Chapter 1

1. Surveying started with the meridian line running north from the flagpole at Fort Defiance, Ohio. The base line was to run west from a point on Lake St. Clair north of Detroit. How the base line was run is not clearly understood by the state Land Office itself. See a recent article by Knox Jamison, "The Survey of the Public Lands in Michigan," Michigan History, XLII (1958), 197-214.

2. The cite is now in the southern part of the city of Ypsilanti. It is marked with a boulder and plaque.

3. Society in America, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1837), I, 319.

4. Chapman and Co., History of Washtenaw County (Chicago, 1881), p.553.

5. James Cooke Mills, History of Saginaw County, Michigan, 2 vols. (Saginaw, 1918), I, 98; Albert Miller, "First Election in Bay County," MPHC, VII, 229.

6. From his tombstone in Block VI, Lot 42, Oakwood Cemetery, Saginaw; Records of Burials, Fairlawn Cemetery Office, Saginaw.

7. J. H. Holmes, "Some Notes Respecting the Pioneer Newspapers of Michigan," MPHC, I (1877), 388.

8. Douglas C. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Michigan (Chicago, 1931), pp. 91,306,307; Chapman & Co., History of Saginaw County, Michigan (Chicago, 1881), pp. 214, 594; Mills, History of Saginaw County, Michigan, I, 98, 100, 664; II, 378; Albert Miller, "Residents of Bay County in 1847," MPHC, XVIII (1891), 440; Clarence E. Carter, ed., Te"itorial Papers of the United States, XII, 809.

9. Ephriam S. Williams, "A Certificate or Statement Made by Chippewa Chiefs, Signers of the Treaty of 1819, Fully Recognizing the Rights and Claims of the Children of Jacob Smith," MPHC, VII (1884), 142.

10. Edward D. Ellis to John Allen, March 30, 1829, Allen Papers, BHC.

11. Timothy Luckett to John Allen, May 28, 1829, Allen Papers.

12. Edwin Scranton to John Allen or Samuel W. Dexter, July 27, 1829, Allen Papers.

13. Hull and Newcomb to John Allen, October 1, 1829, Allen Papers.

14. John Biddle to John Allen, December 15, 1829, Allen Papers.

15. Territorial Papers, XI, 972.

16. Erastus Ingersoll to John Allen, December 24, 1829, Allen Papers.

17. Most of this editorial is to be found in the History of Washtenaw County, ~ p. 554.

18. Western Emigrant, January 20, 1830. Two letters requesting cancellation are those of J. Holbrook of Plymouth, dated January 25, 1830, and of Nathan S. Philbrick of Farmington, March 20, 1830. On the other hand, there is the letter of B. I. Mather of Adrian, March 12, 1830, saying that a friend of his subscribed to the Emigrant for him without his knowledge, and now having seen two issues of it, he is pleased with it and wishes the subscription continued. -Ms. letters in the Allen Papers.

19. E. Reed to John Allen, March 4, 6, 1830, Allen Papers.

20. I have been unable to discover the location of Borodino. Many small post offices of this type were moved about freely. They often had only a brief existence, perhaps no more than a few months, as postmasters changed fairly rapidly.

21. Mark Norris to John Allen, February 19, 1830; R. Root to John Allen, March 13, 1830; Arnold Whipple to John Allen, February 1, 1830; O. Chamberlin to John Allen, July 8, 1830. All in the Allen Papers.

22. Western Emigrant, December 30, 1829.

23. Ibid., January 20, 1830.

24. The issue of October 26, 1831, is the last one to carry Allen's name. After September 1830, there are no more letters in the Allen Papers dealing with the Western Emigrant.

25. Julia Dexter Stannard, "Address Before the Washtenaw County Pioneer Society, June 12, 1895," MPHC, XXVIII (1897-98), 565.

26. Samuel W. Dexter to John Allen, August 6, 1830, Allen Papers.

27. Western Emigrant, April 14, August 4, 1830; April 13, 1831.

28. Allen Papers.

29. O. W. Stephenson, Ann Arbor, the First Hundred Years (Ann Arbor, 1927), p. 347.

30. History of Washtenaw County, p. 478.

31. Julia Dexter Stannard, op. cit., p. 565. On Louis Noble see Carl E. Burkelund, "An Early Michigan Poet," Michigan History Magazine, XXXI (1947), 192-99.

32. S. B. McCracken, "The Press of Michigan. -A Fifty Year View," MPHC, XVIII (1891), 388.

33. Samuel W. Beakes, Past and Present of Washtenaw County, Michigan (Chicago, 1906), p. 409.

34. McMurtrie, op. cit., pp. 268, 271.

35. McCracken, loco cit.

36. Two such cancellations, Francis P. Browning to John Allen, April 2, 1830, and J. Kingsley to John Allen, May 14, 1830, are in the Allen Papers. See also the comments of the Democratic Herald, post, p. 42.

37. Exactly when the change was made is not known, for the issues between November 7, 1832, and February 20, 1833, are no longer extant.

38. See the article by Howard H. Peckham, "Michigan and the Transcontinental Railroad," Michigan History Magazine, XXI (1937), 55-67.

39. Wilbert B. Hinsdale, Indians of Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor, 1937), p.30.

40. Chapman and Co., History of Washtenaw County, p. 645.

41. Emigrant, March 7, 1832. The incident is referred to in Lawton T. Hemans, Life and Times of Stevens Thompson Mason (Lansing, 1920), p. 65.

42. Michigan Emigrant, December 12, 1833.

43. Bound in in place of the missing number in the files of the University of Michigan General Library is a handbill announcing the suspension of payments of the Bank of Washtenaw, mentioned in Douglas McMurtrie, op. cit., p. 89.

44. Woodbridge Papers, BHC.

45. Incomplete issues of these two volumes are to be found in the William L. Clements Library at Ann Arbor and in the Surgeon General's Library in Washington, D. C.

46. Ann Arbor Daily Argus, January 24, 1899.

47. S. B. McCracken, "The Press of Washtenaw County," News and Advertiser, December 22, 1857.

48. Ibid.; Primitive Expounder, April 22, 1847; Signal of Liberty, April 17, 1847.

49. Washtenaw Whig, May 23, 1849. For this information I am indebted to Russell E. Bidlack, "The University of Michigan General Library, A History of Its Beginnings, 1837-1852" (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1954). Corselius was acting librarian of the University of Michigan Library in 1840 and had other interests as well. For more information about him, see Chapter VII of Dr. Bidlack's dissertation.

Chapter 2

1. McCracken, MPHC, p. 383.

2. Michigan Argus, April 16, 1835.

3. Whig and Democrat, April 23, 1835.

4. This is the earliest extant issue in the enlarged size. The four previous issues are wanting, so it might in fact have taken place with anyone of them.

5. Michigan Argus, March 2, 1837.

6. McMurtrie, op. cit., p. 243.

7. Michigan Argus, February 22, 1838. The Universalists finally obtained an organ, the Expounder, in 1843.

8. Michigan Argus, February 22, 1838.

9. McCracken, MPHC, p. 386.

10. Michigan Argus, July 7, 1836.

11. Ibid., March 16, 1837.

12. Ibid., January 10, 1839.

13. Ibid., October 5, 1837.

14. Ibid., January 24, 1839. For details of the fate of these men, see Fred Landon, "Trial and Punishment of the Patriots Captured at Windsor in December, 1838," Michigan History Magazine, XVIII (1934), 25-32.

15. (New York, 1953), pp. 293-99.

16. Michigan Argus, April 25, 1839.

17. McCracken, MPHC, pp. 386-87.

18. Michigan Argus, February 7, 1839.

19. Michigan State Journal, February 14, 1839.

20. Michigan Argus, February 14, 1839.

21. Democratic Herald, March 11, 1840.

22. Ibid., December 30, 1840.

23. Ibid., February 3, 1841.

24. Ibid., February 24, 1841.

25. Ibid., August 10, 1842.

26. Ibid., April 14, 1841.

27. Ibid., December 16, 1840.

28. Ibid., May 26, 1841.

29. Ibid., March 31, 1841.

30. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln, The War Years (New York, 1939), I, 602.

31. Signal of Liberty, March 20, 1843.

32. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

33. See, for example, issues of November 30 and December 28, 1842.

34. Michigan Argus, May 22, 1844.

35. Ibid., November 27, 1844.

36. Ibid., March 12, 1845.

37. Ibid., September 9, 1845.

38. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

39. True Democrat, March 26, 1846.

40. Ibid., June 4, 1846.

41. Ibid., October 29, 1846.

42. Ibid., February 18, 1847. This is the earliest extant--issue with Allen's name.

43. Michigan Argus, April 30, 1851.

44. True Democrat, May 4, 1847.

45. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

46. Chapman and Co., History of Washtenaw County, p. 556. The date raises a problem. The inscription looks as if it might have been copied verbatim from the press itself, but it may have been given from memory, for the information on which this article, "Ann Arbor Argus," was based was given by Mr. Cole himself, who was alive at the time. The press may have been made in February 1844, but the first known connection of Cole with the Michigan Argus is on November 27, 1844, at which time he was associated with Arnold as co-owner, while Gardiner was editor. Cole and Gardiner were not partners until January 1846 in Argus III.

Chapter 3

1. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

2. Washtenaw Whig, April 18, 1855.

3. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

4. Ibid.

5. Memoirs of the Lite of Nathaniel Stacy, Preacher of the Gospel of Universal Grace (Columbus, Pennsylvania, 1850), pp. 388, 452.

6. Issue of September 10, 1846.

7. Its appearance was noted by the Primitive Expounder on June 18, 1846.

8. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

9. Arthur Eugene Becker, Jr., "Bibliography of the Alphadelphia Association, a Fourierist Phalanx near Galesburg in Comstock Township, Kalamazoo County, Michigan," 1938. Unpublished manuscript in the Labadie Collection, General Library, University of Michigan.

10. William Harlan Hale, Horace Greeley (New York, 1950), pp. 99, 100.

11. Ann Arbor Register, August 25, 1887.

12. Pp. 436-442.

13. The Primitive Expounder, October 7, 1847, has an article copied out of a paper called the Yankee, but this may have been a New England publication of that name. There is nothing to indicate it was a local publication.

14. See p. 34.

Chapter 4

1. Democratic Herald, September 18, 1839.

2. Ibid., August 10, 1842.

3. Primitive Expounder, December 30, 1847.

4. C. B. Seymour, "Early Days in Washtenaw County," MPHC, XXVIII (1897 -98), 394.

5. Robert B. Ross, Early Bench and Bar of Detroit from 1805 to 1850 (Detroit, 1907), p. 183.

6. See issues of September 15, 22, 1858.

7. Chapin's City Directory of Ann Arbor for 1868 (Adrian, 1868), pp. 22, 140.

8. Ann Arbor Daily Times, September 29, 1906.

9. McCracken, News and Advertiser.

10. He is listed in his obituary as having been present at the founding of the Republican Party under the oaks at Jackson; but if he was, it must have been as a reporter or observer, for neither before nor after did he show any affinities with Republican tenets. Detroit in Nineteen Hundred and Two: A Chronological Record of Events Both Local and State During the Second Year of the Twentieth Century, compiled by the Evening News (Detroit, 1903), p. 61.

11. Loomis and Talbott's Ann Arbor City Directory and Business Mirror for 1860-61 (Detroit, 1860), p. 40.

12. Michigan Argus, August 2, 1864.

13. Ibid., July 31, 1874.

14. Ibid., August 9, 1878; Ann Arbor Courier, October 15, 1880.

15. Michigan State News, December 24, 31, 1861.

16. Chapin's City Directory, 1868, pp. 22, 140.

17. Michigan Argus, May 12, 1865.

18. Ibid., January 19, 1866.

19. Ibid., December 20, 1867.

20. Ibid., July 2, 1869; History of Washtenaw County, p. 560.

21. Chapin's City Directory, 1868, p. 22.

22. Proceedings of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, from January, 1864, to January, 1870 (Ann Arbor, 1870), p. 219.

23. Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant, March 21, July 25, 1867.

24. Ann Arbor Democrat, November 27, 1879.

Chapter 5

1. Michigan Argus, September 4, 1857.

2. Ibid., January 15, 1858.

3. Ibid., March 23, 1866.

4. The original court house is pictured on p. 347 of Chapman's History of Washtenaw County. The 1877 building is pictured on p. 113.

5. Ann Arbor Register, January 1, 1879.

6. Washtenaw Evening Times, May 5, 1898; Ann Arbor Democrat, May 6, 1898.

7. The current equivalent is that four women out of five are good looking, and the fifth is a student at Michigan.

8. Ann Arbor Register, December 2, 1886.

9. Ann Arbor Argus, August 22, 1886; Ann Arbor Courier, September 3, 1886; Ann Arbor Register, April 29, June 17, 1886.

10. Ann Arbor Courier, February 8, 1890.

11. Ann Arbor Argus, February 12, 1892.

12. Ibid., May 13, 1892.

13. Ibid., February 15, 1895.

14. Ibid., February 20, 1894.

15. Ann Arbor Courier, September 25, 1895.

16. Michigan Argus, November 27, 1868.

17. Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant, November 15, 1872; May 23, 1873.

18. Ibid., May 2, 1873.

19. Ibid., June 20, 1873.

20. Ann Arbor Courier, October 5, 1888.

21. See, for example, the Ann Arbor Democrat, February 6, 1895.

22. Ann Arbor Courier, August 8, 1879.

23. Ibid., November 28, 1879; History of Washtenaw County, p. 568.

24. Ann Arbor Courier, May 26, 1882.

25. Ann Arbor Argus, March 16, 1894; February 8, 1895; Ann Arbor Democrat, August 28, 1896.

26. Washtenaw Evening Times, August 7, 1896; Ann Arbor Democrat, August 14, 1896.

27. Washtenaw Evening Times, July 13, 1897.

Chapter 6

1. Michigan Argus, September 3, 1869.

2. Ibid., February 2, 1872.

3. Ibid., February 16; Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant, February 16, 1872.

4. Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant, February 23, 1872.

5. Michigan Argus, January 24, 1873.

6. 31 Michigan, 490-538. The Washtenaw County Court calendar numbers are Chancery C 210, C 280, and C 351. Numbers C 210 and C 351 have disappeared, while C 280 is with the transcript of the case in the Washtenaw County Clerk's files. On January 11, 1881, Beal began another suit - "proceedings for contempt" - against Dr. Chase and the Ann Arbor Printing and Publishing Company. It bears the numbers Chancery C 975 and C 990. Both of these are missing from their proper places in the Washtenaw County Clerk's files, so it is impossible to tell the content of this latter affair.

7. One of the most amusing of these was a tiff with Pond of the Argus. What Pond said or did to annoy Beal is not exactly clear, but the latter wrote more than a column of abuse of Pond under the heading "Toady Pond." As the title suggests, he accused Pond of not speaking his mind honestly and of catering to public opinion. The accusation seems hardly justified. Pond answered in an editorial entitled "Personal and Beal." Ann Arbor Courier, October 5, 1877; Michigan Argus, October 12, 1877.

8. Ann Arbor Democrat, November 27, 1879.

9. Ann Arbor Courier, November 3, 1882. The Daily News was a small, four column, four page quarto paper.

10. The interesting story of these now extinct early interurban railways is told by Beal in MPHC, XXV (1907), 260-66.

11. Ann Arbor Register, April 15, 1886.

12. Ann Arbor Courier, November 12, 1890; Ann Arbor Democrat, November 21, 1890.

13. On the running heads and on the editorial page it was called the Ann Arbor Courier-Register.

14. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, III, 380-84.

Chapter 7

1. Michigan Argus, December 13, 1872.

2. See Chapter VI.

3. Ann Arbor Register, October 11, 1876.

4. Washtenaw County Directory, 1878-1879 (Ann Arbor, 1878), p. 114.

5. Ann Arbor Register, September 4, 11, 18, 1878.

6. Ibid., August 20, December 3, 1879.

7. Ann Arbor Democrat, May 6, 1880.

8. Ann Arbor Register, August 18, 1880; Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office, XVIII (1880), 336.

9. Ann Arbor Argus, September 3, 1880.

10. Ann Arbor Democrat, September 2, 1880.

11. Ann Arbor Register, August 17, 1881.

12. Ann Arbor Courier, August 11, September 23, November 17, 1882; Ann Arbor Register, January 17, 1883. There is no record of a Gilmartin vs. Frothingham suit in the Washtenaw County Clerk's Office.

13. Manuscript letter of Frothingham to Dr. H. H. Williams, August 3, 1883, offered as testimony in the third trial of Hamilton vs. Frothingham suit in 1887, Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Law G 306.

14. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Law G 305; 59 Michigan Rep. 203; 71 Michigan Rep. 616. There seems to be no record in the Washtenaw County Clerk's Office of the two earlier trials.

15. Ann Arbor Register, March 3, 1885.

16. Ibid., April 9, 1885.

17. Ibid., July 2, 1885.

18. Ibid., March 16, 1886.

19. Ann Arbor Courier, November 2, 1887; Ann Arbor Argus, September 21, 1888; May 24, 1889; Ann Arbor Register, July 4, 1889.

20. Ibid., August 28, 1890.

21. Ibid., December 25, 1890.

22. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, II, 459-61.

23. Ann Arbor Register, January 1, 1891.

24. Ann Arbor Democrat, March 3, 1893.

25. Ann Arbor Register, September 21, 1893; Ann Arbor Argus, September 1, 8, 15, 29, October 6, 1893; Ann Arbor Courier, October 27, 1893; Ann Arbor Democrat, September 1, 22, 1893.

26. Ann Arbor Register, October 5, 1893.

27. Ann Arbor Argus, January 17, May 22, 1896; Washtenaw Evening Times, January 17, 1896; Ann Arbor Democrat, May 22, 1896. No record of this case is to be found in either the Law or Chancery Records of the Washtenaw County Clerk's Office.

28. Newsweek, September 8, 1941, p. 8.

29. Ann Arbor Argus, October 4, 1895.

30. Ibid., January 8, 1896.

31. Ann Arbor Register, March 10, 17, 24, 31, 1898.

32. Ibid., March 31, 1898.

33. Ann Arbor Courier, March 16, 1898.

34. Ibid., October 18, 1899. The files of these cases are in the Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Law H 434, Law H 471, and Law H 939.

35. Ann Arbor Argus, February 12, 1898; Evening Times, January 11, 1899.

36. Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat, March 16, 1900.

37. Ibid., March 23, May 25, June 1,8, 15, July 6, 1900.

Chapter 8

1. Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant, April 9, 1875; Michigan Argus, April 9, 16, 1875.

2. Ann Arbor Courier, January 3, 1879.

3. Ann Arbor Democrat, November 27, 1879; Ann Arbor Courier, September 5, October 3, 1879; Michigan Argus, September 5, 1879.

4. Ann Arbor Courier, November 28, 1880.

5. Michigan State Gazetteer, 1887 (Detroit, 1887), p. 118.

6. Ann Arbor Register, April 28, 1880.

7. Ann Arbor Democrat, March 24, 1893; Ann Arbor Argus, March 24, 1893.

8. Ann Arbor Democrat, March 30, 1883; Ann Arbor Courier, March 30, 1883; Ann Arbor Register, March 7, 1883.

9. Michigan State Gazetteer, 1887, p. 218.

10. Ann Arbor Argus, March 2, 1888.

11. Ibid., November 30, December 14, 1888.

12. Deutsche Hausfreund, May 14, 21, 1891.

13. Ibid., January 8, 1891.

14. Ibid., December 4, 1890.

15. Ibid., February 5, 1891.

16. Ibid., November 26, 1891.

17. Ann Arbor Argus, November 13, 1894.

18. Ibid., January 18, 1895.

19. Ann Arbor Register, January 23, 1896.

20. Ann Arbor Argus, February 18, 1898.

21. Courier-Register, February 26, 1902.

22. Ann Arbor Argus, March 6, 23, 1894; Ann Arbor Register, March 1, 15, 1894.

23. Ann Arbor Argus, November 2, 1894.

24. Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat, May 25, June 1, 1900.

25. Daily Times News, October 9, 1917.

26. Ibid., October 11, 1917.

Chapter 9

1. Ann Arbor Courier, December 17, 1877; MiChigan Argus, December 7, 1877.

2. Michigan Argus, December 14, 1877.

3. Ann Arbor Courier, January 18, 1878.

4. There is no record of such a suit in the files of the Washtenaw County Clerk.

5. Ann Arbor Courier, March 8, 1878.

6. Ibid., April 26, December 6, 1878; Michigan Argus, August 9, 1878.

7. Michigan Argus, August 9, 1878.

8. Ann Arbor Courier, August 9, 1878.

9. Ann Arbor Register, October 2, 1878.

10. Ann Arbor Courier, October 4, 1878. The fair referred to is the Thirtieth Annual Fair of the Washtenaw County Agricultural and Horticultural Society, October 1-4, 1878.

11. Ann Arbor Register, March 3, 1880.

12. Ann Arbor Courier, November 25, 1880.

13. Ibid., April 8, 1881.

14. Ibid., July 1, 1881.

15. Ibid., July 1, 1881.

16. Ibid., July 15, 1881.

17. Ann Arbor Register, November 2, 1881; Ann Arbor Democrat, January 26, 1883.

18. Ann Arbor Argus, February 2, 1883; Ann Arbor Democrat, January 26, 1883.

19. Ann Arbor Argus, February 16, April 13, 1883.

20. Ann Arbor Courier, May 26, 1882.

21. Ann Arbor Register, September 12, 1883.

22. Ann Arbor Argus, September 14, 1883.

23. Ibid., August 22, 1884; Ann Arbor Register, April 29, June 17, 1886.

24. No articles of association appear to be on record in the Washtenaw County Clerk's Office for this group.

25. Ann Arbor Courier, November 19, 1890.

26. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, III, 95-96; Washtenaw Evening Times, January 21, 1891.

27. Ann Arbor Courier, June 24, 1891.

28. Ann Arbor News, May 8, 1906.

29. Washtenaw Evening Times, November 13, 1891; Ann Arbor Argus, November 20, 1891; Ann Arbor Courier, November 18, 1891; Ann Arbor Democrat, November 20, 1891; Ann Arbor Register, November 19, 1891.

30. Washtenaw Evening Times, April 16, 1892.

31. Ibid., December 5, 8, 1894.

32. Ibid., January 2, 1896.

33. The statue is at present in Alumni Memorial Hall, sans drapes.

34. Evening Times, December 21, 28, 1899.

35. WaShtenaw Times, April 17, 1900.

36. Ibid., May 16, 1901.

37. Argus, October 24, 1900.

38. Washtenaw Daily Times, July 7, August 9, September 8, 1902; CourierRegister, July 9, 30, September 10, 1902; Ann Arbor Daily Argus, March 4, September 8, 1902.

39. Washtenaw Daily Times, August 4, 1902.

40. Ibid., September 26, 1902.

41. Ibid., September 26, 27, October 18, 20, 21, 25, November 1, 1902; Ann Arbor Argus-Democrat, October 24, 1902.

42. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, III, 326.

43. Ibid., III, 331-32.

44. Ibid., IV, 171.

45. Ann Arbor Record, October 31, 1902.

46. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, III, 521.

47. Ibid., IV, 30-31.

48. Ann Arbor Daily Times, January 9, 11, 13, 19,22, 1906.

49. Ibid., February 15, 16, March 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 1906.

50. Ann Arbor News, March 13, 14, 1906.

51. Ibid., April 4, 5, 1906.

52. Ibid., May 8, 1906.

53. Ann Arbor Daily Times, June 15, 1906.

54. Told by an eye witness.

55. Ann Arbor News, June 19, 1906; Ann Arbor Daily Times, June 19, 20, July 17, 1906.

56. Ann Arbor News, August 9, 11, 21, 1906; Ann Arbor Daily Times, August 10, 11, 13, 21, 22, September 7, 1906.

57. Ann Arbor Times, December 31, 1908.

58. Ibid., November 6, 1908.

59. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, IV, 220.

60. Ibid., IV, 258.

61. Daily Times-News, May 12, 1910.

62. Ibid., November 9, 1912.

63. Ibid., January 2, 9, 17, 1917.

64. Washtenaw County Clerk's Office, Miscellaneous Records, VI, 52.

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